Perdiccas ( Greek Περδίκκας ; † 320 BC , in research, however, his death was long dated to the year 321 BC) was a general of Alexander the Great , took part in his campaign against the Persian ruler Darius III. and after the death of Hephaestion he became one of the most senior confidante of the Macedonian king. Alexander, who held him in high regard, is said to have given him his signet ring on his death bed. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC He became regent of the empire. The powerful diadochi Antigonus , Antipater , Krateros , Lysimachos and Ptolemaios formed an alliance against Perdiccas as representatives of the unity of the empire . Perdiccas left his confidante Eumenes to defend Asia Minor against attacks by Antipater and Kraterus and went himself against Egypt to attack Ptolemy. As he had already suffered several failures on the Egyptian border, he was killed by officers dissatisfied with his military leadership.
Perdiccas was a son of Orontes from the royal house of the Macedonian province of Orestis . He began his military career under King Philip II , whom he served as a bodyguard ( somatophylax ). When the king was murdered in 336 BC He was one of the three bodyguards who personally killed the assassin Pausanias . Alexander the Great, who now became the new Macedonian king, immediately appointed Perdiccas as the commander of a Pezhetairoi taxis . He commanded soldiers from the Orestis and Lynkestis , for which task he was particularly suitable because of his birth. As a general he was first named in 335 BC. Called in the fight against the tribalists . In the same year he distinguished himself in the conquest of Thebes , in which he was badly wounded.
During Alexander's campaign in Asia , Perdiccas took part in all major battles as the commander of a phalanx , including the Granicus first . At the Battle of Issus he fought in 333 BC. As the commander of his taxis on the right wing and was in 331 BC. Wounded again during the battle of Gaugamela , in which he stood with his troops in the middle of the phalanx. In January 330 BC During the capture of the strategically important mountain pass of the "Persian Gates" he continues to appear as regimental commander. In the further course of the campaign he was 330 BC. Appointed a bodyguard of Alexander and commander of a cavalry squadron.
When the Macedonian king in the spring of 328 BC BC wanted to finally break the resistance in Sogdia , Perdiccas was the leader of one of the five independently operating army groups that invaded Sogdia at that time and reunited in Marakanda . Perdiccas then took part in Alexander's Indian campaign. He initially commanded 327 BC. BC, together with Hephaistion, those troops who marched down the Kophen river and through the Peukelaotis landscape under the guidance of Prince Taxiles , subjugated the traversed areas (for example, after a long siege , stormed the city of Prince Astes ) and met the Indus there , where he took up the cophen. They began with the construction of a ship bridge over the Indus, which was completed when Alexander arrived, who in the meantime had fought against the warlike mountain tribes north of the Kophen. During the Battle of the Hydaspes (June 326 BC) Perdiccas and Hephaistion commanded the cavalry attack against the left wing of the Indian king Porus . He was also involved as the commander of a contingent of troops in the attack on the central location of the Maller . During this storm, Alexander was seriously injured by an arrow shot, and according to Arrian , some sources attributed the removal of the arrow from the king's chest to Perdiccas, while others attributed the removal of the arrow from the king's chest, while others attributed it to the doctor Critodemus of Kos . After the king's recovery and departure, Perdiccas was given the task of bringing in the troops still stationed in the Maller territory. He defeated a warlike neighbor tribe of the Maller, the Abastanen , and then united his soldiers with those of Alexander who camped at the confluence of the Akesines and Indus rivers.
During the ensuing fighting in India and the retreat to the west, Perdickas does not appear in the sources. He is only mentioned again on the occasion of the mass wedding in Susa in 324 BC. On which he married the daughter of Atropates , the satrap of media . When Hephaistion, Alexander's close confidante, died unexpectedly a little later, Perdiccas was his successor as leader of the hetaires' riding and was promoted to one of the king's most senior loyal followers. The title Chiliarch , which Hephaistion had held, was no longer awarded. In May 323 BC Perdiccas was one of those friends of Alexander who took part with the king in Babylon at the drinking bout of Medios of Larissa . Soon afterwards Alexander became fatally ill and Perdiccas stayed at his deathbed.
