Pablo Escobar

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Police photo of Escobar (1976)

Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria (also called "El Doctor", "El Patrón" or "Don Pablo", born December 1, 1949 in Rionegro , †  December 2, 1993 in Medellín ) was a Colombian drug lord , drug smuggler and terrorist . As the head of the so-called Medellín cartel, he became one of the richest people in the world through large-scale drug smuggling, which was industrialized for the first time in criminal history . He is considered one of the most powerful and brutal drug barons to date.

His brother Roberto "El Osito" Escobar Gaviria and his cousin Gustavo "El León" Gaviria Rivero were also part of his empire.


Pablo Escobar's youth was shaped by an atmosphere of violence and justified his unscrupulousness in achieving his goals. This atmosphere had its origins in the unequal financial situation in Colombia at the time around Escobar's birth: A wealthy power elite , consisting of a few families, owned 97% of Colombia's land and raw materials, including mines, oil wells, and coffee and banana plantations . Because of this unequal distribution, much of the Colombian population was poor.

In 1948, the liberal presidential candidate and reformer Jorge Eliécer Gaitán was shot. This led to the so-called El Bogotazo , a popular uprising that was continued with vehemence, especially in rural areas, due to religious zeal on the one hand, and claims to power and land on the other. This culminated in the so-called Violencia , a cruel civil war between supporters of the liberal and conservative parties.



Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria was born in the city of Rionegro in the Departamento de Antioquia as the third of seven children of the rancher Abel de Jesús Escobar and the teacher Hermilda Gaviria. He came from the rural middle class, his family owned dairy cows and 12 hectares of land. The relatively prosperous cattle farms of Frontino and Rionegro have always been the scene of violent clashes between liberal army units and guerrillas from the mountains.

The family moved to Envigado , where Hermilda founded an elementary school. Pablo Escobar joined a nihilistic youth movement, the Nadaísmo , in Envigado and began smoking marijuana at the age of 13 . He left his school Liceo Lucrecio Jaramillo prematurely in 1966 in protest. Escobar consumed large amounts of soft drinks, pizza and fast food, which led to his obesity.

Together with his cousin Gustavo "El León" Gaviria , he spent his youth on the streets and in bars of the Medellín red-light district Jesús el Nazareno . In the Barrio Antioquia of Medellín he made the acquaintance of local underworld greats who were important for his further career. The possession of firearms quickly earned him the respect of the other gangs, who at that time were mostly armed only with knives and machetes. He joined a marijuana smuggling gang early on and participated in street robberies. Another line of business was the trade in smuggled Marlboro cigarettes. According to his mother, he was unsuitable for honest work because he wanted to acquire great power from an early age.

At the age of 20 he began stealing cars in order to sell them dismantled as stolen goods . A short time later he and his gang kidnapped wealthy citizens and often murdered them despite paying ransom to demonstrate his power.

In 1971 he kidnapped the industrialist Diego Echavarría, who was very unpopular with the people, and strangled him after receiving the ransom. The kidnapping made him famous in Medellín and earned him the nickname "El Doctor".

In the mid-1970s, the marimba marijuana trade was replaced by the fashion drug cocaine . Escobar, the Ochoa brothers, Carlos Lehder and José Rodriguez Gacha were pioneers in this new boom business .

Escobar used the undreamt-of income opportunities for his social advancement. In the 1970s he built a huge drug empire. During his prime, he is said to have made up to $ 1.5 million a day. He was known as "the" drug lord of Colombia.

Drug trafficking

Escobar's personality and demeanor were marked by cruelty and ruthlessness that quickly put him at the head of the Medellín cartel .

Although Escobar was arrested once in possession of eleven kilograms of cocaine, there was never any trial of drug possession or trafficking against him, as the incriminating policeman was killed under unexplained circumstances. The judges were intimidated by death threats, so they did not reopen the murder trial.

In 1975 Escobar met a wealthy pilot from Medellín, alias “Rubin”, who spoke fluent English, knew Miami well and had already worked for the Ochoa brothers (Alonso, Jorge and Fabio ). "Rubin" bought sport planes in Miami and recruited more pilots. The first cocaine smuggler from Medellín was Fabio Restrepo, with whom "Rubin" flew one or two deliveries of cocaine (40–60 kg) to Miami in 1975 and made a profit of around 40,000 USD. Jorge Ochoa gave Escobar permission to sell unblended cocaine to Restrepo. He had Restrepo murdered and "Rubin" and the Ochoa brothers knew that they would have to work for him from then on.

