Thalkirchen is a district in the south of Munich and part of the 19th district of Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln . The district, located almost entirely in the Isar lowlands west of the river, is one of the oldest settlements in the south of the city and, thanks to its location on the renatured Isar, has an important recreational and leisure function for the entire city.
At the parish edict of 1808 , the Thalkirchen parish was formed from the eponymous village on the Isar, Maria Einsiedel to the south and the still further south of Hinterbrühl as well as the practically uninhabited Obersendling . At the turn of the 20th century, the construction of the Isar Valley Railway and the villa colony Prinz-Ludwigs-Höhe above the river terrace and the incorporation into Munich coincided. Thalkirchen, which was previously a village, slowly grew northwards towards the neighboring district of Sendling . After the Second World War, the remaining space on the Oberfeld was also developed. However, both below and above the river terrace there is a far above-average proportion of green spaces and above it there is also agricultural land.
The historic village center of Thalkirchen lies in the valley floor of the Isar between the river in the east and the river terrace in the west. The church is 528 m above sea level, the lowest point at 524 m. Before the Isar regulation it was the only settlement in the Munich area below the slope edge. Pullach in the Isar Valley joins the valley south , today represented by the Adolf-Wenz settlement as the only district in the valley floor. To the north, Thalkirchen merges below the slope terrace into the Sendlinger Unterfeld .
Today's Thalkirchen district with 283.63 hectares only includes a narrow strip on the Oberfeld between the slope edge in the east and the Munich – Holzkirchen railway line in the west. It extends from 540 m above sea level to the highest point at 565 m. Above the slope edge is Solln in the south , Mittersendling joins in the north . Historically, the whole of Obersendling belonged to Thalkirchen, which stretched as far as Forstenried in the west and the Südpark in the northwest. This part was almost uninhabited until the 20th century and was then and increasingly after the Second World War developed as an industrial area with workers' residential areas.
Both the valley floor and the elevated terrace belong to the Munich gravel plain and are characterized by the ancient gravel, with only a thin layer of humus.
Thalkirchen, the church in the valley , was first mentioned in writing in 1268. In 1818 it was merged into one community with Obersendling and Maria Einsiedel . The original town center was at the church of St. Maria Thalkirchen (today Fraunbergplatz 1), to which an important pilgrimage with indulgences in the thirties can be proven. Village life developed around the church. Thalkirchen's first school was set up in an extension of the church in 1686
Because of the pilgrimage, extensive inns and beer gardens and the following excursion traffic developed in Thalkirchen . Thalkirchen was connected to traffic by the Isar Valley Railway. Towards the end of the 19th century, in connection with the strong growth of the city of Munich, these influences laid the foundation for entertainment establishments such as Gierlinger Park , a private green area with walking paths, an alpine hut, a small body of water with boat rental and other facilities. Bad Maria Einsiedel was opened in 1890 . Thalkirchen was incorporated into Munich on January 1, 1900. The establishment of the central land in Thalkirchen for raft traffic was decisive for this , because the raft land in Munich was abandoned due to the traffic load. In the course of incorporation, the first Thalkirchner bridge to Harlaching was built in 1904 . A famous Thalkirchner is the writer Wilhelm Jensen .
In Thalkirchen is the current raft channel of Munich , on the other side of the Isar on the Thalkirchner bridge easily accessible is the Tierpark Hellabrunn in neighboring District 18 Untergiesing-Harlaching , and in the northeast on Thalkirchner river from about Sendling belonging Flaucher , an extensive green corridor along the Isar Forest and meadows, playgrounds and the beer garden of the same name in a forester's house from 1800.
The Maria Einsiedel part of the community was first mentioned in writing in 1725. This part of the community was named after the painter Cosmas Damian Asam in reference to the Swiss pilgrimage site of the same name, Maria Einsiedel . Asam bought the property, now known as Asam-Schlössl , in 1724 with the money he had earned for the painting of the Swiss pilgrimage church; on May 11, 1734 the ownership letter was issued. On March 25, 1725 Egid Quirin Asam received permission to build a chapel. On October 25, 1730, he informed the competent clergy in Freising about the completion of the church, whereupon it was consecrated.
With the self-administration of Thalkirchen in 1818 the number of inhabitants was recorded for the first time. At that time 412 souls lived in 28 houses. By 1840, the number had fallen to 336 before the expansion of the village into a suburb of Munich, which was initially still heavily characterized by rural areas, began. In 1861 503 inhabitants were registered, in 1880 Thalkirchen had 621 people, in 1885 there were 750 and in 1895 with the start of the planned construction of settlement houses there were already 1416 inhabitants. The population made a huge leap with the incorporation and development of Obersendling: in 1910 there were 10,315 residents of what is now Munich's Thalkirchen district. In 1925 there were already 15,908 people, in 1956 19,543 people lived in the district and in 1970 there were 27,595 people from Thalkirchner and Obersendlinger.
With the revision of the Munich boroughs in 1992, figures are available for Thalkirchen including Maria Einsiedel, Hinterbrühl and Prinz-Ludwigshöhe (excluding Obersendling). At the end of 1993 there were 11,820 inhabitants. By 1998 there was a small decrease to 10,951 people. By 2015, there was an almost continuous increase to 17,120 people from Thalkirchner, and since then the number has stagnated (as of 2020). The development between 2000 and 2015 is mainly due to the development on the Oberfeld, which was completed with the completion of the south side in 2014. Below the edge of the slope, the Isar gardens were created from 2004 to 2011 on the site of the former Thalkirchen Isar valley station . In addition, in the city district, as in the whole of Munich, there is an intensive redensification , with the plots of former single-family houses being built on more densely and commercial space being converted into living space.
