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Representation of a puppet theater in a Nuremberg toy sample book from the 19th century
UNIMA memorial plaque: (from left) Tchantchès (Belgium), Pulcinella (Italy), Punch (England), Kašpárek (Czech Republic), Kasperl, Guignol (France), Karagoz (Turkey)
Lothar Meggendorfer : Munich Kasperl (book illustration from 1867)

Kasper (including Punch and Judy , bairisch Káschberl , Swabian Kaschberle , alemannisch Kasperli ) is the comic hero of Kasper theater , one mostly with hand puppets played puppet theater with crudely naive act. It is assumed that the role of Kaspers goes back, among other things, to the Hanswurst of the Vienna Volkstheater. The puppet figure Kasper has been known in German-speaking countries since the end of the 18th century .

Kasper usually wears a long (often red) pointed hat , a dress reminiscent of the harlequin with a large, colorful pattern and has a swatter (also called a cot ) as a punishment instrument. The term slapstick for the form of comedy of the same name is derived from this baton . Punch's characteristic laughter face with eye-catching nose (often a hooked nose) recalls Fastnachts - masks and makes him dressed recognizable.

In many countries there are figures comparable to Punch , for example Mr. Punch ( Punch and Judy ) in England, Guignol in France, Jan Klaassen in the Netherlands, Mester Jakel in Denmark, Pulcinella in Italy, Fasulis in Greece, Petrushka (speaks through a Pipe) in Russia and Vasilache in Romania.


The word Kasper is a subsidiary form of Kaspar (Middle Latin Casparus ), the legendary name of one of the three Magi from the Orient, who is depicted as a Moor in the medieval Epiphany and (since around the 15th century) takes the form of a funny person. At the end of the 18th century he took the place of Hanswurst as a comic stage character in Vienna.

History of the puppet theater

The puppeteers often led a meager life as an outsider to society. Often they and their art were despised, unloved, driven away and politically abused. They were always dependent on the authorities. Still, they were an important part of the entertainment and culture for their audience. The puppeteer always steps back behind the characters and lets them applaud. Their game was also valued, albeit always feared. Puppet theater was sometimes also respected in ruling houses and was also played by some members of these themselves - in courtly theater play. The puppet theater is a fairytale- like microcosm with manageable proportions, but clearly satirical and clownish features.

In his book "Kasper Putschenelle", Johannes E. Rabe unraveled the use of the terms hand puppet and marionette in their application to the figure of Kaspers for the first time . Whereas in earlier writings the jointed and hand puppets were almost always treated collectively, and as a rule they did not distinguish them conceptually. This led to confusion, with the addition of the fact that the expression “Punch puppet” was ambiguous, since Kasper appeared not only as a character in hand puppets, but also as a marionette player, and also in the larger theater with theater actors. His work is of particular importance because it is here that an attempt is made to write a general history of hand puppetry for the first time.

