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Kożuchów Coat of Arms
Kożuchów (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Lebus
Powiat : Novosolski
Gmina : Kożuchów
Area : 5.95  km²
Geographic location : 51 ° 45 ′  N , 15 ° 36 ′  E Coordinates: 51 ° 45 ′ 0 ″  N , 15 ° 36 ′ 0 ″  E
Height : 99 m npm
Residents : 9432 (June 30, 2019)
Postal code : 67-120
Telephone code : (+48) 68
License plate : FNW
Economy and Transport
Street : Nowa Sól - Żagań
Next international airport : Wroclaw

Kożuchów [ kɔˈʒuxuf ] ( German Freystadt ) is a city in the powiat Nowosolski of the Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland . It is the seat of the town-and-country municipality of the same name with 15,962 inhabitants (as of June 30, 2019).

Geographical location

The city is located in Lower Silesia at an altitude of 99 meters above sea level, about 35 kilometers (as the crow flies) northwest of the city of Głogów ( Glogau ).


The city was founded around 1260 by Duke Konrad I of Glogau on his Vorwerk in Siegersdorf . This village on the Siegerbach had been built around 40 years earlier by Franconian settlers in the course of settling the border forests around Sagan . The new city with market square (ring) and right-angled streets, which was initially called Cosuchow , was built into the middle of the old Waldhufendorf. The city was surrounded by a double city wall.

The oldest church in Freystadt is the Heilig-Geist-Kirche, which was initially the village church of Nieder-Siegersdorf. It is first documented for the year 1273 with the mention of a pastor Heinrich von Cosuchow . The existing hospital at this church was built around 1280 and handed over to the Teutonic Order . The castellan Dietrich von Pesna and a hereditary bailiff are documented for the year 1295 . Peter Unglowbe , patrician of Sagan, acquired the villages of Nieder-Siegersdorf ( Podbrzezie Dolne ) and Reichenau ( Słocina ) in the area around Freystadt as parts of his allodies around 1323 from one of the sons, (presumably Johann) of the knight and burgrave of Freystadt, Dietrich von Pesna (originally ext. 1287 to 1311). Count Dietrich died in February 1311. Already in 1295 Nieder-Siegersdorf was mentioned as an allodium of the Counts of Pesna. On September 2, 1323, Duke Heinrich VI freed . his faithful Johann von Plesna, son of Dietrich, among others also for Sighardisdorf ( Siegersdorf ) from all taxes and burdens for all future. Therefore, the acquisition of Nieder-Siegersdorf by Peter Unglowbe can now be set for the period around or after 1323. Income from these allodies donated Peter Unbelief to the hospital of the Holy Spirit in Freystadt for the salvation of his and his family's souls. The hospital, which existed next to the Heilig-Geist-Kirche from 1273, was built around 1280 and given to the Teutonic Order. In a document dated July 11, 1405, the Freistadt citizen Johann Frankinfurt is noted as the successor of the unbelief as the owner for Nieder-Seghardisdorf ( Nieder-Siegersdorf ) and Reychenaw. With this certificate he passed the aforementioned allodies on to Philipp Unrwen ( Unruh ), son of Jakob Unrw ( Unruh ).

Only at the end of the 13th century was the parish church of St. Mary built on the Ring in Wrigenstat , which was destroyed by city fires in 1488, 1554 and 1637. The poet Andreas Gryphius in Fewrige Freystadt described the devastating fire in Freystadt on the night of July 8th to 9th, 1637 . With this report, which was based on his own and the observations of other eyewitnesses, Gryphius made many enemies because he not only portrayed Freystadt's war-related situation realistically, but also criticized the failure of the city authorities to fight fires.

Between 1369 and 1467, Freystadt was the seat of the Glogau sub-duchy of Freystadt , whose dukes resided at Freystadt Castle. Around 1450, Freystadt, which had an important cloth makers' guild, owned coin and brewing rights . 1488 Duke Johann II. Sagan , who in 1476 after the death of Glogau Duke Henry XI. , with which the direct Glogau line of the Silesian Piasts became extinct, claims to its inheritance and thus triggered the Glogau succession dispute, the city was plundered and set on fire.

