Red-red-green coalition

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As a red-red-green , red-green-red or green-red-red coalition (short red-red-green , red-green-red , green-red-red ; also: R2G ) is a government coalition that consists of there are two parties with a social democratic , socialist , democratic-socialist or communist orientation and a green party.

In many cases, the red-red-green attribute chain does not take into account the majority relationships in the relevant regional authority . Strictly speaking, z. For example, the coalition formed in Bremen in 2019 are always called "red-green-red", because the Greens there received more votes than the left in the 2019 general election. Also (as in the case of Thuringia from 2014) the first “red” does not automatically represent the social democratic party in the coalition.

Germany

Social Democratic Party of Germany
The left
Alliance 90 / The Greens

In Germany , Red-Red-Green is a government coalition between the SPD , Die Linke (and previously the PDS ) and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen . Such an alliance was formed at the state level for the first time after the state elections in Thuringia in 2014 under Bodo Ramelow (Left Party), after such a model had previously been considered several times in several federal states. In 2019, in addition to the red-red-green state government in Thuringia, there was also such a government in Berlin and, after the general election on May 26, 2019, in Bremen .

A red-red-green alliance was thematically considered in the Erfurt Declaration from 1997.

Cooperation in municipalities

At the municipal level, the SPD, the Left and the Greens have worked closely together since the 2009 elections in Erfurt and govern the city together, without, however, having entered into a formal coalition. The SPD, the Left and the Greens have also been working together in Saarbrücken since 2009, but as part of a fixed coalition, which was also confirmed in the 2014 election. Despite the continued majority for a red-red-green alliance in Saarbrücken, this was replaced in 2019 by a Jamaica coalition of the CDU, the Greens and the FDP. Since 2014, the SPD, the Left and the Greens and two city councilors of the Pirate Party have been working together in the Dresden City Council as an alliance "New Perspectives for Dresden".

Cooperation in countries

Saxony-Anhalt

From 1994 to 1998 there was a red-green minority government in Saxony-Anhalt ( Cabinet Höppner I ) , which was tolerated by the PDS. These minority governments, tolerated by the PDS or Left Party, are also known as the Magdeburg model , since Höppner initiated this cooperation for the first time in Magdeburg in 1994.

Thuringia

After the state elections in Thuringia in 2014 , there was a red-red-green coalition (Cabinet Ramelow I). Such a coalition had been considered years earlier. a. after the Thuringian state elections in 2009 (see exploratory talks between the SPD, Die Linke and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ), the state elections in Saarland in 2009 and the state elections in North Rhine-Westphalia in 2010 . After the state election in Thuringia in 2019 , which led to a government crisis, Bodo Ramelow was re-elected in March 2020 ( Ramelow II cabinet ).

Bodo Ramelow was not only the first left-wing prime minister in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany, he was also the first prime minister to lead a red-red-green coalition government.

Berlin

There was also a minority government based on the Magdeburg model from 2001 to 2002 in Berlin ( Senate Wowereit I ).

In the federal state of Berlin , after the election to the House of Representatives in 2006 , the SPD and the Left Party again formed a joint government, which was based on an absolute majority of the votes of the parliamentarians of both parties in the House of Representatives. Leading politicians from Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen said that a red-red-green coalition - with the result of an enlarged government majority - was not ruled out.

After the Berlin election in 2016 , the first red-red-green coalition under SPD leadership came about on December 8, 2016, see also Senate Müller II .

Bremen

After the general election in Bremen in 2019, coalition negotiations between the SPD, Bündnis'90 / Die Grünen and Die Linke took place. These were successful and were approved by all three parties. The successful vote on the Senate Bovenschulte in the Bremen citizenship took place on August 15, 2019.