Originally it was a crude fun fair for adults and young people with a comic figure in the center, which was in the long tradition of "clownish" figures in human theater. Different types developed in Europe, such as Guignol in France or Kasper in Germany. The "Punch and Judy" game was very popular in England: Mr. Punch is supposed to take care of his child. Since it screams, he throws it out the window, gets into an argument with his wife Judy, beats her up and kills all the people and forces that he encounters ( policeman , crocodile , devil and even death ). This story probably addressed the often suppressed aggression of the audience and offered them an outlet for their disaffection with the authorities. Often the "Punch and Judy" game was banned for immorality and the puppeteers were expelled or punished. The type of visual design and characterization of the puppet theater characters already shows that many pieces and impromptu scenes of the puppet theater characters, in addition to current and political events, were primarily directed at erotic, ambiguous and very crude / vulgar topics and brutal game situations from the beginning and originally not for Children were conceived, although - again and again and in large numbers - such attended the performances. They did justice to the fact that a specialty of the hand puppeteers in some countries - the participation of live animals on the stage - was practiced. In France the cat, in Bohemia guinea pigs and in England the dog ("Toby") was built into the performances, who bit the nose at the command of his counterpart. Beatings and manslaughter scenes on stage, especially the manslaughter of Kasper's wife, were just as much a fixed part of the program as the appearance and beating up of powerful opponents, which Kasperl - who represented a funny figure - always successfully fought in various ways. Here, too, the criticism of the authorities becomes clear in a mystical imagery, to which the doll figure of death was also included. It was precisely the confrontation with death in traditional puppetry that emphasized the struggle against the authorities. A phenomenon that was widespread across Europe. The existing brutality in the phase between the Biedermeier period and the turn of the century in everyday life and in the wars was reflected on the hand puppet stages, which enjoyed great popularity, but which increasingly lacked quality. In the marionette theater, on the other hand, attempts were made - especially at this time - to maintain more artistic quality. The situation of high esteem for the puppet theater lasted until the middle of the last century. The paper theater and the puppet theater made it into the children's rooms of the "commoners", which was initially denied to the hand puppet show. Although artists and patrons such as Count Franz von Pocci were committed to ensuring that the puppets, which were considered serious at the time, with legends and fairy tales, knights' pieces and taxes, which were often played with pleasure, could not be seen exclusively on the puppet stage. The Pocci Punch and Judy stories appeared in silhouette form as “Munich picture arches” and he created “his” Punch and Judy Larifari for the marionette stage and no longer allowed him to appear exclusively in children's books and swans. With his funny pans and literary purrs, he created a literary puppet that was also suitable for the hand puppet stage, which he reminiscent of the comic characters of Ferdinand Raimund's magic fairy tales and the comic types of Goldoni's pieces, which he thus from the Austrian and Italian regions transferred to southern Germany. He immersed Pocci in a diverse professional world, which was completely new for the previous puppet figure. With his puppet pieces he served the oriental and African longings of his time and also all existing clichés. The puppet theater actors have so far only given their visitors a partly clichéd and inhuman impression of Africa. Pocci, on the other hand, vehemently opposed the rampant expansion of capitalism in his “African” plays in the second half of the 19th century. His pieces "Kasperl bei den Menschenfressern", "Kasperl bei den Wilde" or "The artesian fountain or Kasperl bei den Luwutschen" are evidence of these motifs, which were also taken up later in the Hohnsteiner Kasper under Max Jacob .

In puppet theater research there is agreement that it is thanks to Johannes E. Rabe in Central Europe that at least some older Low German puppet plays have been preserved.

In the course of the 19th century, puppet theater in general became increasingly interesting as an object of cultural and historical attention. The closeness of puppetry to folk poetry and folklore that existed in Romanticism was later exploited by the nationalists and, in the Nazi state, also by the National Socialists.

Puppet theater as a means against unwillingness to go to war in the First World War

There was also, albeit in a smaller number, the traditional puppet show with a flogging Punch and game sequences that were joined together, such as the traditional commercial and executioner scenes. These traditional scenes and plays became more defining when the world war broke out. For the first time, the puppet theater was deliberately used by the authorities. With the newly created "Artistic Puppet Show" they noticed that educational work could also be done with puppetry. The authorities wanted to deal with the increasing demand for an end to the war in the population, but also expose the war opponent to ridicule and at the same time scare him and his alleged war intentions, as for example in the play "Kasperl und die Franzosen", which has already been play themes - only slightly modified - takes up. Through such puppet shows, which were already traditionally anchored in the people, combined with only little financial and material expenditure, one hoped to draw the laughs among the spectators to their own side. In this sense, the Games have consistently served their political purpose. As early as 1900, more and more anti-French puppet theater pieces appeared in the German-Austrian area, which had their historical and political origins in the political and armed conflicts with France, especially around the Alsace region in the 19th century, and which only took up these.

Elisabeth Strauss describes in her diploma thesis published in 2002: “From the field gray, from the red and from the brown Kasper. Political Punch and Judy Theater in the 20th Century ”that, due to the burgeoning national consciousness of the nations of Europe, the Punch - previously described as a comic figure - received precisely that, depending on the nation. The game content was always similar and the previously always appropriate criticism of the own authorities was dispensed with in the performances. At the beginning of the World War, puppet theater was performed, which was intended to prepare the population of Central European countries for the unforeseeable war, but also to educate them about the poor economic situation. The puppet figure appeared in the short pieces specifically as a propaganda tool, even if not (yet) politically calculating. Nonetheless, the puppet stages promoted growing nationalism and played sociopolitical-tendency performances with a puppet who beat up the enemy, who at the time was rarely a classic pacifist. Rather, he was a companion with a tendency towards violence and aggression, as established by traditional fairground scenes. A quote from Kasper only indicates an initial, well-established anti-militarism in him, as was already recognized in a (socialist) historical retrospect in 1936.