Alexander's death and question of succession
Alexander the Great is said to have passed his signet ring on to Perdiccas on his deathbed in Babylon, with the wish that “the strongest” would take control of his empire. Some sources cite this as legitimizing the succession claim. The Alexander historian Curtius Rufus reports that the bodyguard ( somatophylax ) Aristonous, during the deliberations on the reorganization of the empire, took the view that by handing the seal ring on to Perdiccas, Alexander himself had designated him as his successor. In contrast, Siegfried Lauffer believes the handing over of the signet ring to Perdickas is credible, but believes that Perdickas, as the highest in rank, was perhaps only entrusted by the dying Macedonian king with taking over the business of government, but should not simply begin the succession.
The bodyguards now called the most important followers ( hetairoi ) of the late king and the military commanders for an initial meeting in the palace of Babylon. But soon many soldiers also marched in front of the palace and demanded their say, so that a Macedonian army assembly with voting rights was formed. Perdiccas had Alexander's robe, diadem and weapons on display and there he also put down the signet ring he had been given the day before. He insisted that the birth of Roxane , who was heavily pregnant by Alexander, should be awaited and that when she gave birth to a son, he should be recognized as the new king. With this recommendation, however, he encountered resistance, since Roxane was not of Macedonian blood, but "Oriental". Nearchus spoke out in favor of Heracles , the roughly four-year-old illegitimate son of Alexander of the Persian noblewoman Barsine , as a suitable successor. The spokesman for the infantry, Meleager , who was in violent opposition to Perdiccas, on the other hand, supported the suggestion of a simple soldier to recognize the weak-minded half-brother of Alexander, Arrhidaios , who had now also been brought to the assembly , as the new king. Ptolemy , who would later become the Egyptian monarch, opposed the kingship of the incapable of ruling Arrhidaios or one of the sons of Alexander, in which case the actual power would rest in the hands of a regent to be appointed for a longer period of time. Instead, a committee of Alexander’s leading comrades should decide on all important decisions. In the following deliberations of the leadership circle, Perdickas prevailed, who - at Peithon's suggestion - was appointed together with Leonnatos as guardian of the expected son of the Roxane, while Antipater and Krateros were given the direction of government in the European part of the empire.
But this had an outrage of the infantrymen ( Pezhetairoi ) left out of the decision to react, who arbitrarily proclaimed Arrhidaios as king under the dynastic name of Philip and dressed in Alexander's robe. Perdiccas then withdrew with his followers into the room in which Alexander was laid out, but the infantrymen who supported Arrhidaios and led by Meleager pursued Perdiccas and hurled spears at him. As a result, Perdiccas escaped from the palace, but stayed in Babylon and gathered the horsemen around him. The situation was tense for several days; the infantry took control of Babylon while Perdiccas cut off the grain supply to the city.
Before it came to a real civil war between the troops, a compromise could be reached, through which both Philip III. Arrhidaios as well as the shortly thereafter born son Roxanes, Alexander IV. Aigos , were recognized as kings. However, both were incapable of governing. Perdiccas should take custody of the kings, but Meleager should also get a position of power. Krateros, absent from Babylon, was made the prostate of royalty. The general Arrhidaios was entrusted with the transfer of Alexander's body to Egypt . Meanwhile, after the peace agreement, Perdiccas thought about the removal of Meleager. On the plain in front of Babylon's walls he organized a muster of the army in which the infantry and cavalry marched through the two halves of a severed dog's body. At the instigation of Perdiccas, King Philip Arrhidaios demanded the surrender of the ringleaders responsible for the revolt from the surprised infantry facing the cavalry and the elephants. Of these, according to Diodorus, 30, according to Curtius Rufus, however, 300 were trampled by the elephants on the orders of Perdiccas. Meleager, whom Perdiccas accused of attempting to murder him, fled to a temple where he was killed.
