Dog poison plants

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Dog poison plants
Great periwinkle (Vinca major)

Great periwinkle ( Vinca major )

Nuclear eudicotyledons
Euasterids I
Order : Enzianartige (Gentianales)
Family : Dog poison plants
Scientific name

The dog poison plants (Apocynaceae) are a family of plants belonging to the order of the gentian-like (Gentianales).


Because the new size of the family was made necessary by molecular biological findings, there are not many common morphological characteristics that apply to all subfamilies.

The family includes some trees ( Tabernaemontana , Dyera ), shrubs and herbaceous plants , but above all lianas and succulents . Many species contain a (mostly clear) milky sap . The majority of the species are evergreen.

The mostly opposite leaves are usually undivided and with entire margins. Multicellular glands (colleter) are often present on the leaves or flowers. Stipules are small or absent.

The flowers are usually four or five-fold. The mostly two upper permanent carpels are rarely an ovary grown. Some species have a highly specialized pollination mechanism. The stylus sometimes forms a "clavuncula".

There are follicles , but also berries, capsule formed and stone fruits. The seeds sometimes also have a tuft of hair (coma).

Systematics and distribution

Subfamily Apocynoideae: Mandevilla sanderi
Subfamily Apocynoideae: Wrightia antidysenterica
Subfamily Asclepiadoideae: wax flower ( Hoya carnosa )
Subfamily Asclepiadoideae: bloom of Stapelia variegata with a visit
Subfamily Rauvolfioideae: Jungle Bell ( Allamanda cathartica )
Subfamily Periplocoideae: inflorescence of Cryptolepis buchananii
Subfamily Periplocoideae: Smooth tree loop ( Periploca laevigata )
Subfamily Secamonoideae: opposite leaves and flowers of Secamone elliptica

This family was first published in 1789 under the name "Apocineae" by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in Genera Plantarum , pp. 143–144. Type genus is Apocynum L. Synonyms for Apocynaceae Juss. are Asclepiadaceae Borkh. , Carissaceae Bertolini , Cerberaceae Martynov , Ophioxylaceae Perleb. , Pacouriaceae Martynov , Periplocaceae Schltr. , Plumeriaceae Horan. , Stapeliaceae Horan. , Vincaceae Vest , Willughbeiaceae J. Agardh .

The range of the family Apocynaceae includes the temperate , the subtropical and tropical areas almost worldwide. This is also where the greatest biodiversity can be found. In Europe only a few genera and species are native, in Central Europe only two types of periwinkle ( Vinca ) and the swallowwort ( Vincetoxicum hirundinaria ).

The dog poison family (Apocynaceae) is divided into five subfamilies with about 380 genera :

  • Subfamily Apocynoideae Burnett
Main article : Apocynoideae with description, systematics and genera.
  • Subfamily Asclepiadoideae R.Br. ex Burnett
Main article : Asclepiadoideae (silk plant family) with description, system and genera.
  • Subfamily Rauvolfioideae Kostel.
Main article : Rauvolfioideae with description, systematics and genera.
  • Subfamily Secamonoideae Endl. : It contains about eight genera and almost all species are common in the Paleotropic . The center of biodiversity is Madagascar . They are mainly lianas, less often bushes:
    • Tribe Secamoneae G.Don. :
      • Calyptranthera clack. : The eleven or so species occur in Madagascar and the Mascarene Mountains .
      • Genianthus Hook. f. : The approximately 17 species are distributed from China to tropical Asia.
      • Goniostemma Wight : Of the only two species, one occurs in China and the other in the Indian subcontinent.
      • Pervillaea Decne. (Syn .: Menabea Baill. ): The approximately five species occur in Madagascar and Mauritius.
      • Secamone R.Br. (Including Rhynchostigma Benth. ): The 90 to 133 species are distributed from the tropics of the Old World to the islands in the southwestern Pacific.
      • Secamonopsis Jum. : The only two species occur in Madagascar.
      • Toxocarpus Wight & Arn. : The 33 or so species are distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia.
      • Trichosandra Decne. . With only one type:


Individual evidence

  1. Apocynum at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
  2. ^ A b Apocynaceae in Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  3. ^ Mary E. Endress, Sigrid Liede-Schumann, Ulrich Meve: Advances in Apocynaceae: The enlightenment, an Introduction . In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden . Volume 94, number 2, 2007, pp. 259-267 doi : 10.3417 / 0026-6493 (2007) 94 [259: AIATEA] 2.0.CO; 2 .
  4. a b c d e f David John Mabberley: Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. 3. Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Sigrid Liede-Schumann & Ulrich Meve: The Genera of Asclepiadoideae, Secamonoideae and Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae) , 2006.
  6. R. Lahaye, L. Civeyrel, T. Bacon, NP Rowe: Evolution of shrub-like growth forms in the lianoid subfamily Secamonoideae (Apocynaceae sl) of Madagascar: phylogeny, biomechanics, and development. In: American Journal of Botany. 92, 2005, p. 1381, doi : 10.3732 / ajb.92.8.1381 .
  7. Renaud Lahaye, Jens Klackenberg, Mari Källersjö, Elise Van Campo & Laure Civeyrel: Phylogenetic relationships between derived Apocynaceae sl and within Secamonoideae based on chloroplast sequences , In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden , Volume 94, 2007, pp. 376-391 . doi : 10.3417 / 0026-6493 (2007) 94 [376: PRBDAS] 2.0.CO; 2
  8. a b c d e f g h Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Apocynaceae - World Checklist of Selected Plant Families of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Last accessed on November 19, 2018.


  • The Renaissance of the Apocynaceae sl: Recent Advances in Systematics, Phylogeny, and Evolution. In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Volume 88, Number 4, 2001, JSTOR i366713 .
  • Mary E. Endress, Siegried Liede-Schumann, Ulrich Meve: An updated classification for Apocynaceae. In: Phytotaxa. Volume 159, number 3, 2014, pp. 175-194 ( doi: 10.11646 / phytotaxa.159.3.2 ).
  • Mary E. Endress, PV Bruyns: A revised classification of the Apocynaceae sl In: Botanical Review. Volume 66, Number 1, 2000, pp. 1-56, JSTOR 4354361 .
  • Ulrich Meve, Siegried Liede-Schumann: The manifold evolution of succulence in Apocynaceae. In: Schumannia. Volume 6, 2010, pp. 183-206.
  • Bingtao Li, Antony JM Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton: Apocynaceae , p. 143 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (ed.): Flora of China. Volume 16: Gentianaceae through Boraginaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis 1995, ISBN 0-915279-33-9 (description section).

Web links

Commons : Apocynaceae  - Collection of images, videos and audio files