Allermöher Wiesen nature reserve
Allermöher Wiesen nature reserve
Allermöher Wiesen (looking north)
|location||Hamburg , Germany|
The Allermöher Wiesen nature reserve lies in the Hamburg districts of Allermöhe and Billwerder in the marshland and is part of the last green connection (landscape corridor) between the Boberger Niederung nature reserve in the north and Die Reit in the south. The nature reserve in southeast Hamburg has a size of 106 hectares . The area consists of two sub-areas: the largest part is made up of the open grassland habitats of the Allermöher Marsch . The smaller part includes the former Billwerder railway embankment , which was also a second line of dykes for flood protection, with its dry biotopes.
The ordinance on the nature reserve was passed by the Hamburg Senate on January 10, 2017 .
Habitats, fauna and flora
Very much march
The Allermöher Marsch encompasses an approximately 88 hectare, widely open marshland , which is characterized by grassland, bed ditches and two larger shallow bodies of water and traversed by a main drainage ditch roughly in the middle from northeast to southwest. In addition, the approx. 4 hectare area north of the railway embankment is assigned to this area; this area is to be addressed as semi-rudderal grass corridor.
The soil inventory ranges from the classic humus river clover march to the transition to the organic march with moderate to strong development of the bed structures. In the core area in particular, it is a soil society with an above-average archival function and habitat function according to the Federal Soil Protection Act . These valuable evidence of the natural and cultural history of the four-and marshlands are as worthy of protection Kultosole classified and increasingly rare in the Hamburg area.
Particularly in the area of the open marshland east of the main drainage ditch, extensive nature conservation compensatory measures for the residential development in Allermöhe and the Billwerder piggyback station have been implemented on around 56 hectares since the beginning of the 1990s . For this purpose, the trench system was restored over a length of 20 km, dams were built in and wind pumps were installed for irrigation. This made it possible to raise the water levels, which contributes significantly to the conservation-related upgrading of the areas. The extensive grassland vegetation is often only weakly growing and therefore very favorable as a breeding habitat for meadow birds. At the beginning of the 1990s, the occurrence of meadow birds in Allermöhe was largely distributed over the entire, then much less developed area between the Feldhofe harbor silt dump and the residential development in the east. Today all occurrences of the mostly ground-breeding bird species of the open grassland are concentrated in the undeveloped landscape corridor of the nature reserve. The preparation of the replacement measures by raising the surface water level as well as the creation of small bodies of water have led to a significant upgrading of the habitat, which is expressed in the resettlement of common snipe , teal , shoveler , redshank , reed warbler and godwit . The defining meadow bird is the lapwing . The landscape corridor for the meadow climates is one of the areas with the highest density of meadow birds in Hamburg.
In addition to the grassland, the extensive ditch system is the most important prerequisite for the occurrence of rare and endangered plant and animal species in the area. Linear bodies of water such as ditches and gutters take up almost a quarter of the area. The ditch embankments also offer valuable locations for the most varied types of vegetation, from low moor with reed beds and sedges to herbaceous vegetation , meadow-like stands to smaller, dry, lean areas in the upper part of the embankment. This local diversity is the reason for the extraordinary biodiversity of the trenches and the great importance that these develop as network axes. Nearly 80% of the plant species found and even over 87% of the endangered plant species grow on and in the trenches of the area. A total of 56 endangered or legally protected plant species were found in this area. A total of 60 plant species were found in the grassland itself. This is a relatively high number of species. However, only a few rare species and a number of ruderal species are represented here. This is due to the low age of the grassland vegetation and the earlier intensive use.