In 1976 Escobar married 15-year-old María Victoria Henao Vellejo. With her he had the children Juan Pablo and Manuela. The marriage was considered very happy by his own admission, although Escobar cheated on his wife with countless young women. When one of these women became pregnant, Escobar's hit men killed her.

Jhon Jairo Velásquez , known as "Popeye", was Escobar's closest confidante and most important murderer. He killed around 300 people on his orders. Escobar had a total of 30 judges and 457 police officers murdered.

In 1976, the Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad (DAS) arrested his cousin Gustavo Gaviria after he had transported cocaine in Miami. Escobar was arrested and served a prison term in Itagüí , but was bribed and released shortly afterwards. The DAS officers who arrested him were murdered. He established the Colombian " plata o plomo ". Meaning: silver or lead, principle: Either you let yourself be bribed or lead bullets fly ( for or against him ).

He also created the following business principle: Cocaine was obtained from independent growers, Escobar controlled the transport. For this, growers paid a commission of 10 percent on the wholesale price in Miami. If a delivery was lost, Escobar paid the supplier a replacement on the production cost price. Profits far exceeded the losses from intercepted shipments. Escobar bought protection from the growers to the processors to the distributors. The transports were mainly carried out with squadrons of sport aircraft (about one ton of cargo), but also with remote-controlled mini-submarines that transported up to two tons of cocaine from the north coast of Colombia to Puerto Rico. In the final phase, he had 10 tons of cocaine exported to the USA in a converted Boeing 727 .

Gacha and Lehder worked partly for Escobar and partly against him in the initial phase. In 1975, a 600 kilogram shipment of cocaine was intercepted on an airplane in Cali; this act triggered the killing of 40 people over a weekend as the organizations accused each other of disrupting business. The immeasurable wealth from the cocaine business led to a new class of society in Colombia, who sported it through villas, discos, etc.

Escobar's brother-in-law Mario Henao, a left-wing intellectual , gave Escobar the patriotic justification for his drug trafficking in order to build a new, modern and progressive Colombia. In Medellín Escobar published the newspaper Medellín Cívico , which dealt with the glorification of himself. In his honor, the Pablo Escobar neighborhood was built for the homeless. Escobar presented himself as a generous employer in Medellín, paying high salaries to drug laboratory staff. In 1978, Escobar was elected a member of the Medellín City Council, and his political immunity protected him from further prosecution. The diplomatic status was used for his family's trips to Miami .

In Miami, the family also bought luxury villas and an $ 8 million ranch near Plantation in Broward County . The Colombian narco millionaires and billionaires continued the tradition of the wealthy, who owed their fortunes to slave labor, tobacco and quinine smuggling, land confiscation during the civil wars, and gold and emerald smuggling.

In 1981, after the kidnapping of Marta Ochoa, Escobar set up a private MAS militia “Muerte a los Secuestradores”. The creation of the MAS militia was signed by 223 drug traffickers and announced by dropping leaflets over a football stadium. The merger of the MAS is also seen as the founding date of the Medellín cartel .

In 1982, Escobar was elected as a member of the Colombian Congress. He was a member of the Liberal Party, was at the height of his popularity and was called "paisa Robin Hood". However, since he was publicly accused of dealing in drugs, he was forced to resign. Due to his financial power and connections, he was able to secure great influence on politics and (bribed) politicians.

In 1983 and early 1984 he was the most successful cocaine dealer in the world; he had large parts of the cocaine market under control (80 percent in Colombia). He made his biggest profit by smuggling cocaine into the United States , where cocaine was about three times more expensive than in Colombia. Once over the limit, a kilogram of cocaine was now $ 30,000 instead of its original value of $ 9,000. Since its purity was stretched from its original 90 percent in the US to 30 percent, the value rose to over $ 90,000.

In 1983 Manuel Noriega ( Panama ) offered the Medellín cartel exile and generous investment opportunities for the drug money.

