MiG-19PM, Sofia Military History Museum
|Type:||Light fighter aircraft|
5th January 1954
1955 to 1959
|Number of pieces:||
approx. 2500 + approx. 4500 (Shenyang J-6)
The Mikoyan-Gurewitsch MiG-19 ( Russian Микоян-Гуревич МиГ-19 , NATO code name : Farmer ) is a single-seat Soviet military aircraft that is used as a fighter and fighter-bomber . She is also used as a scout . The licensed replica Shenyang J-6 was produced in China , also in a two-seater trainer version (Shenyang FT-6).
The machine is a further development of the MiG-17 and as a novelty had two engines and strongly swept wings for a higher top speed. The MiG-19 was next to the F-100 one of the first series-built supersonic aircraft in the world and at the same time its counterpart. The first flight took place on January 5, 1954. On July 3, 1955, it was presented to the public at the Tushino Air Parade. Since production began in 1955, around 7,000 machines have been built (mostly under license like the Shenyang J-6 in China).
One of the main variants of the MiG-19 was the PM version with the radio measurement visor RP-2U Izumrud 2. In place of the cannon came here the first Soviet leitstrahlgelenkten air-to-air missiles of the type Kaliningrad K-5 . The antenna of the overview channel was in the upper part of the air inlet, the antenna of the target channel in a cone cover in the air inlet. The MiG-19PM flew in the USSR, the GDR, Poland and Hungary, the Chinese replica was called the F-6B (J-6Yi).
The air forces of Egypt , China , the GDR , Cuba , North Vietnam , North Korea , Pakistan and Poland used these machines. The MiG-19 was used, for example, in the Vietnam War . In the early 1960s, the Soviet Union put the MiG-19 out of service in favor of the MiG-21 . In the remaining European countries the decommissioning took place until 1970. In North Korea the MiG-19 remains in use and is used against reconnaissance aircraft , among other things . According to unconfirmed reports, upgrade programs for the MiG-19 (similar to the Chinese Q-5 Fantan, which is a heavily modified MiG-19) are to be run in North Korea, which among other things will be equipped with modern air-to-air or air-to-ground - Provide missiles and the use of modern avionics .
The single-spar wings with external ailerons gave the machine enormous maneuverability without producing the rudder reversal effect that was feared at the time. However, while it was in use, the aircraft suffered from crashes, which were due in particular to the inadequate cooling of the engine or the installation space. As a result, pipes broke and tanks exploded - the machines caught fire and were lost. Starting bans and drastic restrictions in the utilization of the performance potential were the result. In particular, the further developed versions MiG-19P and PM often remained on the ground due to a defective radar.
Work on the later MiG-19 began in the late 1940s. On July 30, 1950, a meeting of the chief designers took place in the Kremlin under the direction of Stalin , the result of which was the submission of a catalog of demands for a new fighter aircraft. According to the specifications, it should be a twin-engine supersonic aircraft. The new Mikulin AM-5s were planned as engines. These were characterized by their small diameter as well as their low fuel consumption. At OKB Mikojan, a standard MiG-17 was converted to two AM-5 engines. This resulted in changes to the tail and the air inlets of the aircraft. Testing began in 1951 under Grigory Sedov. Soon the improved AM-5A turbines were available. Even without an afterburner, they developed almost twice as much thrust as a WK-1F of the MiG-17, but weighed only 88 kilograms more. Nevertheless, the tests showed that the machine, known as the SM-1, was underpowered. The type was transferred to Zhukovsky near Moscow and the aircraft was equipped with type AM-5F afterburner engines, which developed a dry thrust of 21.5 kN . The afterburner increased the power to 27.0 kN, but that was only enough for 1193 km / h and a rate of climb of 41 meters per second. With the conversion to the AM-5F, the fuel capacity was expanded and a container for the braking parachute was attached to the rear of the machine.
The SM-1 (also referred to as I-340 ) followed the significantly modified SM-2, which was initially referred to as the I-360 by the military. It had a wing swept by 55 degrees , a T-tail and a fuselage that was 1.60 m longer. These changes increased the curb weight to 6820 kg. The structure required special attention, as the planned performance spectrum of the SM-2 could easily lead to torsion of the wing box and dangerous rudder reversal effects. This problem was solved in cooperation with the ZAGI ; in contrast to the American F-100, external ailerons were installed. These not only made it possible to use large flaps of the Fowler type, but also guaranteed high maneuverability. The flight tests of the SM-2 began on May 24, 1952. Only after the installation of the AM-5F engines was the sound barrier broken. The guy reached Mach 1.19 in level flight. Two N-37D cannons were provided as armament . The SM-2 was followed by the SM-2/2, which only differed in a few details. In particular, it was possible to take along two 760-liter additional tanks under the wings and the flash hider of the cannons. During the test it became apparent that the tail unit was not optimally designed. This almost resulted in the loss of an SM-2. The developers then relocated the horizontal stabilizer back to the fuselage and enlarged the rudder surfaces. The resulting aircraft was named SM-2A. After further changes to the boundary layer fences , the SM-2B was created. Project M, also known as I-350 , was pursued in parallel with the work on the SM-2 .
