Field man litter
|Field man litter|
Field man litter ( Eryngium campestre )
The field man litter ( Eryngium campestre ) is an umbelliferae (Apiaceae) that occurs frequently or rarely in Central Europe . Other, sometimes regionally used or outdated names are: Donnerdistel, Krausdistel, Gemeine Brachdistel, Rolldistel, Radendistel, Elend, Unrest.
The perennial herbaceous plant reaches a stature height of 15 to 60 cm, but can occasionally reach 1 m. It is gray to yellowish-green in color and sparsely branched. The first leaves are undivided and elongated in shape, the later ones are palmate-pinnate to double-pinnate or threefold, double-pinnate and toothed. The lower ones are stalked, the upper ones encompassing the stems.
The umbels are numerous, dense and from hemispherical to cylindrical shape and have numerous, linear bracts . The flowers are close together. The inflorescence has numerous bracts that protrude from the umbels. The crown is colored white or gray-green. The fruit is flaky.
Flowering time is July and August.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 14 or 28.
The field man litter is a perennial hemicryptophyte (half-rosette plant), a deep-rooted (the cylindrical-spindle-shaped rhizome roots up to 2 m deep), a xerophyte with hardly wilting thorny leaves. The many thorns protect the plant from damage caused by grazing animals. In a few places in Germany there is the amethyst summer root, which parasitizes on field man litter.
The flower umbels are united to form a cephalic inflorescence analogous to the inflorescence of the daisy family . These are nectar- bearing "cup flowers". The flower heads are surrounded by thorny bracts. Stiffly upright sepals form "small funnel flowers". In relation to the total inflorescence , the flowers are distributed andromonözisch: the umbels of the first to third order usually only have hermaphrodite flowers, the umbels of the fourth order mostly only small male flowers. The hermaphroditic flowers are pre-male.
The plants are typical “floor rollers” ( Chamaechorie strategy): When ripe, the shoots are torn off at a predetermined breaking point at the root ball at wind speeds of at least 4 m / s and then rolled away as a whole, the fruits being gradually scattered . If several plants get stuck, more or less large "steppe witches" arise, as they are often meters high - especially for Eastern European steppes - characteristic. It also spreads as wind and animal spreaders (Velcro fruits). The fruits are light and frost germs.
The field man litter occurs from North Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe to Central Europe, also in the Caucasus region and to Iran and Afghanistan. It is a European-continental-Mediterranean-sub-Mediterranean floral element .
Distribution in Central Europe
Eryngium campestre occurs absent-mindedly to widespread, especially in the Elbe and Rhine valleys ( Großer Sand (Mainz) ) and in the Main region. Otherwise it is rare. In northern Germany, the Alps and the Bavarian plateau, it is only sporadic or absent.
In Austria it is moderately common in the Pannonian region , otherwise rarely to be found. The deposits extend to the federal states of Vienna , Lower Austria , Burgenland and Upper Austria . In Styria and Tyrol only inconsistent occurrences are known, in Carinthia and Salzburg the species is extinct. In the northern foothills of the Alps, field litter is considered endangered.
In Switzerland it occurs rarely and mainly in the southwestern part.
The field man litter settles scattered in sunny, lime, lean lawns and pastures and on paths and embankments. It prefers dry soils in warm places in summer.
According to Ellenberg , it is a full-light plant, a warmth indicator, intermediate continental distribution, a drought indicator, growing on low-nitrogen locations and a class character of the limestone grasslands (Festuco-Brometea). But it also occurs in societies of the order Agropyretalia.
For the root and the herb, saponins and a little essential oil are stated as ingredients. The root is said to have a low expectorant and spasmolytic (anticonvulsant) effect, the herb a (weak) diuretic effect. In earlier times the root was also used to make supposedly diuretic and menstrual drugs. There is no scientific evidence of its effectiveness, but a calming, cough-relieving and anticonvulsant effect on whooping cough has been described (for flat-leaf man litter ). Nothing is known about adverse effects.
- The field man litter is specially protected according to the Federal Species Protection Ordinance .
- The rare amethyst summer root ( Orobanche amethystea ) parasitizes on Eryngium campestre . The species is threatened with extinction in Baden-Württemberg.
For the field man litter, the other German-language common names exist or existed : Brachdistel, Brachendistel, Brackendistel, Braundistel, curled thistle, ummelopen thistle ( Middle Low German ), valende thistle, whale thistle, flowing thistle, flowing thistle morch ( middle high German ), wilt thistle wolt Distel, Donnerdistel ( Wittenberg ), Edeldistel, Elend (Middle High German), Ellendistel (Middle High German), Ellend, Fechdistel ( Old High German ), Fehdistel (Old High German), Fychdistel (Old High German), Gruntwurz, Hundertistel, Hauptkopf, Krauswistel , Running thistle, Mannertreu, Mannstreu, Mannstreu-Thistel, Mansstrü, Martsdistel (Middle High German), Mehrdistel, Merdistel, Mörwurzel, Mordwurz, Mortdistel (Middle High German), Mortedistel (Middle High German), Oerengel, Ore Engel, Orengelack, Orengele (Middle High German), Prussian root , Raddistel, Radendistel, Rodendistel, Schmänkkrokt ( Transylvania ), special bark, stinging root, standing root, Stradistel, Unruh ( Linz ), Valentdistel, Veherdistel (Middle High German), Veltdistel (Middle High German), Wallendistel, Waltdistel (Middle High German) and Woltdistel (Middle High German).
- Antiquity - late antiquity: Dioscorides 1st century - Pliny 1st century - Galen 2nd century - Pseudo-Dioscorides de herbis femininis . 6th century
- Arab Middle Ages: Pseudo-Serapion 13th century - Ibn al-Baitar 13th century
- Latin Middle Ages: Herbarius Moguntinus 1484 - Gart der Gesundheit 1485 - Hortus sanitatis 1491 - Hieronymus Brunschwig 1500
- Modern times: Otto Brunfels 1532 - Hieronymus Bock 1539 - Leonhart Fuchs 1543 - Mattioli / Handsch / Camerarius 1586 - Nicolas Lémery 1699/1721 --- Onomatologia medica completa 1755 --- Hecker 1814/15 - Pereira / Buchheim 1846/48
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- name = "Oberdorfer2001"
- Eryngium in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
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- Albrecht von Haller (editor): Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to the science of medicine and the art of pharmacy clearly and completely [...]. Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, Sp. 611–612: Eryngium (digitized version )
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- Tobias Jesske: Geobotanical and population genetic studies on Eryngium campestre. AG for Vegetation Ecology and Experimental Plant Sociology, TU Braunschweig, PDF file .
- Field man litter. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Profile and distribution map for Bavaria . In: Botanical Information Hub of Bavaria .
- Field man litter . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Eryngium campestre L. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora . Accessed December 31, 2015.
- Distribution in the Netherlands  (Dutch)