Now Perdiccas held the leading position. During the subsequent reorganization of the state ( Babylonian Empire Order ) he was probably the new commander in chief of the entire army and sole ruler of the empire. He ceded the command of the Hetairen Reitererei to Seleukos . The Krateros, who was on the march back to Macedonia with the veterans, remained in his office as prostate (ie trustee, protector) of the kingship, which was actually carried out by Perdiccas, since the kings were with him. Furthermore, Krateros should manage the royal treasure. However, it is not clear from the sources how the competencies of Perdickas and Krateros were individually delimited. Kassander received the supervision of the royal Hypaspistes .
As Imperial Regent, Perdiccas immediately redistributed the satrapies in consultation with the most important Macedonian commanders, although he was probably also keen to keep powerful generals who could have competed with him away from the Imperial Army and thus from the center of power. His most important decisions were: Egypt to Ptolemy , Caria to Asandros , the Hellespontic Phrygia to Leonnatos , Media to Peithon , Thrace to Lysimachus, and Paphlagonia and Cappadocia , which were still to be conquered, to Eumenes . Antipater was to keep his position as European strategist and Antigonos Monophthalmos was to continue to run the provinces that Alexander had already assigned. Furthermore, Perdiccas had the Macedonian army assembly reject the implementation of Alexander's last written plans as too expensive. These plans included the completion of the tomb for Hephaistion in Babylon, the construction of 1000 warships and a road along the North African coast to the Strait of Gibraltar for a campaign to the west against Carthage , the founding of new cities and the construction of temples in Macedonia, Greece and Ilion. To strengthen his position, Perdikkas Roxane committed himself by helping them eliminate their rival Stateira and her sister Drypetis .
Perdiccas immediately had important decisions to make. As early as 326 BC The Greeks who had settled in Bactria and Sogdia revolted and tried to force their march back home. After Alexander's death they resumed these efforts. About 20,000 battle-tested infantrymen and 3,000 cavalrymen set out for the west under the command of the Ainian Philon . Perdiccas decided to have them stopped and for this purpose first selected 3,000 infantrymen and 800 horsemen from the Macedonian armed forces, who were given Peithon, the future satrap of the media, as commanders. In addition, Perdiccas sent the satraps of the Persian territories the directive to provide Peithon with an additional 10,000 foot soldiers and 8,000 cavalrymen as reinforcements. The ambitious Peithon intended, however, to draw the rebellious Greeks to his side and, with their help, to rise to rulers of the upper satrapies. However, Perdickas suspected Peithon's plans and therefore instructed him to put down all rebels after they had been defeated. Then Peithon marched with the troops immediately assigned to him by Perdiccas to the east, received on the way through the reinforcements sent to him by the Persian satraps and won at a first military encounter with the rebel mercenaries through the betrayal of the over 3000 men he had bribed Sub-general Letodorus a clear victory. He promised the defeated Greeks that they would be allowed to return to their homeland if they laid down their arms. However, since the Macedonians had received knowledge of Perdiccas's instructions, they subsequently killed the Greeks with their spears and distributed their belongings among themselves as booty. So Peithon could not realize his rulership plans and returned to Perdiccas with the Macedonian soldiers.
Perdiccas's authority as regent was questioned early on. Eumenes had been closely associated with Perdiccas from the beginning. Since the satrapy of Cappadocia assigned to him was under the control of Ariarathes I at that time , Perdiccas gave the satraps of the two neighboring provinces of Little Phrygia and Greater Phrygia, Leonnatos and Antigonus, the order to conquer Cappadocia and then leave Eumenes. 322 BC After an initial advance against Cappadocia, Leonnatos decided not to go there, but to Greece, in order to come to the aid of Antipater, who was besieged by rebellious Greeks in Lamia after the outbreak of the Lamian War . Allegedly, he planned above all to marry Alexander's sister Cleopatra and to usurp power in Macedonia. Antigonus Monophthalmos also opposed the orders given to him. Eumenes fled back to Babylon to report these events to Perdiccas. Together they marched with their entire army towards Asia Minor. Perdiccas defeated Ariarathes in two battles, had him executed and installed Eumenes as satrap of Cappadocia. He then subjugated the Pisidians , whose cities Isauria and Laranda he destroyed.
