Asian longhorn beetle

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Asian longhorn beetle
Asian longhorn beetle 1.jpg

Asian longhorn beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis )

Subordination : Polyphaga
Family : Longhorn beetle (Cerambycidae)
Subfamily : Weber bucks (Lamiinae)
Tribe : Monochamini
Genre : Anoplophora
Type : Asian longhorn beetle
Scientific name
Anoplophora glabripennis
Motschulsky , 1853

The Asian longhorn beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis , sometimes abbreviated ALB ) is a longhorn beetle native to East Asia . It was brought in with construction and packaging timber, has also been found in the USA and Central Europe as a neozoon since 1996 and is a wood pest .


The appearance of the Asian long-horned beetle is black with twenty distributed over the body bright spots. The body is 2.5 to 4 cm long without antennae, with the females becoming slightly longer. The eleven-segment antennae, ringed in black and white on a blue background, are approx. 2.5 times longer in males and approx. 1.3 times longer in females than the body. The larvae are dirty white, have a light brown face plate and show a pinnacle- like drawing on the chest. The lack of granularity of the prothorax makes it easy to distinguish them from other larvae. They become up to two inches long and up to one inch thick.

The beetle resembles several native, sometimes rare to strictly protected longhorn species . Environmental organizations therefore recommend not to kill specimens immediately, but to have them identified by specialist agencies.


A pupa of the Asian longhorn beetle in a cradle
Head of Anoplophora glabripennis

The beetles lay their eggs on the trunks under the bark. For this, the female usually eats an egg funnel at weak points such as B. in forks and lays an egg under the bark. The next egg is usually placed a few centimeters above. In the original distribution area, this occurs mainly on willows and poplars . Other deciduous trees such as maples and fruit trees are also attacked, particularly in countries where the species has immigrated . After one to two weeks, a larva hatches from the egg , which after eleven stages becomes five centimeters long and one centimeter thick. The first stages initially eat in the area of ​​the cambium , which can cause cortical necrosis. The resulting sap flow often attracts wasps and especially hornets .

Only after the third larval stage does the larva drill into the wood. It creates a hook-shaped larval duct up to 20 cm long. After pupating, the beetles bore their way through an approximately 10 mm thick, circular borehole. The beetles usually lay the next brood in the immediate vicinity of the excursion, often even on the breeding tree itself, as long as it is still intact.

The development period in the original distribution area is one to two years, in Europe an average of two years. The cooler the climate, the longer it takes to develop.

Indications of an infestation are the finding of live beetles between May and October, round drill holes with a diameter of more than one centimeter in the trunk wood or on thicker branches of trees as well as smaller, oval holes in the area of ​​branch forks and coarse drill dust below the holes. Sniffer dogs are also used to track them down .

Harmful effect

Damage occurs

  • due to larval feeding in the first stages in the cambium , which dies in this area.
  • by larvae from the third stage in the wood, which statically weakens the tree, which can lead to parts of the crown breaking off and pose a problem for the traffic safety of the trees concerned.
  • through the penetration of secondary pests.

The beetle has been a pest in its region of origin in China since the 1980s. Large-scale afforestation with a native poplar species to combat desertification favored its expansion. The damage the beetle causes in China is estimated at around $ 1.5 billion annually.

Invasion biology

The Asian longhorn beetle was introduced mainly with packaging wood. Other wood products and living plants play a lesser role in the spread. Since the species is very polyphagous , it also attacks tree species that are often used economically and are among the most common in the respective ecosystems. The beetle is listed in the Global Invasive Species Database among the hundred most harmful invasive neobiota in the world.

In North America

Between 1992, the year it was first discovered in the United States, New Jersey , New York , Illinois, and Massachusetts, and 2008, approximately 30,000 trees were felled and approximately 900,000 trees treated in the United States. The cost of the measures taken until then amounted to about 370 million US dollars . In the United States , the beetle threatens 35% of the urban tree population, with the damage estimated at around 670 billion US dollars. Control measures currently include quarantining infested areas in order to prevent further trees from being infested . Infested trees are felled, chopped and mostly burned. Trees at risk of being infected are treated with insecticides for several years.

In Europe

The beetle or its larvae are regularly brought into Europe in packaging or with living plants. Since 2015 there have been outdoor infestations in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France (including in the Bas-Rhin , Côte d'Or , Loire-Atlantique and Loiret ), Italy and the Netherlands, all of which are officially controlled and monitored .


In 2001 the species was found in Braunau am Inn in Austria . During a packaging wood inspection in July 2012 in St. Georgen / Upper Austria (near Geinberg ), a new infestation by the Asian longhorn beetle was discovered. Every potentially endangered tree was felled in a zone of 500 meters around the site and the beetles were checked for the beetles by sniffer dogs from the Federal Forest Office .