With six proven amphibian species, the nature reserve is an important amphibian habitat. The good population of the strictly protected moor frog and the occurrence of the also strictly protected tree frog (both Red List 2, ie highly endangered in Hamburg), which has developed from the strong population of the Die Reit nature reserve through immigration, should be emphasized . Both species are also listed in Appendix IV of the Habitats Directive and are therefore also subject to European species protection regulations. With the occurrence of these rare species, the importance of the biotope network function of the landscape corridor between the areas south of the Dove Elbe and the Boberger Niederung is clearly underlined. The dragonfly fauna is extremely rich in species with 29 recorded species. The occurrence of three endangered species is particularly important: the green maidenhead , which only lays its eggs on the crab claw plant , is endangered in Hamburg and threatened with extinction nationwide. It is also listed in Appendix IV of the Habitats Directive . The wedge- spotted damsel and the spotted emerald dragonfly are endangered nationwide and threatened with extinction in Hamburg. Numerous threatened and demanding species such as the little pitch dragonfly , former reed hunter and banded darter underline the outstanding importance of the area.
The 40 hectare area west of the main drainage ditch is characterized by open grassland. This part is particularly important for the preservation of the valuable meadow bird population - especially as a supplementary space for foraging and as a protective and buffer area against external disturbances. A compensation area in the northern area has already been upgraded in connection with the areas east of the main trench. Another 32 hectares are a replacement measure for the fourth section of the Federal Motorway 26 , which was mostly completed in November 2015. The measures include the development or restoration of wet grassland as well as the restoration of the ditch system with the corresponding pumping and dam systems. The animal world benefits very directly from this repair work, so that developments similar to those on the areas adjacent to the east can be expected here in the near future.
Area north of the embankment
The approx. 4 ha area north of the old Billwerder railway embankment is a fixed compensation area for the Billwerder piggyback station. The semi-rudimentary grass corridor is naturally developed, undisturbed and has a large number of moisture indicators.
History of the main drainage ditch
The low position of the Allermöher Marsch required drainage for cultivation. Originally, the attempt was made to use the tidal current in a clever way to channel the water from the bed ditches via sluices and sluices from the inland to the Elbe. Since 1595 pumping stations were known in Billwerder. In 1780, at the instigation of Bailiff Odemann, the first mill with an Archimedean snail was built in Billwerder, for which he was awarded by the Patriotic Society . In the area of the nature reserve, the map of the Prussian land survey from 1880 shows five windmills and a main drainage ditch south of the Landscheide in an east-west direction, which leads over Moorfleet into the Dove Elbe. The construction of the embankment is said to have impaired the performance of the windmills. From 1887 to 1889, a steam drainage system was built near the Tiefstack Canal to drain the Allermöhe and Billwerder, which was connected to the northern and southern railway trenches. By raising the Billwerder Marsch for industrial purposes to the Untere Landweg and building the tidal channel , the pumping station was separated from the Marsch. Therefore, in 1914, a new building was built on Allermöher Deich, in which the pump system from Tiefstack was set up again. This involved the creation of a 14 m wide new main drainage ditch up to the railway embankment and the construction of a passage under the embankment to connect the northern and southern railway trenches.
Old Billwerder embankment
The almost 10 hectare large and 2,800 m long old railway embankment in Billwerder is an anthropogenic landscape structure that is over 120 years old, which is high due to its urban climatic location in the Elbmarsch on the edge of the agglomeration, the specific substrate and relief properties and the low current use has become a valuable habitat for plant and animal species from dry biotopes. It is also a historically interesting combination of flood protection and railway system, the track system of which was removed before the Second World War. To a large extent, the embankment is covered by a ruderal grass corridor made of riding grass and other grasses. In addition, tall herbaceous vegetation of various compositions grow, especially in the contact zone with the trees . A total of 79 different grasses and herbs were found in this grass field, eleven of which are endangered in Hamburg. On the western section of the old Billwerder railway embankment, the golden oats, which are threatened with extinction in Hamburg, grows in small areas. One of the endangered species within the ruderal grassland is the bear pod, which is highly endangered in Hamburg.