Reluctance at the federal level

After the loss of the red-green majority in the German Bundestag as a result of the 2005 Bundestag election , a red-red-green alliance would have had an absolute majority of 327 seats. This would make it the coalition of the narrowest majority ( minimum winning coalition ), which, according to the older political science coalition theory, was the most likely form of coalition, since a maximum of power could have been achieved with a minimum of officials. Since this also still concerns on the left-right scale neighboring parties, it would also be the minimal connected winning coalition ( minimum connected winning coalition ), the coalition of the scarcest majority ideologically adjacent parties. However, since the SPD, the Left Party and the Greens made clear coalition statements before the election due to positions that were incompatible in terms of content ( Hartz concept ) , which excluded such a coalition, this coalition variant also fell out of the grid when considering coalition theory.

Both in the SPD and in the left, there are sometimes considerable internal party concerns about a corresponding government alliance. In addition, there are personal dislikes, especially social democratic politicians, towards leaders of the Left Party, such as the former SPD chairman Oskar Lafontaine . According to party leader Claudia Roth, there were also substantive differences to the left on the part of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen in 2005 to an extent that alone would make a red-red-green government alliance at federal level difficult.

In a survey by Infratest dimap on behalf of ARD on August 1, 2005, 28 percent of those questioned stated that the SPD, the Greens and the Left Party should form a red-red-green coalition after the federal elections if this were mathematically possible. In the new federal states, 44 percent of those surveyed supported this approach, in contrast to only 24 percent in the old federal states. However, when it came to the question of which coalition was “best for Germany”, the red-red-green coalition landed in fourth place with only 10 percent behind the red-green (14%), black-yellow (29%) and the grand coalition (39%). It should be noted, however, that these polls took place shortly before the 2005 Bundestag elections and only reflect the mood at the time.

According to the Politbarometer of August 15, 2008, a red-red-green coalition at federal level was perceived by 67% of Germans as bad and by 17% as good.

After the federal election in 2013 , the newly elected leader of the Greens Göring-Eckardt declared her readiness for red-red-green exploratory talks. In November 2013, during the coalition negotiations with the CDU, the SPD executive board declared its willingness to form future red-red-green coalitions. As early as 2004 were mainly young and rather left SPD deputy a think tank called "think tank", which dealt from 2008 with the possibilities of opening of the SPD towards the Left Party and maintained contacts with politicians of the left. In 2009 Greens joined the group of representatives. The group chairmen of the three parties in the Bundestag, Rolf Mützenich (SPD), Anton Hofreiter (Greens) and Dietmar Bartsch (Left), who were present there, used the summer party to celebrate the fifteenth anniversary of the “think tank” for political talks. The taz has found claims to that in the European elections in Germany in 2019 the Wahl-O-Mat the Federal Agency for Civic Education have found 26 out of 38 given theses similarities between the positions of the SPD, the Greens and the Left, however, only 15 theses Correspondences between the positions of the Greens and the CDU. On August 15, 2019, the SPD health politician Karl Lauterbach spoke out on Deutschlandfunk , following the first election of a red-red-green state government in West Germany in the state of Bremen, in favor of a red-red-green coalition also at the federal level.

Austria

SPÖ
Communist Party of Austria
The Greens - The Green Alternative

In Austria , red-red-green is a coalition of the SPÖ , KPÖ and Greens .

Such a constellation is not taken into account at the federal level, as the KPÖ is not represented in the National Council.

At the municipal level, the possibility of a red-red-green cooperation was discussed in Graz in 2003 , the KPÖ achieved an unprecedented success of almost 21% and became the third strongest force, just behind the Social Democrats. Ultimately, Red-Red-Green failed because of the communists.

In Austria, large coalitions or other stable two-party alliances are traditionally preferred to politically unstable three-party coalitions.

France

Parti socialiste (France)
Parti communiste français
Europe Ecologie-Les Verts

The government of the Gauche plurielle of Prime Minister Lionel Jospin , in office from 1997 to 2002, can be described as a red-red-green coalition. You belonged to members of the Socialist Party , the Communist Party of France , the Greens (predecessor of Europe Écologie-Les Verts ) and two other left-wing parties. It was the first French government since the 1960s to remain in office for a full term without a change of prime minister.