During the First World War, soldiers were at the front and in the hospital with puppet theater, e.g. B. in the form of puppets, entertained and motivated to wage war, resulted in the socio-cultural and sociological analysis of six Kasperl texts from this time in Graz.

The style-defining design of hand puppets in puppet theater in the 20th century was the Hohnsteiner Puppet Show founded by Max Jacob in the Erzgebirge in 1921 . Max Jacob also replaced the rude and shaggy fairground rascal with a more wise and pedagogical rascal, who especially wants to instruct the little audience to do the right thing. During the Second World War, Max Jacob operated the puppet theater as a front theater .

Other well-known Hohnstein puppeteers were Erich Kürschner and Harald Schwarz , whose stages were both located in Essen. Irmgard Waßmann and Claus Gräwe worked with Friedrich Arndt for ten years . Rudolf Fischer was initially one of Max Jacobs' team-mates, but then went into business for himself with the Königstein and later Darmstadt puppet shows and found his own style.

In the time of National Socialism , from 1933, organizations began to be brought into line . This also had a major impact on puppetry in the empire. There were many denunciations of a political nature, and open resistance against the Nazi regime was brutally stifled. Professional bans were also imposed on puppeteers and, if possible, circumvented by them. In addition, there was also inner emigration , hiding in niches, and flight in the puppet theater sector - but sometimes also the longed-for professional career. The Nazi state generally increased controls and, in the case of puppet shows, more and more consistently, especially instrumentalization for propaganda and Nazi education. Here the hand puppet-experienced Oberbannführer Siegfried Raeck from the cultural office of the Reich Youth Leadership was particularly involved .

In the Third Reich, the medium of puppet play was primarily chosen, but much more that of hand puppet play, while the other forms of puppet theater, such as stick and shadow play , paper theater , or "artistic puppet theater" - such as that of the graphic artist and puppeteer Richard Teschner - which occurred at that time - were not or only partially and selectively used for propaganda purposes. Other forms of puppet theater did not come into question to this extent in the Nazi state, although there was also an image conflict between the National Socialists and the hand puppet show, which was often viewed as a fairground theater play.

In 1937, the promotion of puppetry is strengthened, politically oriented and the folklore and customs department is taken over by the organization Kraft durch Freude . Here, too, at least one employee was a puppet show specialist, checked puppeteers, got involved in the leisure organization KdF and occasionally represented Nazi puppet shows abroad politically. A 92-page guide - entitled Das deutsche Puppenspiel. Commitment, successes, objectives - was distributed in large numbers throughout the German Reich in 1939 to professional puppeteers, amateurs and KdF organizers. In addition to an ideological orientation, the booklet contained excerpts from the pieces, reference addresses and descriptions of the puppeteer's profession with technical and economic information. The design of puppet figures was very limited.

Excerpts from: " The German Puppet Show ". Published by the office of Feierabend of the organization Kraft durch Freude , Volkstum / Customs department , 1939 (quoted in Puppet Theater and the Nazi Era, Nazi Era in Puppet Theater , DAT magazine - The Other Theater , UNIMA Center , 2014).

“Eternal figures, incarnations of the German character, go through our history and our customs: a Parzival, a Sigfried, [...] - a Till Eulenspiegel. [...] Ulenspiegel is not “the stupid”. He himself has to help people “on the jumps”. [...] He has what is decisive: He is the passionate fighter against stupidity and weakness, fickleness, quick forgetting and refining meaning, envy and shyness, laziness, selfishness, myopia and laziness. Here, however, he relentlessly waves the whip of his biting mockery, here he tears all the false covers and exposes the lying grimaces. And he doesn't do it for the pleasure of lying, but with the will to truth. In destroying, he already begins to build. He opens people's eyes and so instead of appearance he puts being; instead of mere words: the value; instead of the phrase: the thing itself. He is the great educator! [...] Not unlike Till Ulenspiegel, who is closely related to him internally - and externally - is his little cousin with the wooden head, the German Kasper! "(From page 10)