The following year, the dispute with the law enforcement authorities in Colombia escalated: Escobar's main drug laboratories, Tranquilandia and Vila Coca , were destroyed by officials of the Colombian Ministry of Justice with the support of the US drug investigation agency DEA , and then the Colombian Minister of Justice Rodrigo Lara Bonillas on April 30, 1984 by order murdered by Escobar. Escobar, Lehder, Gacha and the Ochoa brothers subsequently fled to Panama . During the destruction of Tranquilandia and Vila Coca, 14 tons of pure cocaine were confiscated, which meant a heavy loss for the Medellín cartel. The US Air Force sprayed herbicides on cocaine plantations in the rainforests of Colombia.

His quote comes from this period: " Better a grave in Colombia than a prison cell in the United States ."

1985 began Gacha and Escobar with the "cleansing" of the middle Magdalenatals by the FARC - guerrillas . Thousands of farmers and field workers were killed in the operations, supported by British and Israeli mercenaries. Paramilitary units of the Medellín cartel and army units inflicted heavy losses on the FARC, ELN and M-19 in the Magdalena Valley. In the same year, the left-wing underground organization M-19 ( Movimiento 19 de Abril ) stormed the Palace of Justice in Bogotá, Escobar's involvement remained unclear.

In 1986, US basketball star Len Bias died of a cocaine overdose, public awareness turned against the party drug and it was ostracized. Escobar - previously perceived as the epitome of the zeitgeist - has been declared a serious criminal by the world public.

In 1988 George Bush became President of the United States and invested a billion dollar budget in the fight against the Colombian drug trade.

In 1989, Escobar was the seventh richest man in the world with $ 2.7 billion in personal wealth, according to Forbes Magazine, and controlled 80 percent of the international cocaine market.

On November 27, 1989, Avianca Flight 203 crashed as a result of a bomb explosion; Escobar is responsible for this attack. His goal was probably the murder of several informants who wanted to testify against the Medellín cartel and personal security were the Colombian police. The men were killed in the crash. There is also the thesis that Pablo Escobar wanted to assassinate the presidential candidate César Gaviria . But this was not on board.

Escobar was also socially committed : He financed hospitals, social housing and schools and therefore enjoyed in some cases a good reputation among the poorest part of the population of his hometown Medellín. The football stadium of his home club in Envigado was built with his money. Escobar founded office and apartment complexes, discos and numerous restaurants in Medellín, traces of which are still visible today.

On April 4, 2018, Mayor Federico Gutierrez, Defense Minister Luis Carlos Villegas and Justice Minister Enrique Gil initiated the demolition of the "Edificio Mónaco", one of Escobar's apartment buildings in Medellín, with the first blows of the hammer. On February 22, 2019, the apartment block was completely blown up with great sympathy from the population. A park in memory of the victims of drug trafficking is to be built on the same site.

Hacienda Nápoles

In 1979 Escobar bought a 3,000 hectare ranch near Puerto Triunfo on the Río Magdalena for $ 63 million and turned it into a luxurious country estate.

The property included an airfield, helipad, bullring, six swimming pools, a gynecological examination room, artificial lakes for water skiing and a complete road network. Escobar had tigers, giraffes, elephants, buffalos, lions, rhinos, gazelles, zebras, hippos, camels and ostriches flown in for his zoo on the hacienda. He had dinosaur figures erected for his son Sebastián .

The Hacienda Nápoles had comfortable beds for over 100 people. The entrance was adorned with the sports plane with which Escobar had made his first cocaine shipments to Medellín.

For the entertainment of his friends, he had Colombian beauty queens perform, who performed stripteases , won expensive sports cars in competitions, but also had to face humiliations such as a complete hair shave, swallowing insects or climbing trees naked.

Numerous executions also took place at the hacienda. A worker who stole from Escobar was hand and foot cuffed and drowned in one of the swimming pools to entertain the guests. The architect, who was accused of a construction error and the collapse of the first floor in the villa, was shot.

After Escobar's fall, most of the animals in the hacienda were relocated or stolen from their cages. Others starved to death or died of disease. The hippos from his private zoo still make the area around his former luxury property in the Colombian Doradal unsafe. The authorities warn of the hippos running free.

After robbers searched for legendary riches and plundered them in 2007, the dilapidated villa became an amusement park “Parque Temático Hacienda Nápoles”. The four hippos smuggled in and released by Escobar feel at home in the tropical rainforest climate of Colombia and reproduce rapidly. By 2020, the colony had grown to around 80 animals and posed increasing threats to residents, but also to native species such as otters and manatees. After a shooting was banned due to pressure from animal rights activists, only four bulls could be neutered between 2011 and 2013 due to lack of money; At the beginning of 2018, the search for zoo places for the animals began.