The SM-2B should be prepared for series production. However, the military demanded a number of changes in the acceptance tests. The new Tumanski RD-9 engine (originally known as Mikulin AM-9 until 1956) was installed. It delivered more thrust, but needed better cooling, which was reflected in three air inlets at the stern. The machine, now known as the SM-9/1, flew for the first time on January 5, 1954 and reached supersonic speed on the second test flight. The armament was fundamentally changed: instead of the two 37-mm cannons, two 23-mm NR-23 cannons were installed in the wing roots and an N-37D was installed under the right nose of the fuselage. Furthermore, the SM-9/1 was able to accommodate a 760 liter additional tank on a BD-3-56 pylon. The SM-9/2 received an extended fuselage nose, which should improve the problematic starting of the engines. The developers put a mixture of SM-9/1 and SM-9/2 into series production. The bow came from the 9/2, while the stern was taken over from the 9/1. This design was officially designated as Airplane 25 in the factory and officially as MiG-19 by the Air Force .
Production was divided between the GAS-21 and GAS-153 plants (state aircraft plant; Russian gosudarstwenij awiazonij sawod), which only delivered a few MiG-19s. Nevertheless, by resolution of the Minister for the Aircraft Industry on February 17, 1954, the MiG-19 became the world's first mass-produced supersonic fighter. However, there were some disadvantages: The MiG-19 was not as pilot-friendly as its predecessors, the MiG-15 and MiG-17. At high speeds, especially in supersonic flight, the stability around the transverse axis left a lot to be desired. In addition, there were problems with starting the engines and with their reliability. Of particular weight was the fact that some MiG-19s exploded for no apparent reason. The cause was the insufficient cooling of the engines. These heated the bulkheads to the tank so much that it exploded. Attempts were made to counteract this with additional cooling. This did not, however, eliminate the problem, only alleviate it. Another risk factor were the hydraulic lines located near the engines, which showed enormous material fatigue and caused several crashes. All of these shortcomings led to operational restrictions. Nevertheless, the MiG-19 achieved good values compared to contemporary western fighters: It was around 30 percent lighter than the F-100 , rose at 151 m / s to an altitude of 10,000 m (F-100: 44 m / s) and flew in Horizontal flight around 200 km / h faster. There was also a high level of maneuverability. In the bow was the radio range finder SRD-1, in later versions SRD-1M, which was coupled with the ASP-4N sight.
In order to increase the low stability in high-speed flight, it was decided to revise the tail unit again. In the course of the studies, the Soviet technicians developed the same solution as the Americans with the F-100. The horizontal stabilizer was designed as a pendulum rudder and the area of the rudder was reduced, but equipped with a trim. The name MiG-19S is derived from the pendulum rudder (Russian stabilizer). The electronic equipment of the MiG-19S, whose factory designation was Flugzeug 26 , was improved. The radio rangefinder was replaced by the SRD-3, the AKS-3M shooting camera by the AKS-5. Later the friend-enemy identification system SRO-1 or SRO-2 was installed. The electromechanical target sight ASP-4 was further developed through intermediate stages up to the ASP-5N-V3. Its effective range was around 2000 m. Furthermore, the engine was strengthened by the installation of the RD-9B engines. The range was now 2200 km with additional tanks. Later MiG-19S received flash hiders and larger protective fairings on the fuselage at the level of the NR-23 cannons.
In the case of the MiG-19SW (w = wysota, Russian высота, German: height) planned for special high-altitude operations, especially against US high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft U-2 , the two cannons in the wing roots were omitted and only the NR-30 in the fuselage remained. The designers did without anything that could have reduced the altitude performance. Even the braking parachute was saved. Nevertheless, the weight reduction was not enough kilograms. In addition, the RD-9BF engines were equipped with an additional oxidizer system. This SM-9W reached the absolute summit height of 20,740 m on December 6, 1956 and thus approached the operational height of the U-2. However, this became superfluous because the successor Mig-21F reached this height and after the U-2 was shot down on May 1, 1960 by anti-aircraft missiles, this operating height was no longer of importance for interceptors. The last MiG-19SW were delivered with RD-9BF-2 engines. In the course of the military-political change of the Khrushchev period and the changing strategic principles, no more high altitude hunters were built. The generals now relied on surface-to-air missiles.