“It is not the Punch who embodies a National Socialist attitude, who greets“ Heil Hitler ”from the game bar, for example, or even pulls a swastika flag across the stage; rather, he has to be quite a fellow in what he does and what he does. [...] As everywhere, with puppet shows it is also a question of attitude and attitude. And the greatest political value lies in a game that helps shape people in terms of movement based on attitude and convictions, without having to use a lot of words. "(From p. 23)

The booklet also contains interpretations of the puppet show in the war of positions of the First World War: “The German puppet show celebrated its resurrection in the trenches of the World War. With their self-carved heads, our soldiers played happy scenes of Tommy and Poilu and the always funny, all-conquering daredevil Kasper in the midst of the desolation and severity of the war of ranks . And a few years later it was the German youth who used the puppet show in the villages of the border region, which were in a tough national struggle, to convey old German cultural assets, fairy tales and local legends to children and adults. [...] “(approx. 1939/40 p. 3).

The cult around the puppet show legend Max Jacob slowly ebbed away after World War II. Long after his death, Friedrich Arndt still gave courses, but no longer played. In West Germany, however, quite different directions of expression for puppet theater have meanwhile been sought. The character "Kasper" lost interest. A puppeteer publicly referred to the Kasper as " fascistoid ". Little by little, questions arose about the Nazi past of puppetry and the role the puppet figure played in it.

In 1973 Melchior Schedler wrote his provocative book Schlachte die Blaue Elefanten , dealt with the Punch and Judy game under National Socialism and attacked the international icon Jacob. His texts raised questions, exacerbated a generational conflict and led to heated discussions.

Figures of the puppet theater

Today's puppet theater, strongly influenced by the Hohnsteiners, serves almost exclusively for the entertainment of younger children. Its standard staff include:

  • for the good: Kasper (l) (e), Sepp (e) l (friend and often a symbol for honesty, but also simplicity ), Gret (e) l (the woman and voice of reason), grandmother, fairy
  • for order, justice and authority: princess, prince, king, sergeant
  • for evil: witch, wizard, devil, robber, crocodile (as "replacement dragon")



Franz Graf von Pocci achieved fame as the author of both child-friendly and time-critical puppet pieces (e.g. Das Eulenschloß ) in Munich in the 19th century ( Kasperl Larifari as a puppet ).

Literary appreciation

Punch was recognized literarily in Theodor Storm's novella Pole Poppenspäler from 1875, in which a puppet troupe lets the Punch play as a comic figure in classic puppet theater pieces.

In the 1920s, Josephine Siebe wrote successful Kasper children's books.

In Otfried Preußler's 1962 children's book Der Räuber Hotzenplotz , Kasperl experiences exciting adventures with his friend Seppel. In the rest of the cast (grandmother, sergeant, magician, fairy, crocodile, [inexperienced hobby] witch), Preussler orientated himself on the traditional puppet ensemble.

Modern forms

The strict puppet of the 19th century (H. v. Pückler-Muskau approx. 1829)
The friendly Hohnsteiner Kasper (figure by Theo Eggink)

From the Hohnsteiner puppet used modern variants developed pedagogically in the form of educational theater , such as the police puppet stage of Heinz Krause in Hamburg with police as puppeteers or Karlsruhe Traffic Kasper of Siegbert Warwitz : Was the 'old' Kasper still a strict teaching and Taskmaster, who not only maltreated the devil, but also naughty children and traffic offenders with a stick or frying pan and wanted to get them on the right track in this way, the transformed traffic jasper of the new traffic education put the status of the omniscient problem solver and only took on the role of one asking and advising friend. The children should find the best solution for everyone themselves. In terms of contemporary didactics , problem awareness and appropriate traffic behavior were no longer prescribed and “taught”, but rather developed in consensus between puppeteers and the audience. The Karlsruher Verkehrskasper, designed by a trained teacher, and the puppet ensemble , posed by older students, act non-violently with scenes from the immediate experience of the audience, who intervene in what is happening on the stage with questions and suggestions, warnings and concerns Determine course. Sanctions result from practical constraints (hospitalization, etc.), not as an authoritarian measure. In the context of traffic education , the traffic jasper also reaches the youngsters in the roles of textbook authors and puppeteers and brings the younger and older people with their often different worries and ideas into conversation with each other and to appropriate problem solutions, whereby the junker only acts as a moderator .

More recently, other areas of life such as the fire brigade , the advertising industry , hygiene and environmental education have tried to use the charm of the puppet game for their goals.