Virginia Vallejo

Virginia Vallejo, TV journalist and presenter, was Pablo Escobar's lover from 1983 to 1987. In 2007 she published the bestseller Amando a Pablo, odiando a Escobar (German: Pablo love, Escobar hate ), about Escobar, in which she connects him with politicians like Alberto Santofimio and presidents Alfonso López Michelsen , Ernesto Samper and Álvaro Uribe Vélez and one Triggered political scandal in Colombia.

Persecution and death

Members of the US-Colombian elite unit with the shot Escobar

In opposition to a law intended by the Colombian government to extradite drug traffickers to the United States, Escobar led the Los Extraditables ("The Extraditables") into a downright war against the state. He had hundreds of police officers, judges and public prosecutors murdered and bombed the capital Bogotá . A particularly spectacular bomb attack on September 2, 1989 shattered the headquarters of the daily newspaper El Espectador in Bogotá. Numerous kidnappings of public figures in Colombia, often with fatal results, were carried out by Escobar. For his own protection, he hired bodyguards and maintained a large number of sicarios (contract killers). The particularly decisive hostility of the Colombian police earned Escobar from a bounty of 500 to 1000 dollars, which he offered for every police officer killed in Medellín.

The persecution Escobar by the state Colombia was further intensified after 1989, the presidential candidate of the Liberal Party , Luis Carlos Galan , who had announced an enhanced offensive against the drug mafia in the event of his choice during an election rally in Soacha, a suburb of Bogotá murdered, had been.

After peace negotiations, Escobar declared a ceasefire in 1991 and surrendered to the police after he had been assured that he would not be extradited to the United States. As agreed during the negotiations, he and his bodyguard came to the luxurious La Catedral prison, which he himself had built near his home town of Envigado . After several scandals (among other things, Escobar had drug dealers taken to prison and murdered there) the government wanted to move him to another prison, whereupon he fled.

However, parts of the underworld turned against him: The Cali cartel , together with relatives of Escobar's murder victims, financed Los Pepes , a paramilitary death squad that u. a. were also supported by the right-wing Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia militias. The Los Pepes, in some cases probably also supported by the state, then waged a private war against Escobar, killing his Sicarios and destroying his laboratories. As a result, Escobar increasingly lacked the money to pay his men and thus pose a threat. It also enabled the Cali cartel to take Escobar's place as a drug supplier in the United States. In fact, Escobar's drug exports to the US have increased in recent months, although Escobar has been increasingly pushed out of business.

Escobar died when an American-Colombian elite unit shot him to death 16 months later in a raid in Medellín: he had telephoned his son from his hiding place, and investigators were able to trace the call. An alternate version of Escobar's death was given by his son. He reported that his father killed himself after being found consciously through several phone calls. He did this to protect and save the lives of his family members. Over 20,000 people attended his funeral.



Escobar changed and divided the Colombian state and permanently damaged the worldwide reputation of the country, which was reviled as the " Narco Republic ".

George Bush declared Escobar the number one public enemy. The culture of violence and the Sicarios who were unemployed after Escobar's death exacerbated the security situation. In Medellín in particular, residents in the slums became radicalized with long-lasting effects. Many mostly underage sicarios who worked for Escobar or Gacha became members of paramilitary combat units of the AUC .

In Medellín, Escobar is still revered as a folk hero, especially in his hometown Envigado. The Atlético Nacional football club in Medellín owes its rise to financial support from Escobar.

In April 2003, campaign posters with the likeness of Pablo Escobar were seen in some parts of Medellin's district, but nothing is known about the background to this action.

