International Building Exhibition 1987
The International Building Exhibition 1987 (IBA) was an architectural exhibition of the Senate in West Berlin, institutionalized in 1978 by a resolution of the House of Representatives, with the urban planning concept of a new building taking into account the basic structure of the historic city. In the course of the preparations and under public pressure, however, there was a change of course from the practiced area renovation to cautious urban renewal .
The idea came from the then Berlin Senate Building Director Hans-Christian Müller . The IBA's leading architects were Josef Paul Kleihues for the critical reconstruction focus , who dealt with new buildings in inner-city areas as part of a city repair, and later Hardt-Waltherr Hämer for the cautious urban renewal focus , which was geared towards the renovation of old building areas.
As part of the focus on careful urban renewal , the 12 principles of urban renewal were created , which became the basis of the Berlin urban renewal process . The projects originated in the former districts of Tiergarten (southern Tiergarten district ), Kreuzberg ( southern Friedrichstadt - formerly Luisenstadt - and SO 36 ) and occasionally in Tegel and Wilmersdorf ( Prager Platz ).
Background and aim of the IBA: Recognition of the stock
The early urban development of the post-war period in Germany rejected the historical building structures (high density blocks with rear buildings, some of which were still medieval). In the old inner cities, the hygienic conditions and the infrastructure were inadequate, and the experience of the bombing war spoke against building too tightly. So healthy and safe life would only be possible in a completely new city. This required a tabula rasa : the old city should give way as completely as possible.
Districts of the city were demolished and replaced with completely new structures (e.g. the development around the Kottbusser Tor in Berlin-Kreuzberg or the Rollbergviertel in Berlin-Neukölln). Other existing buildings - also of good quality - were deliberately left to decay in order to be replaced by high-rise office buildings (in West Germany e.g. Frankfurt-Westend ). Urban development in the 1960s and 1970s was characterized by extensive ignorance of the historical situation. The concept was called " area renovation ".
Resistance to this practice arose in the 1970s from affected residents and also from students and university lecturers, especially in the fields of architecture and urban planning. The professor at the Berlin University of Fine Arts , Hardt-Waltherr Hämer , sent his students to the endangered areas and made the design of alternatives the subject of joint work.
The “redevelopment concepts for the redevelopment area Kreuzberg Kottbusser Tor and for the redevelopment area Charlottenburg Klausenerplatz respected the historical street layout for the first time in a larger area. They refrained from destroying the historical street and square structure. But these concepts were also associated with an almost complete demolition of the existing building fabric. It was planned to modernize a few buildings on the edge of the block, most of which should be replaced by new buildings. "
The dispute over block 118 on Klausenerplatz then signaled a change of course. For the first time, “a significant part of the development within a building block was not demolished. This concept, for which Hardt-Waltherr Hämer was responsible, was implemented in the context of considerable social conflicts against the official Senate policy and against the redevelopment agency , the non-profit housing association “ Neue Heimat ”. Block 118 was presented in the European Monument Protection Year 1975, which also marked a turning point in urban development for the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin. "
Admittedly, J. P. Kleihues, a “critical” new building architect, was appointed director of the building exhibition planned for 1984, but H. W. Hämer was soon moved to his side as the second director.
The new IBA thus represented a contrast to the Interbau of 1957 ( Berlin-Hansaviertel ). For the first time in the history of the building exhibition, the central concern was the renewal of the old building stock and, if necessary, the addition of new buildings to the stock. The Bauausstellung Berlin GmbH was founded in 1979 by the Berlin Senate. The core of the IBA Berlin 1978–1987 were therefore two approaches to urban development:
- the IBA new building (IBA new) , Kleihues, and
- the IBA-Altbau (IBA-Alt) , Hämer
Critical reconstruction (new IBA building)
As part of competitions with international architects, a large number of new building projects were implemented between 1979 and 1987, mainly in southern Friedrichstadt , the southern Tiergarten district and the Tegeler Hafen. 1979–1987 the Berlin architect Josef Paul Kleihues was planning director for the new building areas of the International Building Exhibition (IBA) Berlin.
Kleihues' new building approach was no justification for area redevelopment, whose program "aimed to overcome the system of squares, streets and building blocks that the city had created in the late nineteenth century." In contrast, Kleihues had in two studies to his Berlin atlas marks “'where the existing urban structure is interrupted or disturbed.' […] The new city of the 1950s and 1960s was regarded as a “disruption”, and the “historic city”, the city of the late 19th century, was disrupted. That was a radically new perspective at the time, but also a sharp criticism of the previous restructuring policy. "
Kleihues wanted to preserve the urban structure, "the system of squares, streets and building blocks", as a basic pattern and, as it were, to reconstruct it by means of a new building, which also meant a "restoration of the peripheral buildings" in the Berlin ruins. The concept aimed "at the principle of the 'critical reconstruction of the city', of restoration, of orientation to the historical fragments that were still there."
