|Location :||8 ° 30 ' N , 76 ° 54' E|
|Height :||36 m|
- Agglomeration :
Thiruvananthapuram ( Malayalam തിരുവനന്തപുരം Tiruvanantapuram [ ˈt̪iɾuˌʋan̪an̪t̪əpuɾʌm ] ), formerly Trivandrum , is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala .
It is located on the Malabar coast in the extreme south of India and has around 750,000 inhabitants (2011 census). Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of the Kingdom of Travancore in 1750 and has been the capital of Kerala since 1956. It is the largest city in the state and a center of the IT industry and tourism. The main attractions of Thiruvananthapuram are the Padmanabhaswamy Temple , which became famous in 2011 for a sensational treasure find , the Puthen Malika Palace , where the Maharajas of Travancore resided, and the Napier Museum .
The name of the city
The name Thiruvananthapuram means “holy ( thiru ) city ( puram ) of Ananta ( Anantha )” in the local Malayalam language . It refers to the serpent Ananta (Shesha), on which, according to Hindu mythology, the god Vishnu rests in his form as Padmanabha . Padmanabha is of particular importance to Thiruvananthapuram as the family deity of the kings of Travancore and the main deity of the Padmanabhaswamy temple. During the British colonial era , the English form of the name Trivandrum arose . Since 1991 the official name has been Thiruvananthapuram again , but the name Trivandrum is also still common.
Position and extent
Thiruvananthapuram is located on the Malabar Coast in southern Kerala, not far from the southern tip of India. It is only about 30 kilometers to the border of the neighboring state of Tamil Nadu , and the distance to Cape Komorin , the southernmost point of the Indian subcontinent, is 86 kilometers. Kochi , the second major metropolitan area of Kerala, is around 200 kilometers to the north. Thiruvananthapuram is the administrative seat of the Thiruvananthapuram district , the southernmost district of Kerala.
The City of Thiruvananthapuram ( Corporation of Thiruvananthapuram ) covers an area of 214.9 square kilometers. The urban area extends over seven hills in the hinterland of the coast of the Arabian Sea . The Karamana and Killi rivers flow through the urban area. Compared to other major Indian cities, Thiruvananthapuram is lavishly green.
Thiruvananthapuram has a tropical climate. The temperatures are between 26.3 degrees Celsius in July and 28.9 degrees Celsius in April. The annual average temperature is 26.6 degrees Celsius. The main rainy season is during the summer monsoons from early June to September, with rainfall occurring every month and only the months from January to March being significantly dry. Over 1800 mm of precipitation falls annually.
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Thiruvananthapuram
Source: WMO ; wetterkontor.de
For a long time, Thiruvananthapuram developed relatively independently from the rest of Kerala . The city was ruled by the Ays until the 10th century, who were later replaced by the rulers of the Venad kingdom.
The modern history of Thiruvananthapuram begins with the rise of Travancore under King Marthanda Varma (1729 to 1758), heir to the rulers of Venad. During his reign, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of his empire. A period of prosperity followed, during which the city developed into a cultural and economic center. Although Travancore became practically a British protectorate in 1795 , it remained formally independent. Thiruvananthapuram therefore remained the capital until the merger of Travancore with Cochin in 1949.
Thiruvananthapuram has been the capital of the state of Kerala since 1956.
The majority of Thiruvananthapuram's residents are Hindus . There are also larger minorities of Christians and Muslims , but the proportion of Christians and Muslims in the total population is lower than in other parts of Kerala. According to the 2001 census, Hindus accounted for 71.1%, Christians for 16.0% and Muslims for 12.6% of the urban population of Thiruvananthapuram District (Thiruvananthapuram and some smaller towns in the vicinity).
Thiruvananthapuram bishopric is different Christian denominations : the city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Trivandrum , the Großerzbistums Trivandrum of with Rome Uniate Syro-Malankara Church , the Diocese of Trivandrum of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church , the Diocese of Thiruvananthapuram-Kollam of Mar Thoma Church and Diocese of South Kerala of the Anglican Church of South India .
In Thiruvananthapuram, Malayalam , the main language of Kerala, is mainly spoken. English is widely used as a language of education and communication . In addition, Hindi and Tamil are understood and spoken by many people.
education and Science
Thiruvananthapuram has been the seat of the University of Kerala since 1937 . There are also a number of higher education institutions, including the College of Engineering Trivandrum , one of the largest technical universities in India.