One of the somewhat unusual variants of the MiG-19 is the “fair weather reconnaissance” MiG-19R, which was equipped with a few AFA-39 cameras. As few of this model were produced as the MiG-19SW.
The versions of the MiG-19P were widespread. The basic version was supposed to be an all-weather interceptor with radar that could intercept heavy American bombers like the B-29. At Mikoyan the project was named SM-7. The installation of the overweight RP-1 "Isumrud" radar unit turned out to be the greatest challenge. The fuselage of the SM-7/1 was 3.6 centimeters longer than that of the SM-9. The SM-7/1 followed the SM-7/2, which was flown by various test pilots. The armament was limited to the two NR-23s in the wing roots. Production in the GAZ-21 began in 1955. A few changes were made to the series machines that had not yet been incorporated into the prototypes. In particular, the cooling of the engines has been improved by other air inlets at the rear. The Sirena-2 rear warning system was not adopted. Due to the changes in the bow resulting from the installation of the radar, the AKS-3M shooting camera was relocated to the starboard side and later replaced by the S-13-100-OS. As with the other MiG-19s, the P version could carry an ORO-57K rocket launcher under each wing. In addition, there was still the possibility to take additional tanks of 760 liters with you. Most of the MiG-19P were equipped with the RP-5 radar, which was coupled to the ASP-5NM target acquisition system.
A less common version was the MiG-19PG, with the G designating the Gorizont-1 system. This made it possible to guide the MiG-19 directly from a ground control station to its destination.
The MiG-19PM, which emerged from the SM-7M project, brought a significant improvement. She was able to use the RS-2U air-to-air missile, which was launched using the beacon method. In January 1956, the Zhukovsky tests began. The missile could only be used against large immovable targets. An agile hunter could hardly be shot down with it. This weapon required a new radar that was optimized for controlling missiles. The solution was found in the use of the RP-2U system, where U stands for steering / management (Russian управление - uprawlenije). In the cockpit of the MiG-19PM, the screen for the radar was located on the starboard side, which can be provided with protection against solar radiation. The necessary information, such as the distance to the target, was conveyed to the pilot by means of green and red lights. Other changes have been adopted from version P, including the position of the shooting camera. Due to the strong armoring with four missiles, the artillery weapons of the MiG-19P were dispensed with. The RS-2U could be exchanged for air-to-surface missiles of the type ARS-160 and ARS-212M. These were purely ballistic missiles. In contrast to the exported MiG-19s, the later Soviet machines again had the Sirena-2 system. A total of around 2,000 to 2,500 series machines were produced. Among them were 250 MiG-19PM from the GAS-21, before production was switched to the more modern MiG-21F-13 in 1957.
The SM-10 was a version for air-to-air refueling. In May 1954 it was decided by resolution to extend the tests already carried out with the MiG-15 and MiG-17 to the MiG-19. For this purpose, the development of the SM-10 began in mid-1955 under Komisarov's direction. It should be refueled in flight from a Tu-16N using the drag funnel method. A speed of around 500 km / h and an altitude of 9,000 to 10,000 m were assumed. The tank system, the nozzle of which was positioned at the outer end of the left surface of the SM-10, transported up to 1000 liters of fuel per minute from the tanker to the SM-10. Refueling took about ten minutes. The tests were successful and in 1956 the aircraft was transferred to Schukowski for troop trials and acceptance tests for the LII. The tactical doctrine that the SM-10 should guide the bombers of the long-range forces was already out of date at this point. The generals of the Khrushchev era saw it as proven that the task of strategic bombers would soon be fulfilled by ICBMs. Therefore the SM-10 project was discontinued
The SM-30 fared similarly. It was intended to avoid the problem of airfields that were completely destroyed after a first strike and to station fighters where no airfields were available. For this purpose, the SM-30 should be launched from a mobile launch pad inclined at 30 degrees. The necessary acceleration received the machine through the AM-5F engines and two launch vehicles of the type PRD 22nd The ramp was designed by the MiG-OKB and mounted on a modified semi-trailer that was pulled by a JaAZ-210 D. Changes were also made to the aircraft. These mainly affected the lower rear torso. The central keel fin was replaced by two smaller lateral ones, and the PRD-22 missiles were installed in the middle. As a high risk for the pilot was assumed, some unmanned take-offs took place for the time being. The loss of the prototype was accepted. After several successful unmanned aerial vehicles, Georgi Schijanow carried out the first manned launch on April 13, 1957. It went just as smoothly as the following and the load for the pilot remained bearable at less than 5 g . Now the second problem arose - the landing without a runway. The developers tested various options for reducing the landing roll distance. The method known from aircraft carriers was used: ropes stretched across the runway caught on the main landing gear. Landing was thus possible over distances of 400 m. As the length of the runway could not be further reduced and the tactical value compared to the technical effort remained questionable, the project was discontinued.