The term critical reconstruction was popularized by Josef Paul Kleihues. For him it was about "the reconstruction of the city taking into account modern demands:
- about the maintenance, renewal and improvement of the urban layout. Because the distribution of use, the layout of the area and the development form the constitutive basis for building the city.
- about the geometry of the structure of the city, which defines the public, semi-public and private space of the city.
- about the city in the context of the landscape, which guarantees the basis and natural prerequisites of life in the city and manifests itself in the green areas of the parks and gardens as well as the green veins of the avenue and street trees.
- about the image of the city, because in the physiognomy of its houses the city expresses the spiritual and cultural components of its history in a special way. "
Critical reconstruction of the city means priority of urban development over architecture and its subordination to an urban planning framework that “respects and reinterprets the history of the place”. It is not understood as a rigid dogma, but as a flexible working framework. In the new building block on Vinetaplatz, this concept was first implemented as part of the First West Berlin Urban Renewal Program, planned from 1971, implemented from 1975 to 1977.
Careful urban renewal (old IBA building)
Demolition and housing shortages led to massive protests, which in 1977 resulted in the Strategies for Kreuzberg competition and, from 1979, the illegal “ repair (occupation) ” of numerous empty houses in the district. This was the starting point for the IBA old building. Her main concerns include the maintenance, stabilization and further development of the existing social and functional structures in the city as well as the implementation of processes such as self-help and tenant modernization. Planning director from 1979 to 1985 was the Berlin architect, urban planner and later Honorary Senator of the University of the Arts , Hardt-Waltherr Hämer . In this phase, the concept of cautious urban renewal was developed, which replaced the area renovation .
From 1975 to January 1981 Harry Ristock was the responsible Senator for Construction and Housing.
Consequences of the IBA 1987
The private STERN GmbH , founded in succession to the IBA, continued the renewal process with the same team from January 1986 to December 1992. In 1994, the State of Berlin was awarded the European Urban and Regional Award for its exceptional achievements in the context of careful urban renewal in Kreuzberg . Overall, the old IBA building in particular led the planning into a new era: the new building is taking a back seat to securing and modernizing the existing stock. With its pilot projects, it was the trigger of funding programs for urban renewal and changes in legal practice for redevelopment and environmental protection .
Well-known architects involved
The following architects took part in the 1987 International Building Exhibition :
- Hinrich and Inken Baller
- Helge Bofinger
- Gottfried Boehm
- Mario Botta ( Block 234 )
- Klaus Theo Brenner & Benedict Tonon
- Karl and Max Dudler
- Peter Eisenman ( House at Checkpoint Charlie )
- Dieter Frowein & Gerhard Spangenberg
- Giorgio Grassi (Thomas-Dehler-Strasse 44)
- Antoine Grumbach
- Zaha Hadid and Will Alsop ( Stresemannstrasse )
- Hardt-Waltherr Hämer
- Georg Heinrichs
- John Hejduk Kreuzberg Tower (corner of Charlottenstrasse and Besselstrasse), Steglitz-Zehlendorf and Tegel
- Herman Hertzberger ("LiMa" residential building)
- Hilmer & Sattler
- Hans Hollein (Rauchstrasse 5)
- Arata Isozaki
- Josef Paul Kleihues
- Kollhoff & Ovaska ( Lindenstrasse )
- Rem Koolhaas / OMA ( Koolhaas House at Checkpoint Charlie )
- Rob Krier
- Charles Willard Moore (Moore, Ruble, Yudell)
- Henry Nielebock & Partners
- Poly, Steinebach, Weber
- Paolo Portoghesi
- Aldo Rossi with Jay Johnson, Gianni Braghieri, Christopher Stead ( Koch - / corner Wilhelmstraße )
- Jürgen Sawade
- Axel Schultes (Bangert, Jansen, Scholz, Schultes)
- Álvaro Siza Vieira (" Bonjour Tristesse ")
- Steidle + Partner
- Robert AM star
- James Stirling with Michael Wilford
- Stanley Tigerman
- Oswald Mathias Ungers
(demolished in 2012)
- New construction of 2500 residential units including infrastructure in the area of historic Friedrichstadt