Thiruvananthapuram is also home to a number of research centers. The most important and best known is probably the Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC), with its 5,600 employees an integral part of the Indian Space Authority Indian Space Research Organization . Other scientific institutions include a .:
- Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology
- Tropical and Botanical Research Institute
- Center for Development Studies
- Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR)
- Electronics Research and Development Center India (ER & DCI)
- Center for Earth Science Studies
- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management
- Central Fisheries Research Center
The Dravida style Hindu Temple , built in 1733, is the main attraction of Thiruvananthapuram. The temple precinct, which also includes a pond surrounded by old Brahmin houses, extends over an area of 2,400 square meters. The seven-story gopuram above the main entrance is particularly striking . He is consecrated to Padmanabha, an incarnation of Vishnu .
On June 30, 2011, large quantities of diamonds, rubies, emeralds, gold and numerous artifacts were found in basement rooms that had been locked for at least 130 years. According to initial estimates, the value is around 15 billion euros.
- Napier Museum
The 1880 built museum combines elements of British colonial architecture with traditional features of keralitischen architecture. It houses a collection of bronze figures, wood and precious stone carvings, musical instruments and religious objects.
- Kuthiramalika Palace
The former palace of the rulers of Travancore is a typical Kerala-style wooden structure with remarkable carvings. Part of the palace is now a museum (Puthenmalika Museum), in which, among other things, the ivory throne of the Rajas of Travancore is exhibited.
- Sri Chitra Art Gallery
Here you can see miniatures from the Rajput , Mughal and Thanjavur schools as well as paintings from China , Japan , Tibet and Bali . Modern Indian painting is also represented.
Further sights are the Kanakakkunu Palace, the zoo opened in 1857 - one of the oldest in India - the Priyadarshini Planetarium , the many representative and administrative buildings from the colonial era as well as numerous temples, mosques and churches.
About 20 kilometers south of Thiruvananthapuram is Kovalam . With its extensive sandy beaches, Kovalam is a very popular holiday destination with both Indians and foreigners.
Thiruvananthapuram Central is the largest and busiest train station in Kerala. From here trains go to Delhi , Bhopal , Indore , Gwalior , Nagpur , Pune , Mumbai , Jaipur , Chennai , etc.
The Trivandrum International Airport ( IATA code : TRV) is served by 20 airlines.
Thiruvananthapuram is primarily aimed at the service sector. Compared to Kochi or Kozhikode , industry and trade play a rather minor role. The main branches of industry are the textile industry, which mainly processes cotton and silk, and the sugar industry.
One of the world's most important technoparks is located in Thiruvananthapuram. In Technopark Kerala working more than 22,000 engineers.
Thiruvananthapuram has an international airport (IATA code: TRV). The city is the headquarters of IBS Software Services .
sons and daughters of the town
- Padmini (1932–2006), actress and Bharatanatyam dancer
- PK Nair (1933-2016), Film Archives
- G. Madhavan Nair (* 1943), space official
- Krishnaswami Alladi (* 1955), mathematician
- Thanu Padmanabhan (* 1957), physicist
- Vimala Pons (* 1986), actress, artist and juggler
- Siddharth Dhananjay (born 1991), actor
People connected to the city
- P. Sundaram Pillai (1855-1897), philosopher, archaeologist, writer and literary scholar, taught as a professor in the city
- Alois Benziger (1864–1942), clergyman, Roman Catholic bishop and titular archbishop in India, father of the Carmel Hill monastery
- Geevarghese Mar Ivanios Panicker (1882–1953), Archbishop, founder of the Syro-Malankar Catholic Church
- EM Sankaran Namboodiripad (1909–1998), politician and Chief Minister of Kerala, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- Laurie Baker (1917–2007), architect and designer, created a cooling system in the Center for Development Studies
- Sikander Bakht (1918–2004), politician, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- K. Karunakaran (1918-2010), politician, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- Vikram Sarabhai (1919–1971), physicist, under his direction a rocket launch site was built near the city
- Henry Austin (politician) (1920–2008), politician and diplomat, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- P. Bhaskaran (1924–2007), poet, film director and actor, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- K. Pankajakshan (1928–2012), politician, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- Cyril Baselios Malancharuvil (1935–2007), clergyman, head of the Syro-Malankar Church united with Rome, Archbishop of Trivandrum
- Gopi (1937–2008), stage and film actor and director, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- PA Backer (1940–1993), film director of the Malayalam film, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- KR Mohanan (1947-2017), film director of the Malayalam film, died in Thiruvananthapuram
- ^ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals. Cities having population 1 lakh and above. (PDF; 154 kB)
- ^ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals. Urban Agglomerations / Cities having population 1 lakh and above. (PDF; 141 kB)
- ↑ General Information. Corporation of Thiruvananthapuram, accessed February 27, 2017 .
- ↑ ( Page no longer available , search in web archives: Census GIS India. )