The MiG-19 was also a limited commercial success for the Soviet Union. The Warsaw Contracting States used the type with varying degrees of success. In the ČSSR , Avia took on a license production under the designation S-105 (S for Stíhač, hunter).
In 1959, the air forces of the GDR received 24 MiG-19S and PM aircraft from stocks that the Red Army had no longer accepted from the manufacturer. This renounced these aircraft, which were prone to failure at the time, not least in view of the beginning of the conversion to the much more powerful MiG-21F. The MiG-19 were only put into service with the JG-3 , but even this was not completely converted to the MiG-19. Twelve Mig-19S were used in the first season of the JG-3, twelve MiG-19PM in the second season. The third squadron kept their MiG-17F and was converted to the MiG-21F-13 three years later. The JG-8 was also prepared for the use of the MiG-19 and the personnel trained accordingly, but did not receive a MiG-19 and was promptly retrained for the more modern MiG-21F-13.
In the JG-3, nine MiG-19s were lost due to accidents, which were often due to pilot errors, but also to technical causes such as engine fires and hydraulic failures. Among them were two MiG-19S, which were lost in 1968 before the planned aerobatic demonstration on the occasion of the opening of the 5th world championships in motor aerobatics in Magdeburg. Both machines were given a striking paint job with red contrasting surfaces, but were lost during low-level practice flights due to pilot errors, which both pilots paid with their lives. The remaining MiG-19s were retired in 1969 and replaced by MiG-21F-13s . In the aviation slang of the NVA air forces , the fighter plane was called "warthog" because of the numerous air scoops on the fuselage.
In general, the MiG-19s were only used briefly and in small numbers by almost all operators. The reasons for this were its unreliability and also because with the MiG-21 a much more powerful successor was available quite early on.
China got the rights for the license production of the MiG-19 and developed the type as J-6 over 30 years. Their production and sale continues to this day.
On July 1, 1960 a USAF reconnaissance aircraft of the type RB-47H (S / N 53-4281) of the 343th Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron, 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing was defeated over the Barents Sea by a Soviet MiG-19 (pilot: Vasily Polyakov) of the 206 Air division shot down. Of the six crew members, only two survived.
On March 10, 1964, a US RB-66 reconnaissance aircraft of the 19th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, which had penetrated the airspace of the GDR due to a navigation error, was defeated by a MiG-19 each from the 33rd Fighter Regiment (pilot Fyodor Zinoviev) and 35. Fighter regiment (pilot Witali Iwannikow) shot down near Gardelegen . The crew was able to save themselves by parachute and was handed over to the US authorities in the same month.
The MiG-19 was particularly successful in the Vietnam War against the cumbersome F-105 of the US Air Force and in its function as a fighter-bomber. Later in the war, many MiG-19s were shot down by US F-4 Phantom IIs. Only the successor to the MiG-19, the MiG-21 , was able to hold its own against the US fighters or even surpassed the performance of the aircraft used at the time.
First production version as a front fighter developed from the prototype SM-9 (first flight January 5, 1954). Delivered from 1955.
First production version as an all-weather fighter with Isumrud radio measuring device, which was soon taken out of service because of some flight accidents caused by stability problems.
MiG-19S or MiG-19SF (Farmer-C):
First versions delivered in large numbers, which were equipped with a pendulum control unit to eliminate stability problems (S stands for stabilizer).
bomber version with 37 mm cannons and more dropping ammunition.
reconnaissance version . The third cannon in the bow had been removed to make room for the camera equipment; camera windows were also installed in the fuselage. Additional photographic equipment could be carried in under-wing outer containers.
Improved all-weather fighter version of the MiG-19P. It no longer had any cannon armament and was equipped with guided and unguided missiles.
Improved MiG-19PF from 1957 with better missile armament and radio measuring sight.
Last all-weather fighter version, only built in small numbers.
Designation for the MiG-19s delivered to Poland and used there.