Cinematic, artistic and literary

  • Motifs by Pablo Escobar are painted by the Colombian painter Fernando Botero .
  • Tom Clancy uses Escobar in his novel The Shadow War ("Clear and Present Danger") and the movie Das Kartell based on it for his character "Ernesto Escobedo" (played by Miguel Sandoval ).
  • In 1998, a documentary produced by Parco International Inc. for The Learning Channel , about the life of Pablo Escobars called drug king Pablo Escobar (OT: Pablo Escobar: King of Cocaine ) was released.
  • In 2001, Escobar was portrayed by Cliff Curtis in the film Blow as the business partner of the main character George Jung .
  • The American journalist Mark Bowden describes the hunt for Escobar in his non-fiction book Killing Pablo (2001). Based on this, the documentary The True Story of Killing Pablo was produced for the TV broadcaster The History Channel (2002), which was published in Germany under the title Cocaine Bandits 3 .
  • In the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, there is an airport called Escobar Int. Airport ". The fictional city of Vice City is a hub of the American cocaine trade in this game, alluding to Miami .
  • In the HBO series Entourage , the fictional actor Vincent Chase ( Adrian Grenier ) plays the leading role in "Medellín", a fictional film about the life of Pablo Escobar.
  • In 2006 Escobar appeared in the documentary Cocaine Cowboys and in the same year a documentary episode of the television program Countdown of Terror appeared about Pablo Escobar called The End of Pablo Escobar (OT: The King Of Cocaine ).
  • The film Pablo of Medellin by Jorge Granier-Phelps depicts Escobar partly as a saint, partly as a demon.
  • In 2009 the sins of my father appeared (OT: Pecados de mi padre ); a documentary film about the history of Pablo Escobar from the perspective of his son Sebastián Marroquín .
  • The film Los Dos Escobar portrays the life of Pablo Escobar and the footballer Andrés Escobar , who was murdered after an own goal and the early elimination of the Colombian team at the 1994 World Cup . The film argues that soccer fan Pablo Escobar would never have condoned the murder.
  • On the album Enslaved by the thrash metal band Soulfly , the song Plata O Plomo ( silver or lead ) is about Pablo Escobar.
  • In the series Escobar, El Patrón Del Mal , Pablo is played by Andrés Parra and Mauricio Mejía .
  • The thriller Escobar: Paradise Lost (2014) is about a love story within the Escobar clan between a niece of Escobar and a surf instructor who immigrated from Canada. Benicio del Toro takes on the role of Pablo Escobar.
  • The first two seasons of the television series Narcos , which started in August 2015 and produced by Netflix , are based on the life of Escobar, who is played by Wagner Moura .
  • The film The Infiltrator (2016), based on Robert Mazur's autobiography , shows the attempt to overturn Pablo Escobar's money laundering organization.
  • In the first episode of the El Chapo series , Pablo was played again by Mauricio Mejía.
  • The first episode of the Netflix documentary series, Drug Lords , is about Pablo Escobar.
  • The fourth episode in the history documentary series called Kingpin from 2018 is about Pablo Escobar.
  • In the fifth episode of the Narcos: Mexico series , Pablo was again played by Wagner Moura.
  • The film Loving Pablo (2017), which shows the events from the perspective of reporter Virginia Vallejo.
  • The film Barry Seal: Only in America (2017), which tells the story of the drug smuggler Barry Seal (played by Tom Cruise), in which Escobar (played by Mauricio Mejía) plays an important supporting role.
  • There is an episode in the Monk series in which a "Miguel Escobar" appears.