Along the way to the top of the dam, more or less wide dry grasslands have formed that contain a high proportion of endangered species, including four plants threatened with extinction in Hamburg alone, namely the pinnate twinkle , the upright trespe , the Carthusian carnation and the meadow oat. It is the only location in Hamburg for the meadow oats, which, like the upright trespe, are found mainly on the eastern section of the old railway embankment. The species is one of the threatened plant species in the whole of northern Germany. For the two other Red List 1 species, Fieder-Zwenke and Karthäuser-Nelke, the populations on the old Billwerder railway embankment represent one of the largest occurrences in Hamburg. In contrast to all other dry grasslands in Hamburg, the one on the old Billwerder railway embankment does not belong to the more or less acidic sandy grasslands , but to the limestone grasslands that are rare in all of Northern Germany .
The Department of Environment and Energy has developed after the detection of animal and plant life, a development and maintenance concept for the Old Bill Werder embankment and since 2010 performed a substantial reduction of wood inventory and organizing a Pflegemahd. In summary, the vegetation of the old Billwerder railway embankment with 142 different plant species, 33 of which are on the Red List of Threatened Species in Hamburg, has to be assessed in a differentiated manner: The dry grasslands are of outstanding value for the people of Hamburg as a habitat for extremely rare plants and as a vegetation Flora and also of particular importance in a North German comparison. The rudderal grassland is rich in species and valuable as a typical site vegetation. By contrast, the woody stands, through shading and nutrient accumulation, impair the valuable biotopes of the former railway embankment. Without targeted maintenance measures, the highly valuable dry grassland threatens to be lost in the course of natural succession. Comparisons with previous mappings show that individual rare species, such as the quaking grass, have already disappeared.
For the fauna of the old Billwerder railway embankment, especially drought and warmth-loving species determine the value. This area is a very valuable habitat, especially for various groups of insects.
The old Billwerder railway embankment is of outstanding importance for wild bees and wasps. Since 2009, 153 different species have been detected in two study years, including nine species that were first found in Hamburg. 54 species are on the red list (including the warning level). This even exceeds the Boberger Niederung nature reserve with 146 recorded species. The great importance of the old railway embankment for this group of insects is also shown by the fact that around a third of the existing species in northern Germany or throughout Germany are endangered. These include five species of sand bees that have not yet been recorded in neighboring Schleswig-Holstein or Lower Saxony or that are extinct (Red List 0), and eight species that are classified as critically endangered there (Red List 1). The old Billwerder railway embankment is therefore one of the most important habitats for wild bees and wasps in northern Germany. It is also characterized by a remarkably independent expression of the species population and is very important with regard to the preservation of local biodiversity. The protection and targeted development of richly structured, blossom-rich fringing biotopes is of great importance for these insects.
Fifteen different species of grasshoppers were found, three of which are on the Red List in Hamburg, including the endangered heather grasshopper , which still has a small occurrence in the neighboring Boberger Niederung nature reserve. The heather grasshopper is an indicator of dry-warm conditions with a specific vegetation structure characterized by upper grasses. It therefore places specific requirements on development and maintenance with regard to targeted mowing and the creation of open or low-vegetation soil areas. Furthermore, 20 butterfly species were found, 5 of which are on the red list in Hamburg. Noteworthy is the presence of dark brown Bläulings whose caterpillars as food crop stocks of cranesbill use on the railway embankment.
In addition, a total of 352 beetle species could be recorded, 48 of which are on the Red Lists of Schleswig-Holstein or the Federal Republic. For the weevil species Eusomus ovulum there was even an initial record for the Hamburg / Schleswig-Holstein area.
Another special feature during the faunal surveys occurrence of endangered were sand lizard and the equally endangered dormouse found. Both species are listed in Appendix IV of the Habitats Directive. The common occurrence of the two vertebrate species indicates the outstanding importance that the old railway embankment has for nature conservation in Hamburg.
History of the Billwerder railway embankment
The old Billwerder railway embankment runs along the route of the Hamburg-Bergedorf Railway, which opened in 1842 . The tracks were laid on an earth dam with a ballast bed between 0.90 and 1.50 m high and 8.10 m wide in the dam crest. The soil for this was obtained from the drainage ditches built on both sides.