Designation for the MiG-19s delivered to the ČSSR and used there
Chinese license model of the MiG-19S / SF.
Chinese license model of the MiG-19PF.
Chinese license model of the MiG-19PM (J-6Yi).
Improved version of the J-6.
J-6A equipped with an improved AI radar system.
training aircraft equipped with two tandem seats.
is the latest variant, or an aircraft family developed from the MiG-19 / Shenjang J-6.
- Afghanistan : 36 from 1964
- Albania : 85 Shenyang J-6
- Bulgaria : 1958 to 1973
- People's Republic of China : Chinese licensed buildings and further developments Shenjang J-6 / JJ-6 (two-seater trainer) and NAMC Q-5 variants,
- German Democratic Republic : 12 MiG-19S, 12 MiG-19PM, from 1959 to 1969, 9 casualties
- Indonesia : MiG-19S from 1961 to 1970.
- North Korea : J-6 ( Air Force )
- Pakistan : J-6
- Poland : 22 MiG-19P and 14 MiG-19PM from 1957 to 1974
- Romania : 17 MiG-19P + 10 MiG-19PM from 1958 to 1972
- Soviet Union
- Czechoslovakia : MIG-19S / P / PM and S-105 manufactured under license
|Parameter||Data of the MiG-19S||Data of the MiG-19PM|
|length||14.80 m||13.03 m|
|height||3.88 m||3.80 m|
|Wing area||25.16 m²|
|Empty mass||5,172 kg||5,200 kg|
|Top speed||1,454 km / h (at an altitude of 10,000 m)||1,445 km / h (at an altitude of 10,000 m)|
|Marching speed||950 km / h|
|Landing speed||235 km / h|
|Rate of climb||115 m / s||105 m / s|
|Service ceiling||18,700 m||16,800 m|
|Flight duration||2:38 h||2:30 h|
|Take-off / landing runway||500 m / 690 m||900 m / 890 m|
|Engine||two jet engines TL Tumanski RD-9 B|
- Fixed guns
- 2 × 23 mm automatic cannon Nudelman-Richter NR-23 with 100 rounds of ammunition (only SM-2)
- 1 × 37 mm Nudelman N-37 D automatic cannon (SM-1/2 only)
- 2 × 30 mm machine cannons Nudelman-Richter NR-30 with 50-70 rounds of ammunition each (from MiG-19P)
- 3 × 30 mm automatic cannons Nudelman-Richter NR-30 with 50-70 rounds of ammunition each (from MiG-19S)
- Gun loading of 2,000 kg at two external load stations
- Air-to-air guided missile
- 4 × start rails APU-4 for one Gruschin RS-2U each (AA-1 "Alakli" or Kaliningrad K-5MS) - radar-controlled for medium distances (from MiG-19PM)
- 4 × start rails APU-4 for one Gruschin RP-2U (AA-1 "Alakli" or Kaliningrad K-5MS) - radar-controlled for medium-haul routes (from MiG-19PM)
- 4 × start rails APU-4 for one Gruschin RS-2US each (AA-1 "Alakli" or Kaliningrad K-5M) - radar-controlled for medium-haul routes (from MiG-19PM)
- 2 × start rails APU-3S each for a Wympel K-13R (R-3 or AA-2 "Atoll") - infrared controlled for short distances (from MiG-19PT)
- Unguided missiles
- 2 × ORD-57K (5V) rocket tube launch containers (8 × unguided S-5 air-to-surface rockets each ; caliber 57 mm)
- 4 × APU-5M launch rails, each with an unguided air-to-surface missile ARS-160 “Pika”; Caliber 160 mm from MiG-19PM
- 4 × rocket tube launch container ORO-212K (each 1 × unguided ARS-212 (S-1) air-to-ground missile; caliber 212 mm) from MiG-19PM
- Free fall bombs
- 2 × FAB-250 (250 kg free fall bomb )
- 2 × FAB-100 (100 kg free fall bomb)
- 2 × FAB-50 (50 kg free fall bomb)
- External container
- Drop-off additional tank with 760 liters of kerosene
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- Data from the type description in: Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Technology, models, data. Weltbild Verlag, Augsburg 1995, ISBN 3-89350-055-3 , p. 119.
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- Archive link ( Memento from October 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
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- Baddeley, Adam. "The AMR Regional Air Force Directory 2011." ( September 28, 2011 memento on the Internet Archive ) Asian Military Review, February 2011. Retrieved: July 21, 2011.
- Wooruschenie Sowjetskoj Awiazij 1941-1991. 2004, ISBN 985-13-2049-8 , p. 477