Christian Theobald Caselmann

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Christian Theobald Caselmann (born March 23, 1889 in Sulz Abbey near Dombühl , † March 13, 1979 in Mössingen ) was a German educator and professor at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg .


Christian Caselmann was born as the son of the Evangelical Lutheran pastor Adolf Caselmann in the Bavarian monastery Sulz. He was the youngest of ten siblings. From 1899 to 1908 he attended the humanistic grammar school in Regensburg and passed the Abitur there in 1908. He learned Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French and English at this high school. By the time he graduated from high school, he was already fluent in English. Caselmann studied biology, German, English and art history in Erlangen , Munich and mainly in Heidelberg . In Heidelberg he also heard lectures from the Protestant theologian Ernst Troeltsch . After the state examination in April 1914 for the higher teaching post in Baden with the subjects biology and philology, the outbreak of the First World War ended the service that had just begun as a teaching trainee in Constance. Caselmann was called up on November 15, 1914 for front service with the First Badischer Leibgrenadierregiment 109. On December 29, 1916, during a home leave, the marriage with Ingeburg, b. Johannsen (born February 18, 1892) from Flensburg. From March 27 to August 8, 1918 Caselmann was wounded in the hospital . After four years of war and hospital, he returned to school at the Helmholtz secondary school in Karlsruhe in 1918. Here he was appointed professor in 1924 (high school professorship). The rector of this school appointed Caselmann as head of department for English, German and history at the seminar for student trainees, which was set up in Baden for the first time . This office was taken from him again in 1936 because he was considered an “intellectual opponent” of the Nazi regime .

Caselmann as a co-founder of modern media education

In April 1938 the leave of absence took place without a salary, but with a credit towards the service time at the “ Reichsanstalt für Film und Bild in Wissenschaft und Studium ” (RWU) in Berlin . Caselmann was its educational director from 1938 to 1946. From 1941 the Reichsbildstelle was under the directorate of Kurt Gauger . The educational department of the Reichsanstalt produced politically neutral educational films and picture series for all school and teaching areas, which were used for many decades. In addition, the establishment organized the publishing house of the media, the media pedagogical advice of the schools as well as their equipment with the necessary project possibilities. Caselmann was of the opinion that educational films were also necessary in times of war. He saw this necessity especially in the vocational and technical schools. Last but not least, the laborious “writing on the board” can be shortened. Films on association teaching were also made for prospective paramedics and nursing staff, which should enable them to familiarize themselves quickly. Caselmann was appointed trustee by the Allies in 1945 - a testament to his distanced spirit from Nazi ideology. Caselmann can be seen as a co-founder of modern media education. He made a special contribution to questions relating to visual teaching material. Mood music for films in which knowledge was to be processed was out of the question for Caselmann. Mood music is only suitable for fairy tale films. However, a whole series of other artistic questions for sound arise here, for example the problem of talking animals. For acoustically inclined children he recommended records or radio plays . In 1959 Caselmann gave his first lecture on the history of film, image and sound in class.

In Stuttgart and Heidelberg after the Second World War

Theodor Heuss , Minister of Culture of the State of Württemberg-Baden , appointed Caselmann in 1947 as senior director of studies to lead the seminar for student trainees (elementary school teachers) in Stuttgart . In the same year he was appointed chairman of the school reform commission in Württemberg-Baden. From the work in this commission between 1947 and 1952, the so-called "Caselmann Plan" emerged, the first concept of which was published by the Württemberg-Baden Ministry of Education in 1948 under the title "The reconstruction of the German School". Caselmann wanted to see the Realschule implemented as a differentiated middle level in the Baden-Württemberg school system. In the summer of 1947 Caselmann went on a study trip to the USA, which was organized by the "National Education Association" (NEA). Among other things, he attended the Teachers College in Chicago. The community spirit practiced there impressed him. On September 19, 1952, Caselmann was appointed to the newly founded or re-established chair for educational science at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg after the time of the Nazi educator Ernst Krieck . At the end of the 1940s Caselmann developed a teacher typology, distinguishing the logotropic (science-oriented) from the paidotropic (child-oriented) teacher type, thus expanding Kerschensteiner's monotypological teacher to include the logotropic. Caselmann pointed out that the Greek doctor Hippocrates had already created a type theory in connection with older astrology with the humoral theory of temperament. Caselmann was also co-editor of the "German Language and Style Book for Higher Schools". His numerous publications were characterized by the combination of his own school experience and theoretical reflection. In September 1957 Caselmann took part in the 2nd International Congress for University Education in Florence. The main focus of this congress was the method and organization of experimental pedagogy as a specialty of educational science. In his understanding of work, Caselmann followed the Allies' wish to restore the adult education centers across the board as a possibility for democratic adult education after 1945 and thus to reactivate a tradition of the Weimar Republic. He gave numerous lectures on educational topics at the adult education centers in Baden and Württemberg. In these lectures he also dealt with the history of education. Caselmann retired in 1958, but successfully devoted himself to teaching at the University of Heidelberg until 1971. Christian Caselmann's successor at the Heidelberg chair was the educationalist Hermann Röhrs .