Probably in the second half of the summer of 322 BC. BC Kynane , a daughter of King Philip II, appeared with an army gathered by her in Asia Minor, around her daughter Eurydice with King Philip III. Arrhidaios to marry. Perdiccas saw this endangered his influence on the insane king. After an army of his brother Alketas had refused to fight against Kynane's troops, he managed to bring the princess into his power, whereupon he had her executed. Since the Macedonian soldiers were very irritated by this act, he decided in the meantime, the marriage of Eurydice with Philip III. Arrhidaios to allow.
In order to strengthen his position, Perdiccas had already tried to come to a better understanding with the Macedonian regent Antipater by soliciting the hand of his daughter Nikaia . 321 BC Now Nicaia was brought to Asia Minor under the company of her brother Iolaos and Archias and Perdiccas was offered to be his wife. At about the same time Cleopatra also came from Europe, settled in Sardis and proposed marriage to Perdiccas at the instigation of her mother Olympias, who was antipater . In view of the intellectual immaturity of Philip III. Arrhidaios and the low acceptance of the child king Alexander IV. Aigos (since this son of an Asian woman) meant the marriage connection with the sister of Alexander the great for Perdiccas a possibility to take over the throne he aspired to. That is why he flirted with a marriage with Cleopatra, which Eumenes also advised him to do, but for the time being did not risk breaking openly with Antipater. So he decided on Nikaia for the time being. Perdiccas had sent the request to Antigonus Monophthalmos to appear in his camp in order to answer for the refusal to order to support Eumenes in the conquest of Cappadocia. But Antigonus, who also learned of Perdiccas' secret plans to marry Cleopatra, preferred to evade the summons by fleeing to Antipater and Krateros. Perhaps his escape did not take place until the end of 321 BC. Instead of.
Downfall in the first Diadoch war
When Antigonos Monophthalmos met Antipater and Krateros on his flight, they had already victoriously ended the Lamian War and were now fighting (probably winter 321/320 BC) the Aitolians . Antipater informed the generals about the ambitious plan of the Perdiccas, which was striving for kingship over Macedonia, and knew how to make them so concerned that they sought a compromise with the Aitolians in order to have a free hand to wage an armed conflict with Perdiccas . Army contingents should move quickly to Asia; Antipater should continue to lead the high command in Europe and Krateros should take over that in Asia. In addition, the allies sent a delegation to Ptolemy, who was also an opponent of Perdiccas, and pulled him on their side. Already in the summer or autumn of 321 BC BC Ptolemy had seized Alexander's hearse coming from Babylon, diverted it to Egypt and had the dead body of the great king buried in Memphis . However, since Perdiccas apparently ordered the corpse to be transported to Aigai in Macedonia, this represented another questioning of his authority.
After Perdiccas, who was still in Pisidia, had learned of the war plans of the coalition formed against him, he rejected Nikaia in order to be able to enter into marriage with Cleopatra, and had Eumenes bring her gifts. After convening a council of war, he decided to go with the imperial army against Egypt and attack Ptolemy there, while his most loyal friend, Eumenes, as a strategist of Asia Minor, was to take on the fight against the advancing generals from Macedonia in order to stop them until Perdiccas himself would can intervene. Alketas, the brother of Perdiccas, and Neoptolemus had to support Eumenes with their armies. Furthermore, Perdiccas achieved that the Aitolians who had not been defeated by Antipater and Krateros transferred to him.
As a result, Antipater and Krateros changed their war strategy. According to this, Krateros should not set off for Asia Minor alone, but Antipater should join him and Polyperchon act as their representative in Macedonia. At that time Lysimachus was fighting the Thracian prince Seuthes and was therefore unable to take part in the Diadoch war, but was probably on the side of Perdiccas' opponents. Beginning of 320 BC The military operations began with the crossing of Antipater and Krateros and their armies over the Hellespont . The two generals managed to get Neoptolemus to apostate with them. Eumenes, however, defeated Neoptolemus and forced him to flee to Antipater, who now had the task of placing Perdiccas as far as possible in Cilicia , while Krateros was supposed to turn against Eumenes. The latter, however, won the Battle of the Hellespont ; Krateros and Neoptolemos were killed.