Today's puppet theater

The Original Wiener Praterkasperl at a guest performance in Club W71

There are still many puppet theaters traveling, which, like the many typical fairgrounds, are run by comedians, including some of the old Maatz and Sperlich families of puppeteers. The venues are mostly event halls of parishes and the like, some companies have small play tents. Fairs are rarely used, with the exception of “nostalgic fairs”. The puppet theater Luna , the puppet theater of the Dresden puppeteer Rudi Piesk, is in the tradition of the classical puppet theater . Initially, Piesk played with figures in the Hohnstein style , from which he later broke up in order to develop his own puppet with hand puppets by Till de Kock . The puppet theater Luna plays with its Kasper all over Saxony, Brandenburg, Thuringia and gives guest performances every summer in the Sonnenhäusel in the Great Garden of Dresden.

The Fichtelgebirgskasperle was created in the 1940s.

For more than 60 years, the Herrnleben family of puppeteers has played exclusively puppet theater, always with their Bamberg puppet in the East Franconian dialect.

In Austria, the Upper Austrian puppet theater from Pucking near Linz is one of the oldest and most traditional representatives of this guild. A children's program that has been broadcast on Austrian television since 1957 was called the Kasperltheater until 2008 (then renamed Servus Kasperl ). In Wiener Prater there is the Original Wiener Praterkasperl by Thomas Ettl and Elis Veit, who play both a children's and an adult program.

In Bavaria today, Doctor Döblinger's tasteful puppet theater is best known. The Munich duo presents its various programs for children and adults both live and in the form of recorded radio plays. In Munich there has also been Kasperls Spuikastl since 2009 , which appears regularly in the Markus Wasmeier open-air museum on Schliersee. Kasperls Spuikastl also organizes the Puppet Theater Festival , which has been taking place every summer since 2016.

Radio plays

Walter Benjamin wrote and produced the children's radio play Radau um Kasperl for radio in 1932 . Gerd von Haßler wrote around seventy puppet stories in the 1960s and 1970s, which were published as radio plays on almost forty long-playing records from a wide variety of record labels .

Further Kasper radio plays were created under the direction of the Hohnsteiner Bühnen by Max Jacob and Friedrich Arndt and under that of the Berlin puppet theater Die Kullerköpfe by the puppeteer Michael Orth. The Hamburg Police Puppet Stage (headed by Heinz Krause ) published a total of seven traffic-educational radio plays, which were released as long-playing records by the EUROPA and BASF labels. The Kasper Lari stories by Max Kruse also served as models for radio plays, as did the Kasperle from the Augsburger Puppenkiste .

From the end of the 1980s to the beginning of the 1990s, Elisabeth and Wolfgang Herrnleben wrote over 750 bedtime stories for Bamberg's Punch and Judy for local radio. The Herrnlebenens have been releasing records again since 2000. Initially Wolfgang Herrnleben as Bamberger Kasperl, since 2006 his son Florian Herrnleben. The current highlight of this radio play series, which has been in existence for over 20 years, is seen as the current CD Kindergeschichten with Bamberg's Kasperl - SPECIAL , which Florian Herrnleben as Kasperl together with many prominent colleagues such as Bastian Pastewka , Dirk Bach , Martin Schneider etc. v. m. for the benefit of the German Children's Cancer Foundation.

In Switzerland, the Kasperli radio plays by Jörg Schneider and Bernhard Huber are best known.

Alarm in the puppet theater

The book Alarm im Puppet Theater , written in the 1950s , is about a wild chase. Punch and his friends chase after the devil who stole the pancakes for grandma's birthday. The text was written in rhymes by Nils Werner and illustrated by Heinz Behling . The book Teddy Brumm is by the same authors . The book was published by Eulenspiegel Verlag .

In the 1960s, a 16-minute appeared animated film adaptation of DEFA .