Since 2005, a population in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia has been spreading from Bornheim to nearby Bonn .

In Switzerland, the first infestation was found in 2011 in the canton of Friborg . In July 2012, another infestation was discovered in Winterthur and controlled by felling 60 young trees; in August 2012, a single beetle was discovered in central Switzerland .

The district office of the district Lörrach issued in early August 2012, a general order to combat dangerous wood pest within the port of Weil am Rhein in the tri-border region of Basel - Mulhouse - Loerrach . In April 2015, ALB traces were discovered again in a group of poplar trees during logging work in the port area ; in June then also in Grenzach-Wyhlen. In 2019, the quarantine zones around Weil and Grenzach could be lifted.

In the official gazette of the district of Ebersberg near Munich , the Bavarian State Agency for Agriculture (LfL) issued a general decree on November 20, 2012 to combat an occurrence of the dangerous wood pest in the municipality of Feldkirchen near Munich, after on October 8, 2012 in a maple tree and at 500 m An infestation was found in other trees. A forest between the communities of Haar and Feldkirchen (600 trees) was completely cleared in February 2013. In September 2014, an infestation of trees was found a little further south on the outskirts of Munich in Neubiberg , infested trees were also removed immediately and a quarantine zone of 2.2 kilometers was set up. In January 2020 the successful extermination of the beetle in this area was reported and the quarantine zone there lifted.

Since September 2014, specimens of the pest have been discovered in six locations in the northeast of Magdeburg (including in Glindenberg , Hohenwarthe and Barleben ), whereupon the State Institute for Agriculture, Forests and Horticulture (LLFG) also issued a general control order, which was published on December 5, 2014 in Strength kicked.

In 2015 there was another infestation in Switzerland.

In the spring of 2016, an infestation of maple trees was discovered in the Kelheimer Hafen area . On April 11th, 21 trees were felled and disposed of. Further felling in the vicinity of the site should be carried out afterwards.

In the summer of 2016, Asian longhorn beetles were discovered on the edge of Schönbuch in Hildrizhausen (Böblingen district). The district coordinates strategic control measures. More than 600 trees and bushes were felled and destroyed.

On November 4, 2016, the Julius Kühn Institute, Federal Research Institute for Cultivated Plants, officially announced an emergency plan and guideline for the control of the Asian longhorn beetle in Germany in the Federal Gazette.

In autumn 2016 an infestation was found in Murnau am Staffelsee ( Garmisch-Partenkirchen district , Upper Bavaria ). In February 2017 the general decree on combating was issued. Felling began in March 2017.

In spring 2019, the extinction of the longhorn beetle was declared for a region for the first time. The Federal Research Institute for Forests, Snow and Landscape WSL announced that the fight in the canton of Friborg could be stopped.

In August 2019 an infestation by the Asian longhorn beetle was found in Miesbach (Upper Bavaria) and several specimens of the beetles were found.


The "Implementing Decision on Measures to Protect the Union Against the Introduction and Spread of Anoplophora glabripennis (MOTSCHULSKY)" has been in force in the European Union since June 2015 . This regulates the necessary measures. At the same time, this decision constitutes the legal basis for the implementation of the measures.

Basically and in a simplified way, the fight consists of 2 parts:

In an infested zone with a radius of 100 meters around the plants on which infestation was detected, all host plants above a certain size (root neck diameter) are felled, examined and disposed of harmlessly (chopped and burned) with the aim of destroying all individuals.

In a buffer zone with a radius of one to two kilometers, measures for host species (felling, pruning) must be reported. The resulting wood is examined. Within the quarantine zone, wood of the host species may not be moved or only under strict conditions. In addition, attractant traps are set up to see if there are other beetles nearby. The aim is to possibly find more individuals and prevent further spread.

This control strategy is based on the fact that the beetle is very slow to fly and does not move far from its place of birth on its own. It is also assumed that there have been so few infestations so far that the beetle's extinction in Europe is still promising.

In China, natural antagonists are used for an integrated plant protection concept. So it is only trying to reduce the damage and to manage the pest as part of the ecosystem. In Europe, the goal is to exterminate the beetle, as the Chinese control concept is not promising here. In addition, the use of antagonists could damage native species.

