Above all, many astronomical terms, some important mathematical terms and basic terms of chemistry were adopted by the Arabs , since after the turmoil of the Great Migration Period, the ancient scientific literature preserved in Arabic was an important source for medieval European scientists.
Qāḍī means judge. The word was borrowed from the fairy tale collection Thousand and One Nights at the end of the 17th century . The term Kadi was adopted into the German language through the phrase “pull / go in front of the Kadi”.
About the English and Portuguese from Arabic mausim . Arab sailors described with the wordموسم( mausim ), which means "season" in German, the phenomenon of a wind in the Arabian Sea that changes with the season. Compare Hindi / Urdu with the mouse on "Weather"
The word originally comes from the Sanskrit word शर्करा ( śarkarā ) for "sweet", which is used as sukkar (سكر, verb: sakkara ) was borrowed into Arabic and from there reached the European-speaking area
Allah, allāh is the Arabic word for God. The more common interpretation assumes a syllable ellipse when the article al (ال) and ilāh (اله"God", "deity"), thus "the god". Linguistically, Allah is closely related to the Hebrew El or Eloha , more commonly in the formal plural form Elohim . El ( Eloha / Elohim ) means something like "strong", "mighty".
The caliphate (derived from the Arabic chalifat rasul allah (خليفة رسول الله); Arabic chalifa, plural chulafa "successor", "deputy", "caliph", literally "the successor of the Messenger of God". However, if the word rasul was omitted , the title became al-khalifat ul-lahi under the Umayyads خليفة الله, “Representative of God [on earth]” changed) is an Islamic form of government in which secular and spiritual leadership are united in the person of the caliph.
The word Koran (Arabic قران qur'ān ) derives fromقرأ qara'a 'read, recite'. It is a parallel formation to the Syrian qeryânâ for "pericope reading ". Qur'ân stands for both the individual revelation and the totality of revelations. The word kitâb "book" is also usedas a synonym.
The term ummah ("community") denotes the religious community of all Muslims, actually more correct: الامة الاسلامية al-Umma al-islamiyya . The Arabic word seems to be the Hebrew
umma , German 'tribe, gender' to be borrowed, which is possibly derived from the Assyrian ummanu .
al-dschabr ("the joining of broken (bone) parts"), from the title of the arithmetic textbook Hisab al-dschabr wa-l-muqabala by the mathematician al-Chwarizmi , actually derived from the textbook of the Indian mathematician Aryabhata .
al-manāḫ "the climate ", in the broader sense: list of climatic and astronomical events of a year. The Arabic word is possibly an Arabization of Middle Latin almanachus, and this from the Greek alemenichiaka, which, according to Eusebius (around 300 AD), is the name of the Egyptian calendar. The word is then not Arabic, but rather Coptic .
Andreas Unger (with the assistance of Andreas Christian Islebe): From Algebra to Sugar. Arabic words in German. Reclam, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-15-010609-5 .
Helle Körner: On the development of the German (loan) vocabulary. In: Glottometrics 7, 2004, ISSN 1617-8351 , pp. 25–49, here: p. 29: Tab. 1 (distribution of the German vocabulary among the various languages), p. 30: Tab. 2 (distribution of foreign words in German to the intermediary languages) ( full text [PDF; 3.6 MB]).
Raja Tazi: Arabicisms in German. Lexical transfers from Arabic into German (= Studia linguistica Germanica. Volume 47). de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1998, ISBN 3-11-014739-4 (Zugl .: Heidelberg, Univ., Diss. phil., 1994) ( limited preview in the Google book search).