After the high spring flood of the Elbe in 1876 with severe damage to the dyke due to ice drifts, the danger was seen that the then important structural development areas for factories and apartments in Hammerbrook and on Billwerder Ausschlag would be affected by flooding. In such a case, the important traffic and trade relations would also be jeopardized by an interruption in railway operations. For this reason, plans were made to raise and widen the embankment between Rothenburgsort and Bergedorf to protect the areas mentioned, including the lowland areas to the north of it, as well as the railway operations. The construction work took place between 1886 and 1890. In order to maintain ongoing operations, the new embankment was built directly north of the existing railway line.
The height of the dam was set at +5.66 m above sea level according to the dyke height that existed at the time, the top of the dam was given a width of 9 m, the foot of the dam was almost 35 m. The new embankment was initially constructed as a sand embankment with an embankment of 1: 1.5 on both sides on a level created with clay at the level of the old embankment. For this purpose, 1,240,000 m³ of sand were extracted directly from the up to 18 m high Geest edge of the Boberger Niederung with a special excavator and transported to the embankment with a dump truck. The very fine-grained sand meant that, even with moderate winds, the track body was enveloped in a cloud of sand, which severely attacked the machines and annoyed passengers considerably. In addition, to the west and east of the Mittleren Landweg on 2,800 m on the north side and 500 m on the south side there was a breach of the subsoil, which was filled with further sand pouring. For flood protection, the south side was then protected with a 1: 3 clay floor cover of 70 cm thickness, on the north side on the 1: 1.5 embankment there was a cover with 20 cm topsoil. The material for the embankment base and the embankment covers was obtained from the construction of the 12 m wide drainage ditches on the south and north sides of the embankment.
On the Mittleren Landweg there was a ramp at the level of the track. Later, probably at the end of the 1920s, after the tracks were abandoned, the overland route was lowered again by around two meters to its current location. At the end of the 1920s, the northern embankment was rebuilt for four tracks as part of the construction of the marshalling yard to straighten the route and to separate long-distance and local traffic, the four-track relocation of which did not take place until 1959. The Mittlerer Landweg S-Bahn station was built on the northern embankment in 1928. At this time, the railway operations on the southern embankment were probably given up. As part of track expansion work by the Hamburg Federal Railway Directorate, a construction road was built on the western part of the railway embankment using rubble and an asphalt surface. The structure identified in 1993 violated existing nature conservation law due to the protected dry grass. It was not dismantled.
Accessibility and routing
The protected area can be reached via the Mittleren Landweg, the Neu-Allermöhe settlement or from the south via the Allermöher dike. For a circular route, a start from the S-Bahn station Mittlerer Landweg is ideal: The Billwerder Bahndamm crosses the street Mittlerer Landweg 450 m south of the station. The western part can be accessed via a gravel road. On the eastern section, an asphalt path leads you through to the start of the Felix-Jud-Ring / Walter-Rudolphi-Weg road. From here follow Felix-Jud-Ring 150 m south, turn right into Otto Grot-Straße and walk to the end of the cul-de-sac. A path in the park begins there. Follow this path west for 200 m to the border of the nature reserve. Follow the hiking trail to the south on the left, which leads west at Mövenfleet to the Allermöhe main drainage ditch. Here you meet a well-developed farm road, which you follow south under the motorway to Allermöher Deich. The Pumpwerk Allermöhe bus stop for bus route 321 is on the road to the left of the end of the farm road. Follow the Allermöher Deich road to the right for 800 m to the Mittleren Landweg, which again begins on the right. A footpath and bike path is only available on one side of the busy Allermöher Deich for 400 m in the area of the motorway. The Mittlerer Landweg is equipped as a residential street with a footpath in the following area. The circular route has a length of 7 km.
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- Press release by the Environment and Energy Agency on the designation of protected areas, accessed on January 10, 2017
- Ordinance on the Allermöher Wiesen nature reserve of 10 January 2017
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