Norway

The government coalition under Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg , which existed from 2005 to 2013, was referred to as the "red-green government", and also as red-red-green by the German media. The difference in the name is due to the fact that it was a minority government : The second “red” party, the Sosialistisk Venstreparti (SV), did not belong to the government, but promised its firm support in parliament. In this context, “green” does not mean the Norwegian small party Miljøpartiet De Grønne (member of the European Green Party ), which was not represented in parliament, but the Center Party , which also has an ecological focus .

Broadcast reports

Individual evidence

  1. Jan Sternberg: The capital city politics is rearranged . In: Märkische Allgemeine . 71st year, no. 222 , November 21, 2016.
  2. Klaus Wuggazer: Red-Red-Green is moving closer together in the Erfurt city council. In: Thuringian General . October 10, 2012, accessed June 18, 2015 .
  3. SPD wants to continue red-red-green in the Saarbrücken city council. In: Focus Online . May 26, 2014, accessed February 13, 2016 .
  4. Sr.de: Jamaica in Saarbrücken. September 30, 2019, accessed October 12, 2018 .
  5. ^ Cooperation agreement LINKE / GRÜNE / SPD: New perspectives for Dresden. September 17, 2014, accessed September 12, 2019 .
  6. Ulrich Schulte: Renate Künast: "The cucumber in the tomato salad". In: the daily newspaper . July 24, 2006, accessed June 18, 2015 .
  7. ^ Red-green-red government in Bremen is in place. Bovenschulte: Nationwide signal effect of the Bremen coalition questionable. In: Weser courier. July 23, 2019, accessed July 23, 2019 .
  8. Play with the dirty kids? (tagesschau.de archive)
  9. ^ Heinrich Pehle, Roland Sturm: The Second Grand Coalition: Government of "New Possibilities"? In this. (Ed.): Ways out of the crisis? The agenda of the second grand coalition , society. Economy. Politics. GWP. Social sciences for political education, special edition 2006, Verlag Barbara Budrich, ISBN 3-86649-002-X
  10. ^ Björn Hengst, Lars Langenau: Coalitions: Chancellor by Oskar's grace? In: Spiegel Online . September 14, 2005, accessed June 18, 2015 .
  11. Roth: Red-red-green coalition is taboo . In: Berliner Zeitung , July 15, 2005
  12. ARD DeutschlandTREND July IV 2005 IV extra, survey period: 26 to 27 July 2005. (No longer available online.) Infratest dimap, August 2005, archived from the original on June 19, 2015 ; Retrieved June 18, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.infratest-dimap.de
  13. ^ ARD-DeutschlandTREND August 2005. Survey on the political mood on behalf of the ARD Tagesthemen and ten daily newspapers. (PDF) Infratest dimap, August 2005, archived from the original on September 27, 2007 ; Retrieved June 18, 2015 .
  14. Politbarometer - Opinion on the red-red-green coalition
  15. Göring-Eckardt ready to talk about red-red-green - no chance . bild.de, October 12, 2013
  16. SPD tip sees red-red-green as an option in the future. In: time online . November 12, 2013, accessed June 18, 2015 .
  17. Paul Starzmann: # R2G: Why red-red-green is more than a phantom . vorwaerts.de . December 30, 2016, accessed June 25, 2019
  18. "Talking to one another instead of about one another" - parliamentary group chairmen of the SPD, Greens and Left Party at the R2G summer party . spd-denkfabrik.de. June 17, 2019, accessed June 25, 2019
  19. Ulrich Schulte: Green-red-red federal government: Back to the social question . taz.de . June 12, 2019, accessed June 26, 2019
  20. ^ SPD politician: Lauterbach for red-red-green in the Bund Karl Lauterbach in conversation with Tobias Armbrüster, Deutschlandfunk, August 15, 2019, accessed on September 12, 2019.
  21. ^ Graz: last chance for red-red-green. In: derstandard.at. February 28, 2003, accessed August 9, 2016 .
  22. ^ Klaus Höfler: KPÖ: "Njet" for red-red-green in Graz. In: The press. March 4, 2003, accessed August 9, 2016 .
  23. Reinhard Wolf: In Norway, red-red-green rules. In: the daily newspaper . October 15, 2005, accessed June 18, 2015 .