Antigonus had meanwhile crossed over to Caria, where he received support from the Carian satrap Asandros and the former Lydian satrap Menandros . Ptolemy had allied himself with four Cypriot city kings, Nikokreon of Salamis , Stasikrates of Soloi , Nicocles of Paphos and Androkles of Amathus .
Probably at the time when Perdiccas arrived in Cilicia , he had the local satrap Philotas , who was considered a friend of the Kraterus, removed from his office and replaced by Philoxenus . In addition, Perdiccas' follower Dokimos successfully fought the unreliable satrap of Babylonia, Archon , and then took his place. Aristonous, who formerly belonged to the corps of Alexander's bodyguards, took over the leadership of a naval expedition directed against Cyprus on behalf of Perdiccas , in which 800 infantrymen under the command of the Medios of Larissa and 500 horsemen led by Amyntas took part. The Rhodian Sosigenes exercised the function of the fleet chief. The ships were supposed to land at Marion , but nothing is known about the outcome of the company.
Probably the opponents of Perdiccas had hoped to be able to fight him in Cilicia before he managed to leave Asia Minor and go against Egypt. If this was the case, their expectations were definitely not fulfilled. Perdiccas marched unhindered with the imperial army via Damascus and Tire towards the Egyptian border. He then brought charges against Ptolemy for high treason before the Macedonian army assembly. Although Ptolemy was personally answerable to the soldiers and was subsequently acquitted by the army assembly, Perdiccas insisted on carrying out the campaign against him, thereby incurring the displeasure of his subordinates.
Ptolemy had put Egypt in an excellent state of defense and was also highly valued by his soldiers and officers. At the border fortress of Pelusium , Perdiccas's attempt to cross the Nile failed. He ordered the clearing of a long silted canal to drain the water from the Nile. He lost several men in the process when the water broke uncontrollably into the canal while the work was being carried out. Then he succeeded in crossing the Nile canal at the fortress Kamelon Teichos, the location of which cannot be precisely determined, but not - despite high losses - the conquest of the fortress defended by Ptolemy's soldiers under his personal leadership. Under cover of night, Perdiccas withdrew and marched to a place opposite Memphis, where he tried to cross over to an island in the Nile. From this island he wanted to advance against the state capital. Although some of his troops were able to get through the strong current to the island with the help of the elephants, the Nile suddenly swelled so that the passage of the remaining soldiers came to a standstill. So Perdiccas had to order that the men who had already reached the island should swim back again. Around 2000 of them lost their lives in the process; many were said to have been eaten by crocodiles . Ptolemy had the stranded corpses recovered, thereby gaining popularity with Perdiccas' soldiers.
The many failures contributed significantly to the final change in the mood in Perdiccas' camp. The officer corps specifically blamed him for the latest disaster. The following night, about 100 commanders of the phalanx initially rebelled, the most prominent of which was Peithon. Several cavalrymen then took part in the revolt. Perdiccas was attacked and killed in his tent at night (May / June 320 BC). The main perpetrators were the officers Antigen and Seleukos .
Shortly after the murder of Perdiccas, news of Eumenes' victory against Krateros reached the camp in Memphis. If she had arrived two days earlier, the murderers would have refrained from indignation against Perdickas. Its end meant a first heavy blow to the unity of the Alexander Empire , as opposing forces were able to prevail against the official representatives of the unified state. His supporters in the army were sentenced to death by express courts, and his sister Atalante was among the victims . The followers who were beyond the reach of his opponents, including his brother Alketas, his brother-in-law Attalus and above all Eumenes, were ostracized by the victors.
Thus Perdiccas plays an important role in the developments after the death of Alexander and the reorganization of the great empire that Alexander had built , albeit a very short one compared to other diadochi .
Perdiccas is one of the main characters in the historical novel Funeral Games by the writer Mary Renault .
- Fritz Geyer : Perdiccas 4). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume XIX, 1, Stuttgart 1937, Col. 604-614.
- Waldemar Heckel : The marshals of Alexander's empire . Routledge, London 1992, ISBN 0-415-05053-7 , pp. 134 ff .
- Michael Rathmann : Perdiccas between 323 and 320. Administrator of the Alexander Empire or autocrat? Verlag der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3503-3 ( Austrian Academy of Sciences. Philosophical-historical class. Meeting reports , volume 724; review ).