The ducal castle was later converted into a palace. From 1520 it was pledged to Hans von Rechenberg , who introduced the Reformation in Freystadt, and from 1558–1590 to Fabian von Schoenaich . In 1675 the castle was acquired by the city, which handed it over to the Carmelites in 1685 , who established a monastery there and built a church in 1705. Freystadt was one of the six Silesian cities to which the Altranstädter Convention of September 1, 1707 granted the right to build a Protestant church of grace , which was built two years later as the church of grace for the vineyard of Jesus . After the transition to Poland in 1945, it was left to decay and removed in the early 1970s.

After the First Silesian War in 1742, Freystadt fell to Prussia together with the Duchy of Glogau, which had been a fiefdom of the Crown of Bohemia since 1344 . From 1816 it was the seat of the Freystadt district , with which it remained connected in the Liegnitz district of the province of Silesia until 1945 . At the beginning of the 19th century, Freystadt had two Protestant churches, a Catholic church, a private secondary school, a preparation institute , a district court, several textile production companies and had a population of almost 3,000. The construction of the Chaussee Berlin - Breslau , which led past Freystadt via the neighboring Neustädtel, had a disadvantageous economic effect . In addition, the main railway line from Berlin to Breslau passed Freystadt.

Towards the end of the Second World War , Freystadt was occupied by the Red Army in the spring of 1945 and shortly afterwards placed under Polish administration. A short time later, the Poles introduced the place name Kożuchów for Freystadt . Unless they had fled, the population was subsequently expelled from Freystadt by the local Polish administrative authority and replaced by Poles.

1953 Kożuchów lost the district seat to the neighboring Nowa Sól ( Neusalz on the Oder ). In 1961 there were 7,512 inhabitants in the city, in 2019 there are around 9,430.

Population development

year Residents Remarks
1825 1.915 including 295 Catholics
1890 3,919 including 3,242 Protestants, 633 Catholics and 39 Jews
1900 4,622
1933 5,256
1939 6,671

local community

Church and Hospital of the Holy Spirit
town hall
Marienkirche (Protestant until 1945)

The town itself and 19 villages with school administration offices belong to the town-and-country community (gmina miejsko-wiejska) Kożuchów. It covers a territory of 179 km².

Town twinning


  • Gothic castle from the 14th century
  • Gothic parish church of St. Virgin Mary from the end of the 13th century
  • Almost completely preserved city wall from the 14th / 15th centuries. century
  • Numerous town houses on the ring and in the alleys of the city center from the 16th to 19th centuries.

sons and daughters of the town


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Wuttke: The inventories of the non-state archives of Silesia , 1. The districts Grünberg and Freystadt . Breslau, E. Wohlfarth, 1908, Certificate No. 1 from September 30, 1349
  2. ^ Wuttke: The inventories of the non-state archives of Silesia, 1. The districts Grünberg and Freystadt , Breslau, E. Wohlfarth, 1908, document no. 5 of September 2, 1323, parish archives to Freistadt
  3. ^ Kościół Ducha Świętego w Kożuchowie - Church and Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Freystadt - Victory Village Kościół Ducha Świętego w Kożuchowie
  4. Fewrige Freystadt / Andreae Gryphii . Printed for the Polish Lissa / bey Wigand Funken
  5. ^ Marian Szyrocki : Andreas Gryphius. His life and work . Tübingen 1964, p. 26f.
  6. a b Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 7, Leipzig / Vienna 1907, p. 99.
  7. Knie (1830), pp. 924-925.
  8. ^ A b c Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. freystadt.html # ew39freyfreyst. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  9. Izabela Taraszczuk: The (glass) window to the world. The castle in the Lower Silesian Freystadt ( Kożuchów ) exhibited works by the artist Elżbieta Altevogt . In: Schlesien heute , No. 7/2012, Senfkorn Verlag Alfred Theisen, p. 44