See also


Web links

Commons : Pablo Escobar  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 27.
  2. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 19.
  3. EL BOGOTAZO - 9 DE ABRIL DE 1948 - JORGE ELIECER GAITAN . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  4. El Bogotazo . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  5. 9 de april de 1948 - El bogotazo . Archived from the original on June 25, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  6. ^ "Pablo Escobar by Marcela Grajales". Accents Magazine, Kean University. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  7. Luis Cañón Moreno: El Patrón. Vida y muerte de Pablo Escobar. Planeta, Santafé de Bogotá 1994, ISBN 958-614-402-X , p. 304.
  8. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, pp. 29-30.
  9. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, pp. 30–31.
  10. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, pp. 46–47.
  11. a b Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 36.
  12. ^ The Rise and Fall of Pablo Escobar and the Medellin Cartel . New Criminologist. January 9, 1998. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  13. LA MAFIA DEL NARCOTRAFICO . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  14. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 37.
  15. David P. Thompson: Pablo Escobar, Drug Baron: His surrender, imprisonment, and escape Taylor & Francis Online, accessed July 4, 2017.
  16. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 38.
  17. Biography - Pablo Escobar on Crime and Investigation Network . September 10, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  18. Biography of Pablo Escobar . December 2, 1993. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  19. El narcotraficante Pablo Escobar fue escondido en Nicaragua por Sandinistas, dice ex compinche - Radio La Primerísima - La Gente - Noticias desde Managua, Nicaragua . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  20. Un lugarteniente del narcotraficante Pablo Escobar detalla los lazos del capo de las drogas con Fidel Castro . Libertad Digital. August 14, 2005. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  21. Fiestas Y DesĂłrdenes En CĂĄrcel De ItaguĂ - Archivo - Archivo Digital de Noticias de Colombia y el Mundo desde 1.990 . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  22. a b Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 40.
  23. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, pp. 44-45.
  24. Los Jinetes de la Cocaína . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  25. Publicado por Ludovikof Martínez: Martínez-Solís, Genealogía: Pablo Escobar-Gaviria . February 28, 2004. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  26. Thirty Years of America's Drug War . PBS. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  27. paisa - residents of the Colombian province of Antioquia
  28. Escobar - Pablo Escobar - Archivos periodisticos - UN ROBIN HOOD PAISA . May 16, 1983. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  29. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 67.
  30. Colombia's drug billionaire Pablo Escobar, the Snow King article on Spiegel Online from December 2, 2013, accessed on July 31, 2016
  31. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 65.
  32. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 77.
  33. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 63.
  34. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, pp. 62, 91 f.
  35. Pablo Escobar (1949-1993) . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  36. ^ David Gero: Flights of Terror , Patrick Stephens Ltd., Sparkford 1997, ISBN 1-85260-512-X .
  37. The New York Times, Drug Trafficker Convicted Of Blowing Up Jetliner, December 20, 1994 , accessed January 7, 2017.
  38. When the Narcos took a plane from the sky, November 26, 2015 , accessed on January 7, 2017.
  39. Pablo Escobar Gaviria - English Biography - Articles and Notes . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  40. Así fue la demolición del edificio Mónaco Accessed May 4, 2020 (es)
  41. ^ The house of drug lord Escobar is being demolished, April 5, 2018, accessed on April 5, 2018.
  42. Alcalde de Medellín hizo oficial la demolición del edificio Mónaco, April 4, 2018, accessed on November 18, 2018 (Spanish)
  43. Escobar - Pablo Escobar - Archivos periodisticos - EL RECUERDO DE LA HACIENDA NÁPOLES . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  44. Escobar's drug demesne up for grabs, accessed on May 2, 2019 (English)
  45. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 43.
  46. ^ Philipp Lichterbeck: Pablo Escobar: Killer, public enemy, folk hero . In: Der Tagesspiegel . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  47. Mark Bowden: Killing Pablo. Berlin-Verlag, 2001, p. 47.
  48. Christoph Gurk: Ecology - The thick legacy of the drug king. Retrieved April 6, 2020 .
  49. ^ Hippos from Escobars Zoo walk around Accessed May 4, 2020
  50. Ute Müller: The creepy legacy of the dead drug baron . In: The world . December 22, 2007. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  51. ^ Hippos Invade Colombia . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  52. Christoph Gurk: Ecology - The thick legacy of the drug king. Retrieved April 6, 2020 .
  53. Loving Pablo, Hating Escobar, OFFICIAL WEBSITE . July 11, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  54. Virginia Vallejo OFFICIAL WEBSITE, photos, biography, videos . Archived from the original on October 13, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  55. Alberto Santofimio convicted in '89 Galan killing (Poorbuthappy in Colombia!) . Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
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  57. ^ "Se llama Álvaro Uribe Vélez y Pablo lo idolatra": Uribe niega nexos con capo del narcotráfico Pablo Escobar Gaviria . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  58. Le Iene: Le verità del figlio di Pablo Escobar . In: Le Iene . ( [accessed June 14, 2017]).
  59. ^ How America Lost the War on Drugs: Rolling Stone . December 13, 2007. Archived from the original on June 20, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  60. Medellin, the most dangerous city in the world? . In: Geo . Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  61. COLOMBIAN CHILDREN -SICARIOS IN MEDELLIN (Poorbuthappy in Colombia!) . September 4, 2009. Archived from the original on November 10, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
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  63. ^ Pablo Escobar, el Tsar de la Coca . Archived from the original on December 13, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  64. lmorfheol: Historia - Vida y Muerte De Pablo Escobar videos-Documental . Taringa !. February 9, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2010.