- Graham Shipley: The Greek World After Alexander, 323-30 BC . Routledge, London and New York 2000, ISBN 0-415-04618-1 , pp. 40-42 .
- Jona Lendering: Perdiccas . In: Livius.org (English)
- The murder of Perdiccas on the Alexander sarcophagus
- On the other hand, see among others Rathmann, Perdikkas ; 320 BC BC is also mostly accepted in the newer manuals (although not always), see Hans-Joachim Gehrke : History of Hellenism . Munich 2003, p. 34f.
- Arrian , Anabasis 1, 14, 2; 1, 28, 4; Indike 18, 5.
- Diodor , Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 16, 94, 4.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 17, 57, 2.
- Arrian, Anabasis 1, 6, 9.
- Arrian, Anabasis 1, 8, 1ff .; Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 17, 12, 3.
- Arrian, Anabasis 1, 14, 2.
- Arrian, Anabasis 2, 8, 3; Curtius Rufus , Historia Alexandri Magni 3, 9, 7.
- Arrian, Anabasis 3, 11, 9; Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 17, 57, 2.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 17, 61, 3.
- Arrian, Anabasis 3, 18, 5.
- Arrian, Anabasis 4, 16, 2f.
- Arrian, Anabasis 4, 22, 7f .; 4, 28, 5; 4, 30, 9; Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 8, 10, 2.
- Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 8, 14, 15.
- Arrian, Anabasis 6, 9, 1.
- Arrian, Anabasis 6, 11, 1f.
- This doctor is referred to by Curtius Rufus ( Historia Alexandri Magni 9, 5, 23-30) as Kritobulos of Kos.
- Arrian, Anabasis 6, 15, 1.
- Arrian, Anabasis 7, 4, 5.
- Arrian, Anabasis 7, 14, 10; Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 3, 4; Plutarch , Eumenes 1.
- Pseudo-Kallisthenes 3, 31, 20f.
- Pseudo-Kallisthenes 3, 32, 10f .; Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 5, 6.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 17, 117, 3 and 18, 2, 4; Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 5, 4 and 10, 6, 5; Iustinus , Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 12, 15, 12; Metzer Epitome 112; Lukian of Samosata , Dialogi mortuorum 13, 2.
- Discussion on this in Michael Rathmann, Perdikkas between 323 and 320 , pp. 9–26.
- Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 6, 16.
- Siegfried Lauffer: Alexander the Great . 3. Edition. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-423-04298-2 , pp. 188 f .; similar to Werner Huss : Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332–30 BC Chr.Beck , Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47154-4 , p. 81.
- Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 6, 1 - 7, 9; Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 2, 1 ff .; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 2, 4 - 3, 2; on this Siegfried Lauffer, Alexander the Great , p. 189 f. and Werner Huss, Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332–30 BC Chr. , P. 82 f., Who follows Curtius Rufus ( Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 6-10) in the external sequence of the first disputes of the Diadochi about the redistribution of power , then also this and the following paragraphs of this article.
- Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 7, 10-8, 13; Arrian, FGrH 156 F 1, 2-3; .Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 2, 2 ff .; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 3, 2-10.
- Arrian, FGrH 156 F 1,1; Dexippos , FGrH 100 F 8, 1; Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 8, 22 f .; Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 2, 4; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 4, 1-4.
- Arrian, FGrH 156 F 1,1; Dexippos, FGrH 100 F 8, 4.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 3, 5; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 4, 6.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 4, 7.
- Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 9, 18.
- Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 9, 7-21; Arrian, FGrH 156 F 1.4; Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 4, 7; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 4, 7 f.
- Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 10, 1; .Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 3, 1; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 4, 9.
- According to Siegfried Lauffer ( Alexander the Great , p. 191), Perdiccas took over the office of Chiliarch and Commander-in-Chief of the Army, according to Werner Huss ( Egypt in Hellenistic times 332–30 BC , p. 84 f.) He now owned as a vizier and imperial administrator, at least formally, almost all of the power; Fritz Geyer (RE XIX, 1, Col. 608 f.), On the other hand, believes that Krateros was given imperial administration in Babylon, while Perdiccas as the absolute general for Asia and Antipater for Europe were subordinate to him.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 3, 4; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 4, 17.