See also


Web links

Commons : Asian longhorn beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Asian longhorn beetle. Federal Office for the Environment FOEN (accessed on February 27, 2017).
  2. a b Dangerous buck from Braunau threatens Bavarian trees ,
  3. a b Beetle alarm in and around the hamlet of Rheinhafen . In:, August 1, 2012, accessed on August 8, 2012.
  4. Dogs find dangerous tree pests from China,, May 21, 2012 (accessed on August 8, 2012).
  5. a b Julius Kühn Institute November 4, 2016: Emergency plan and guideline for combating the Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis in Germany ; last accessed on April 9, 2017
  6. a b c d e f Haack, Herard, Sun, Turgeon 2010: Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective. Retrieved April 23, 2017 from
  7. Hu, J., S. Angeli, S. Schuetz, Y. Luo, and AE Hajek. 2009. Ecology and management of exotic and endemic Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis. Agric. For. Entomol. 11: 359-375.
  8. Lowe S., Browne M., Boudjelas S., De Poorter M .: 100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species . The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). November 2004. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
  9. Nowak, DJ, JE Pasek, RA Sequeira, DE Crane, and VC Mastro. 2001. Potential effect of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on urban trees in the United States. J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 116-22.
  10. ^ Societe alsacienne d'entomologie: Le Capricorne asiatique Anoplophora glabripennis présent en Alsace (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) .
  11. Schadelijke Aziatische Boktor in Winterswijk . (accessed on July 24, 2012)
  12. ALB is to be exterminated with more stringent measures
  13. Christian Tomiczek, Ute Hoyer-Tomiczek, BFW , 2007: The Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and the citrus longhorn beetle (Anoplophora chinensis) in Europe - a situation report. (PDF; 148 kB)
  14. Austria: Asiatic longhorn beetle found. 2nd August 2012.
  15. ^ Asian invasion in the Rhineland ., September 2, 2012.
  16. Asian longhorn beetle in the Bonn city area , press release of the city of Bonn , July 4, 2012.
  17. Asian longhorn beetle: Dangerous tree pest detected for the first time , Swiss Federal Office for the Environment ( FOEN ), 2011
  18. Risk zone is considered “bug-free”. Tages-Anzeiger from July 27, 2012:
  19. Asian longhorn beetle discovered on Lake Lucerne , NZZ, August 8, 2012 (accessed on August 8, 2012)
  20. Hannes Lauber: Longhorn beetle has appeared again in the Rhine harbor . In:, April 7, 2015.
  21. Rolf Reissmann: The beetle must be fought . In:, August 6, 2015.
  22. ^ Official Journal of the Ebersberg District Office , November 30, 2012 (accessed November 30, 2012)
  23. cf. Hundreds of trees fall victim to the longhorn beetle , , February 1, 2013
  24. Stefan Mühleisen: Fight against dangerous crawlers , Süddeutsche Zeitung, September 19, 2014
  25. Will Bavaria win the fight against the Asian beetle? , Bayerische Rundfunk, January 15, 2020
  26. State Institute for Agriculture, Forestry and Horticulture (LLFG) Saxony-Anhalt, Bernburg, press release from September 4, 2014, "Information on the occurrence of the Asian longhorn beetle (ALB) in Saxony-Anhalt" ( Memento from December 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file)
  27. Stefan Harter: Asian beetle eats its way around Magdeburg. Tree felling for new finds. Quarantine zone is being expanded today. In ': Salzwedeler Volksstimme No. 282, December 5, 2014.
  28. Renewed infestation with Asian hardwood buck . In:, April 8, 2015:
  29. ^ Simin Kunert: Trees riddled with holes like Swiss cheese . Asian longhorn beetle first discovered in western Lower Bavaria. In: Straubinger Tagblatt . May 14, 2016, p. 14 .
  30. "We will act like a Rambo against him". In: Gäubote. August 25, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016 .
  31. BAnz AT 01/10/2017 B5
  32. ^ General decree Murnau. (PDF) February 3, 2017, accessed April 7, 2017 .
  33. Federal Research Institute for Forests, Snow and Landscape WSL, February 27, 2019, "No more Asian longhorn beetles in the canton of Friborg" ( Memento from March 15, 2019 in the Internet Archive )
  34. ^ Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture: Asian longhorn beetle: Miesbach (Miesbach district) ; last accessed in August 2019
  35. : Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2015/893 of 9 June 2015 on measures to protect the Union against the introduction and spread of Anoplophora glabripennis (MOTSCHULSKY), published in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) L 146 of 11.6.2015 , Pp. 16-28
  36. Measures to eradicate - ALB. Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture, accessed on April 1, 2017 .
  37. ^ Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture: Why is the ALB being fought? ; undated, last visited on April 1, 2017
  38. PS Meng, K. Hoover, and MA Keena: Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Introduced Pest of Maple and Other Hardwood Trees in North America and Europe in Journal of Integrated Pest Management; Retrieved from