Old puppet theater, painted by the Rhön painter Heinz Kistler

Well-known Kasper interpreters

See also


  • K. Wagner: Traffic education then and now. 50 years of Verkehrskasper. Scientific state examination work (GHS), Karlsruhe 2002.
  • Siegbert A. Warwitz, S .: The traffic jasper is coming. In: Traffic education from the child. Perceive-play-think-act. 6th edition. Cutter. Baltmannsweiler 2009. ISBN 978-3-8340-0563-2 . Pp. 245-248 et al. Pp. 252-257

Web links

Commons : Puppet theater  - collection of pictures
Wiktionary: Kasper  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Verkehrskasper  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Punch and Judy Theater  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. http://www.tchantches.com/home.php
  2. ^ Wolfgang Pfeifer , Etymological Dictionary of German , Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (dtv) Munich, 5th edition 2000, p. 630.
  3. Alexander Wessely, " As everywhere in puppetry, it depends on the attitude and attitude " "" (...), On the question of a connection between hand puppet shows and propaganda in the Third Reich - an approximation . Dissertation, University of Vienna. Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies, 2009
  4. ^ Benno von Polenz: "Kasper Putschenelle" in the second edition; in: Joseph Bück (ed.): Das Puppentheater - magazine for the interests of all puppeteers and for the history and technology of all puppet theaters - official organ of the 'puppet theater' department of the association
  5. ^ Benno von Polenz: "Kasper Putschenelle" in the second edition; in: Bück, Joseph (ed.); Das Puppentheater - magazine for the interests of all puppeteers and for the history and technology of all puppet theaters - official organ of the 'Puppet Theater' department of the Association for the Promotion of German Theater Culture; 2. Volume, Lehmann & Schüppel, Leipzig, 1925–1927, p. 8.
  6. Alexander Wessely, " As everywhere in puppetry, it depends on the attitude and attitude " "" (...), On the question of a connection between hand puppet shows and propaganda in the Third Reich - an approximation . Dissertation, University of Vienna. Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies, 2009
  7. See: Gina Weinkauf: "Kasperforschung - On the scientific reception of the grotesque - the comic and the funny figure of the puppet theater from the end of the 18th century to today"; in: Olaf Bernstengel, Gerd Taube, Gina Weinkauf (eds.): "The genus suffers a thousand varieties ..., contributions to the history of the funny figure in puppet shows"; Wilfried Nold Publishing House, Frankfurt am Main, 1994; P. 16.
  8. Alexander Wessely, " As everywhere in puppetry, it depends on the attitude and attitude " "" (...), On the question of a connection between hand puppet shows and propaganda in the Third Reich - an approximation . Dissertation, University of Vienna. Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies, 2009
  9. Alexander Wessely, " As everywhere in puppetry, it depends on the attitude and attitude " "" (...), On the question of a connection between hand puppet shows and propaganda in the Third Reich - an approximation . Dissertation, University of Vienna. Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies, 2009
  10. “When the Kasperl was not yet harmless”, ORF.at of July 7, 2014 ( Memento of March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ); based on the master's thesis by Evelyn Zechner-Mateschko, Kasper rushes from victory to victory , published in: Zeitschrift für Literatur- und Theateroziologie
  11. See: Gerd Bohlmeier, Gerd; Puppet show in Germany from 1933 to 1945. The puppet show in the service of the National Socialist ideology in Germany ; German Institute for Puppetry, Bochum, 1985, p. 43.
  12. See: Gerd Bohlmeier, Gerd; Puppet show in Germany from 1933 to 1945. The puppet show in the service of the National Socialist ideology in Germany ; German Institute for Puppetry, Bochum, 1985, p. 50.
  13. ^ Puppet theater and the Nazi era, Nazi era in puppet theater , magazine: Das Andere Theater , UNIMA Center , Volume 24, 2014
  14. Silke Technau in Puppet Theater and the Nazi Era , Nazi Era in Puppet Theater , magazine: DAT, UNIMA Center, 24th year 2014
  15. Hamburger Verkehrskasper: The police kasper and his friends trip the traffic devil , Europe, Munich 1970
  16. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: The traffic jasper is coming. In: Traffic education from the child. Perceive-play-think-act. 6th edition. Cutter. Baltmannsweiler 2009. pp. 245-248 u. Pp. 252-257
  17. ^ K. Wagner: Traffic education then and now. 50 years of Verkehrskasper. Scientific state examination work (GHS), Karlsruhe 2002.
  18. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: Seducer at the crosswalk. In: Traffic education from the child. Perceive-play-think-act. 6th edition. Cutter. Baltmannsweiler 2009. pp. 257-272.
  19. ^ The Luna puppet theater in the FIDENA portal. German Forum for Puppet Theater and Puppetry ev [dfp], accessed on December 5, 2017 .
  20. Original Wiener Praterkasperl