- Refurbishment of 7000 old apartments in Berlin-Kreuzberg , mainly in Luisenstadt and SO 36
- New construction of 350 social housing units as well as cultural and leisure facilities at the Tegeler Hafen
- Extension of the New National Gallery and living at the Kulturforum
Selection of individual projects
- Residential house, G. Peichl, 1984–1989
- Ritterstrasse North and South, R. Krier, 1978–1980, 1982–1989
- Multi-family house with residential tower, J. Hejduk, 1988
- Residential and commercial buildings Südliche Friedrichstadt, Block 10, J. Johnson, A. Rossi, G. Braghieri, C. Stead, 1981–1988
- Housing complex at Tegeler Hafen, C. Moore, Urban Innovations Group, 1987
- Housing development, OM Ungers, 1987
- Living at Karlsbad, G. Heinrichs, 1986/1987
- Living Am Karlsbad, Hilmer & Sattler, 1986/1987
- Retirement home, Steidle & Partner, 1985–1987
- Wohnen Am Karlsbad, J. Sawade, 1984–1987
- Residential development on Luisenplatz , H. Kollhoff, A. Brandt, G.-P. Mügge, H. Hielscher, K.-M. Koch, P. Kahl, W. Böttcher, A. Uffelmann, 1983–1987
- "Schinkelplatz", R. Krier, 1977–1987
- IBA Housing (Residential Park at the Berlin Museum ), A. Isozaki, 1982–1986
- Block 5 residential and commercial building, Eisenman / Robertson Architects, –1986, 1982–1984
- Living at the Berlin Museum, House F Block 33 - Victoria residential park, H. Kollhoff, AA Ovaska, A. Geier, –1986, 1982–1984
- House, Kammerer & Belz, 1984/1985
- City villa on Rauchstrasse, A. Rossi, 1983–1985
- City villa on Rauchstrasse, house 8, H. Hollein, H. Strenner, W. Fritsch, U. Liebl, K. Matuschek, F. Madl, D. Nehnig, E. Pedevilla, –1985, 1983/1984
- City villas on Rauchstrasse, R. Krier, 1983–1985
- Urban planning report and preliminary drafts, T. Herzog, M. Bunge, R. Streckebach, M. Elsner, F. Nakhaei, 1983–1985 (project)
- City villa on Rauchstrasse, KT Brenner, B. Tonon, 1983–1985
- Phosphate Elimination Plant PEA, G. Peichl, 1979–1985
- City villa on Rauchstrasse, house 3, N. Di Battista, G. Grassi, E. Guazzoni, G. Zanella, 1982–1984
- Südliche Friedrichstadt Block 606, G. Valle, M. Groggi, M. Burckhardt, M. Rossin, A. Nulli, 1983 (project?)
- Residential house Schlesisches Tor ("Bonjour Tristesse"), Á. Siza, 1982/1983
- Four town villas, Bangert, Jansen, Scholz, Schultes, 1978–1982
- Sally Below, Moritz Henning, Heike Oevermann: The Berlin Building Exhibitions - Guide to the Future? Regioverlag, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-929273-72-4 .
- International Building Exhibition Berlin 1987, project overview . Official catalog 1987. Ed. Bauausstellung Berlin GmbH. Descriptions, plans, photos of all projects, some of which have already been implemented.
- Harald Bodenschatz, Cordelia Polinna: Learning from IBA - the IBA 1987 in Berlin. (PDF; 6 MB).
- Dame, Herold, Salgo: Re-Vision-IBA - 25 Years of the International Building Exhibition 1987 Exhibition catalog, TU Berlin, 2013.
- The official catalog is entitled: International Building Exhibition Berlin 1987 , Ed .: Bauausstellung Berlin GmbH, Carlheiz Feye, Berlin, 1987
- Learning from IBA - the IBA 1987 in Berlin. Expert opinion on the IBA 1987 on behalf of the Senate Department for Urban Development, 2010, p. 16 f. (PDF), accessed on September 24, 2019.
- Josef Paul Kleihues: Berlin Atlas on Cityscape and Urban Space - Test Area Charlottenburg , Berlin 1973, p. 52. In: Expert opinion 2010 on the IBA 1984/87, p. 18 f.
- Josef Paul Kleihues: The IBA against the background of the Berlin architecture and urban planning of the 20th century . In: Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani (Ed.): Series of publications on the International Building Exhibition Berlin. The new development areas. Documents projects. Models for a City , Berlin 1984, p. 36. In: Expert opinion 2010 on the IBA 1984/87, p. 21.
- Photos on architecture in berlin.com - Peter Eisenman, Rem Koolhaas / OMA - Houses at Checkpoint Charlie
- Photos on architecture in berlin.com - Zaha Hadid and Will Alsop on Stresemannstrasse
- Photos on architecture in berlin.com - John Hejduk, Kreuzberg Tower
- Photos on architecture in berlin.com - John Hejduk, Tegel
- Photos and drawings on housingprototypes.org - Lindenstrasse Apts. Kollhoff, Hans & Arthur Ovaska ( Memento from January 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Source: International Building Exhibition 1987. In: arch INFORM ; Retrieved December 14, 2009.