Transport and infrastructure
In terms of traffic, today's Thalkirchen is accessible below the edge of the slope, primarily through the Thalkirchen underground station , which opened in 1989 on the U3-Süd line . An efficient road connection is intentionally only to Sendling in the north. Both the road ramps on the slope edge and the Thalkirchner bridge to Harlaching are deliberately not designed for heavy traffic. This is intended to preserve the village character.
Above the river terrace, the federal road 11 runs as Plinganserstraße and Wolfratshauser Straße in north-south direction to Sendling and Solln . From here the Boschetsrieder Straße branches off to the west and Obersendling and on to Forstenried .
The Munich tram has been running on Plinganserstraße and Boschetsrieder Straße since 1906 above the slope edge (line 22, later 8, 16) and since 1912 also below it in the core of Thalkirchen (line 20). Line 20 was shut down for the construction of the Munich subway in 1970, line 16 only with the opening of the subway to Fürstenried-West in 1991. The Isartalbahn operated passenger services to Thalkirchen between 1891 and 1964. Until 1989 there was still modest freight transport.
Thalkirchen was important for rafting on the Isar , which has been documented since 1310. For a long time it was the most important transport route from the Bavarian Oberland to Munich and reached its heyday with the growth of the city between 1860 and 1870 and thus shortly before the opening of the Isar Valley Railway. Since the beginning of the 20th century and increasingly from around 1960, it has only been of touristic importance.
Historically, Thalkirchen was shaped by agriculture. In the north of the village there were three mills in 1426, two of which were recorded in the Angerkloster's tax register together with Thalkirchen. But they are located with the Dreimühlenviertel named after them in today's Isarvorstadt . To the south of the village, there has been evidence of another mill since 1337, from which the Maria Einsiedel district developed. A tavern tavern has been used by today's Alten Wirt since 1610.
Only at the beginning of the 19th century were craftsmen such as saddlers and blacksmiths added. Around the same time, a lime burner south of the village was mentioned as the first commercial operation . In 1857 the so-called emergency landing was built as an additional landing stage for rafts. It was intended to complement the overburdened raft lands in Munich , which were constricted by buildings . With her came two industrial sawmills that processed the raft wood into building material. The emergency landing was closed in 1892 and the land was sold to the Isar Valley Railway. In 1899 the new central area opened , through which Thalkirchen became the landing point for all rafts on the Isar. With her, the restaurant Zentrallände was opened in a nearby house . It was unusual that Thalkirchen had electric street lighting since 1891. This included 3 arc lamps , 1,132 light bulbs , three motors with a total of 14.5 hp and an electric heater. The place owed this technical innovation to the Isarwerke of construction and real estate entrepreneur Jakob Heilmann and the bankers Johannes Kaempf and Wilhelm von Finck . In 1891 and 1904 they built two hydropower plants on the Isar near Höllriegelskreuth and Pullach, and from 1895 onwards they opened up an industrial area in Obersendling with electricity .
Since the boom in excursion traffic in the middle of the 19th century, further inns and several small breweries have opened, such as the Metzgerbräu, the wheat beer bar, the Luitpolt café and the Deutsche Eiche . The most elaborate amusement facility was the short-lived (1900–1904) Gierlinger Park .
The location on the Isar was the reason for the establishment of a hydropathic institute , from which the two today's clinics on the Isar Canal emerged. It was founded by Josef Bleile, a student of Vincenz Prießnitz , in 1844. Bleile was not a doctor, his facility was only approved because he did not use any medical devices or preparations, but only offered a cold water cure . From 1874 the company was sold several times. In 1883, Dr Vitus Stammler bought the facility and turned it into a medically recognized clinic. The clinic was successful and went to Dr. Max Scherzberg and was later taken over by Medical Councilor Dr. Karl Uibeleisen taken over. When Uibeleisen moved to Bad Kissingen in 1920 , where the rehabilitation clinic he founded still exists today, Dr. Kurt Lichtwitz took over the clinic and systematically expanded the offer. In addition to the existing bath therapy , there are other applications, the first maternity ward in the south of Munich and, from 1925, a psychiatric clinic for an upscale clientele in a neighboring building . As a Jew, Lichtwitz was fiercely attacked by the NSDAP before he died shortly after taking power in 1933. His wife sold the clinic in 1935 to the two leading doctors, Dr. Rinecker and Dr. Müller. When the two fell out, the business was divided in 1937. Dr. Müller ran an internal medicine clinic in the southern buildings. Dr. Rinecker converted the northern part into a surgical clinic. Both hospitals were each the first in the south of Munich and stayed until 2016 in family ownership, as both hospitals at the Artemed group were sold, which they called Internistisches Hospital Munich South and Surgical Clinic Munich South leads. From 1999 to 2019 there was still the Rinecker Proton Therapy Center in the neighborhood , which offered a particularly complex and innovative form of proton therapy . However, it was never able to attract enough patients to become economically successful and ceased operations in mid-2019. The Martha Maria hospital , which was founded in 1897 from the Obersendling sanatorium for the mentally ill by Privy Councilor Dr. Karl Ranke emerged and is now a specialist clinic with a focus on endocrinology .
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