Essence of the teacher

In his several lectures in Stuttgart between 1949 and in Heidelberg in 1953 and 1965 on the “essence of the teacher”, in which Caselmann applied his type theory to teachers and university teachers, Caselmann emphasized that ideally teachers and university teachers should have something “masterly” should have. A “master-disciple-relationship” should develop between teacher and student. Not lectures and books, but the direct contact with the educated teacher and university teacher is what is really educational and valuable at school and university. It is the task of the school and university institutions to make the creation of such a “master-disciple-relationship” also organizationally possible.

Draft of a peace education

In numerous lectures Caselmann posed the question of the realization of the idea of ​​brotherhood of all people. He advocated a synthesis of realistic-pessimistic anthropology (“man is not good”) and optimistic pedagogy as a happy “nonetheless”. After two world wars, this could help to ensure that one could still live in a fraternal manner in the imperfect and always threatened world. At the Franco-German conference of the “World Brotherhood” in Wiesbaden in September 1953, he discussed the important function of pedagogy as a bridge between nations. Education is about promoting community education. The idea of ​​community had become obsolete by the National Socialists, but it should not be given up. At a conference in the Evangelical Academy in Bad Boll in 1954, he defined the will for peace as a decisive educational goal. For Caselmann, hiking together at schools and universities was an important tool for community education, as he emphasized in numerous lectures at the German Youth Hostel Association and in school camps.

Pedagogical advisor to the nursing school at Heidelberg University

Caselmann was educational advisor to Olga von Lersner , the director of the nursing school at Heidelberg University . The pupils at the sister school enjoyed studying with him and his events were in great demand. The connections between the seminar for educational science and the nursing school of the University of Heidelberg were maintained in the following decades. Caselmann specified his type theory for nursing and distinguished the cheerful from the melancholic and heavy-blooded, the sober from the energetic and the receptive from the creative nurses. In view of these different types, he recommended a "pedagogy of diversity" for teaching nursing.

Puerto Rico and retirement

At the age of 70, Caselmann accepted an invitation from the governor of Puerto Rico to draw up an educational reform plan for this country. He traveled with a Danish and an Italian colleague to the Central American country for a total of three months and celebrated his 70th birthday there. The congratulations from the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg reached the jubilee in Puerto Rico.

Hermann Röhrs and his wife invited to the celebration of Christian Caselmann's 80th birthday . The guest list included Hans Georg Gadamer and Carl Friedrich Graumann . Caselmann died almost 90 years old in Mössingen at the foot of the Swabian Alb with his family. He left two daughters and nine grandchildren. Hermann Röhrs emphasized in his obituary that if Caselmann were to be classified according to the subdivisions of his main work " Essence Forms of the Teacher ", this would have to happen between the logothropic and the paidothropic type - albeit in close proximity to the latter. Paidotrop means, turned towards the child, inclined towards the person.

Publications (selection)

  • Christian Caselmann: Essentformen des Lehrers , 1st edition Klett Stuttgart 1949, then further editions.
  • Christian Caselmann and Arnold Bergsträsser, Heinrich Weinstock : It's about people. Paths and goals of adult education in our time , Association for Adult Education Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Ravensburg 1957.
  • Christian Caselmann: History and Problems of Film, Image and Sound in Classes , from: Reichsanstalt for Film and Image in Science and Teaching, Berlin 1961.
  • Christian Caselmann: The unsystematic Herbart , source Meyer Verlag Heidelberg 1962.
  • Christian Caselmann: From high school graduate to student. An introduction to academic studies for students of the humanities faculties , Stuttgart Klett 1964. BSZ table of contents .


  • Alfons Schorb and Franz Josef Brecht: School - Teacher - Human. A celebration to Christian Caselmann on his 75th birthday, Klett Stuttgart 1964. Table of contents
  • Volker Lenhart : History of the teacher movement in Baden: 1926–1976 , Konkordia Verlag Bühl 1977, ISBN 978-3-7826-0099-6 .
  • Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung Heidelberg from March 22, 1979: A life for the youth. On the death of the former Heidelberg educationalist Christian Caselmann.
  • Klaus W. Döring : Teachers keep. A textbook and workbook . Deutscher Studienverlag Weinheim, 10th edition 1992, p. 100 f. Digitized