- Siegfried Lauffer, Alexander the Great , p. 191 f.
- Justinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 4, 18.
- Werner Huss, Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332–30 BC Chr. , P. 86 f .; Fritz Geyer: Perdiccas 4). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume XIX, 1, Stuttgart 1937, Col. 609 f.
- Sources for the Babylonian satrapies distribution: Arrian, FGrH 156 F 1, 3-8; Dexippos, FrGH 100, F 8 (probably after Arrian); Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 3, 1-4; Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 10, 1-4; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 4, 5-25.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 4, 1-6 (perhaps after the historian Hieronymus von Kardia ); these last decrees of Alexander are z. B. Fritz Geyer (RE XIX, 1, column 610) and Siegfried Lauffer ( Alexander the Great , p. 193 f.) Considered historical.
- Plutarch, Alexander 77, 6.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 17, 99, 5 f.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 7, 1-9.
- Plutarch, Eumenes 3: 4-9.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 16, 1-3; Plutarch, Eumenes 3, 10-14; Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 1, 11; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 6, 1-3.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 22, 1-8.
- Max Fluß : Kynna. In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Supplement VI, Stuttgart 1935, Col. 210.
- Polyainos , Strategika 8, 60; Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 1, 22-23; see. Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 19, 52, 5.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 23, 1 ff .; Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 1, 21; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 6, 4 ff .; on this Fritz Geyer: Perdikkas 4). In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume XIX, 1, Stuttgart 1937, columns 609 and 611.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 23, 3 f .; Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 1, 24.
- So Werner Huss, Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332–30 BC. Chr. , P. 106, note 68.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 25, 3 ff .; Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 1, 24.
- Parische Chronik , FGrH 239 fragment B11; Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri Magni 10, 10, 20; Pausanias , Description of Greece 1, 6, 3; different Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 28, 3 (burial of Alexander in Alexandria ).
- For example Fritz Geyer (RE XIX, 1, col. 612); According to Pausanias ( description of Greece 1, 6, 3) the destination of Alexander's funeral procession was Aigai, according to Diodor ( Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 3, 5 and 18, 28, 3) and Iustinus ( Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 4, 6) the army assembly in Babylon had decided to transfer the body to Siwa .
- Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , Fragment 1, 26.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 25, 6 and 18, 29, 1f .; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 6, 11-16; Plutarch, Eumenes 5, 1 ff .; Cornelius Nepos . Eumenes 3, 2.
- Werner Huss, Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332–30 BC Chr. , P. 109.
- summary in Werner Huss, Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332–30 BC. Chr. , P. 110 f.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 30-32; Plutarch, Eumenes 6: 4-7, 13; Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 1, 27 and fragments of the depiction of this battle from the same work on the Oxyrhynchos .- Papyrus PSI XII 1284 (V. Bartoletti (Ed.): Papiri greci e latini , vol. XII, Florence 1951, no . 1284); Cornelius Nepos, Eumenes 3, 3-4, 4; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 8, 5-8.
- Werner Huss, Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332–30 BC Chr. , P. 111 f.
- Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 6, 16.
- Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , Fragment 24, 3-5.
- Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 24, 6.
- So Werner Huss, Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332–30 BC. Chr. , P. 112.
- Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 1.28.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 33-36; Arrian, Tà metà Aléxandron , fragment 1, 28f .; Iustinus, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 13, 8, 10; Pausanias, Description of Greece 1, 6, 3; Strabo . Geographika 17, 1, 8; Plutarch, Eumenes 8.2; Cornelius Nepos, Eumenes 5, 1.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 37, 1.
- Diodor, Bibliothḗkē historikḗ 18, 37, 2 f.
|-||Regent of the Alexander
Empire 323-320 BC Chr.
|Arrhidaios and Peithon|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Son of Orontes, Macedonian general, friend and close confidante (after the death of Hephaestion Chiliarch) of Alexander the Great|
|DATE OF BIRTH||4th century BC Chr.|
|DATE OF DEATH||320 BC Chr.|