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung Heidelberg of March 23, 1954: Prof. Caselmann is 65 years old .
  2. eulogy Philip Eggers 80th birthday Christian Caselmann, UAH Rep. 211/164.
  3. Udo Benzenhöfer and Wolfgang U. Eckart : Medicine in the feature film of National Socialism , Hanoverian treatises on the history of medicine and the natural sciences, Burgverlag Tecklenburg 1990, on RWU pp. 14-16. ISBN 3-922506-80-1 .
  4. ^ Christian Caselmann: Media: Film and radio in class 1939–1948 ; several essays as well as articles in the journal “Film und Bild in Wissenschaft / Erziehungs und Volksbildung” of the Reich Office for Educational Films, B. " The educational film in wartime ", on the necessity of using films in vocational and technical schools, ibid., Issue 11, 5th year, November 15, 1939, pp. 253-256; Heidelberg University Archives, Rep. 211: 316.
  5. ^ Christian Caselmann: Possibilities of film, image and sound in educational work. Lecture to the school inspectorate of the European Union in the Bavarian State Ministry for Culture and Education on October 29, 1957, typescript University Archives Heidelberg, Rep. 211/320.
  6. ^ Christian Caselmann: History of film, picture and sound in class , handwritten lecture script 1959, Heidelberg University Archives, Rep. 211/341.
  7. a b c Correspondence and lecture notes Christian Caselmann , Heidelberg University Archives, Rep. 211/311, 318, 323.
  8. Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung Heidelberg of October 13, 1952: The Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg has appointed the senior director of studies Christian Caselmann at the Pedagogical Institute in Stuttgart as a regular professor for pedagogy at the University of Heidelberg .
  9. Christian Caselmann: Essence forms of the teacher. An attempt at a type theory , Ernst Klett Verlag Stuttgart 1949, pp. 21–26.
  10. Christian Caselmann: Essence forms of the teacher. An attempt at a type theory , Ernst Klett Verlag Stuttgart 1949, p. 5.
  11. so also: Ernst Hoffmann : Pedagogical Humanism , Artemis-Verlag Zurich and Stuttgart 1955, on Hippocratic Education pp. 110–119, Ernst Hoffmann was the predecessor of the Caselmann chair from 1922. Hoffmann was forced to retire from the Nazi regime in 1934.
  12. ^ Heidelberger Tageblatt of March 23, 1954: Prof. Christian Caselmann 65 years .
  13. a b c Correspondence of the educational science seminar at Heidelberg University in the Heidelberg University Archives; Guest list, Hermann Röhr's obituary “A last word of thanks” also in the name of Rector Hubert Niederländer , Congratulations, Rep. 211: 154.
  14. Horst Siebert : Adult education in the Federal Republic of Germany - old federal states and new federal states , in: Rudolf Tippelt and Aiga von Hippel (eds.): Handbook for adult education / further education , 3rd edition VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2009, pp. 59–62.
  15. Christian Caselmann: Educational Stories and Property Classes, Lecture given to the heads of the Baden-Württemberg adult education centers in Bretten on May 30, 1953 , UAH Rep. 211/217.
  16. lecture notes Christian Caselmann " essential forms of the teacher " handwritten A4 notebooks, University Archives Heidelberg, Rep 211/311..
  17. ^ Lectures by Christian Caselmann , available in handwritten form, Universitätsarchiv Heidelberg Rep. 211/319, 323, 326.
  18. Christian Caselmann: Address at the farewell to Mother Superior Olga Freiin von Lersner , in: Schwesternschule der Universität Heidelberg , speeches z. March 20, 1963, bibliography Christian Caselmann in: Alfons Otto Schorb (Hrsg.): Schule - Lehrer -Mensch. A celebratory donation to Christian Caselmann, Ernst Klett Verlag Stuttgart 1964, p. 128.
  19. Christine R. Auer: Antje Grauhan and Wolfgang Rapp (Dept. Paul Christian ): The expansion of the bipersonal to a tripersonal situation “patient-doctor-nurse” presented us with new challenges. Sabine Bartholomeyczik was awarded the Federal Cross of Merit in May 2015. Self-published Heidelberg 2015, Caselmann's address, Olga von Lersner's farewell, pp. 115 + 116, ISBN 978-3-00-050734-2 , Grauhan-Rapp: Tripersonal approach.
  20. Christine R. Auer: The social honorary office. Its effects on professionalization tendencies in the social and health professions , Mag.arb. Institute for Educational Science, Gutacher Jochen Kaltschmid and Micha Brumlik , 1994.
  21. Cornelia Mahler ( sister school of the University of Heidelberg ): The advanced and advanced training behavior of the nursing staff. Aspects of influencing factors , Mag.arb. Institute for educational science of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg 1998. Mahler: Further education behavior nursing staff
  22. Christine R. Auer: History of the nursing professions as a subject. The curricular development in nursing education and training. Diss. Institute History of Medicine (now: History and Ethics) of the University of Heidelberg, academic supervisors Wolfgang U. Eckart and Rolf Verres , clinical examiner Günter H. Seidler , self-published 2008.
  23. Christian Caselmann: Certificate for Sister Heidrun Marschollek, USH, written thesis with the title: “Structural Change in Contemporary Society and the Tasks of Vocational Education” , Heidelberg, March 5, 1959, (together with Dr. Schorb), UAH Heidelberg Rep. 211, 40.
  24. ^ Personal files Christian Caselmann, Heidelberg University Archives.
  25. FAZ obituary notice of March 17, 1979.