Georg Jennerwein ( also: Girgl von Schliers; born April 21, 1852 in Haid , a district of Holzkirchen ; † November 6, 1877 on the Peißenberg called Rinnerspitz in the Schlierseer Mountains ) was a Bavarian poacher .
To life the real person George Jenner wine there is reasonably reliable only an entry in the parish register of the church of St. John Baptist in Holzkirchener district Föching and a judgment about the circumstances of his death, which is essentially of the Jenner Wine song bandied legend contradicts.
According to the baptismal register in the church book of the Church of St. Johann Baptist in Föching, Georg Jennerwein was born out of wedlock to Anna Jennerwein in Haid on April 21, 1849 at 12:30 am ("12 1/2 in the morning") and still on Baptized at 10 o'clock on the same day, the father of “Schmidssohn” Peter Glas from Otterfing is entered. In the column on the mother it says in one of two addenda: " Sepultur in Föching".
Almost all other publications, such as in the folk music archive of the district of Upper Bavaria and in a website on the Schliersee municipality website , do not name any historically valid sources for their factual claims about Jennerwein's life and death . Although they agree in the core of their legends based on the Jennerwein song and hearsay , there are also contradicting details: So none of Jennerwein's date of birth names that of the baptismal register, but two of them, probably because of the vague information on the ominous grave cross ( see section: Grave cross on a false grave ), the year 1848 and another the 24th March 1849. And the community website does not mention any date of birth - but it is comparatively cautious anyway and has limited itself to the lowest common denominator of such publications: According to this, Jennerwein was a woodworker in the area around the Schliersee and a soldier in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71. In addition, “everyone knew (..) that Jennerwein was a poacher, but no one could prove it to him.” One of his friends would have been “das Agerl” or Agathe, the dairymaid from the Baumgarten-Alm , with whom he had a daughter named Rosl had. Furthermore, it was said that he was a good zither player, Gstanzl singer and Schuhplattler , but also a "womanizer, bully and pub brother".
Michael Heim (1936–2015), who worked as a journalist , writer and local history specialist , had his “125. Anniversary of the death of the legendary game shooter Georg Jennerwein ”published an article, partly based on sources, which sought to categorize the Munich Merkur Georg Jennerwein in particular and the poaching of those days in general.
According to tradition, in spring 1877 the hunting assistant Pföderl had not only a “fight for the Agerl” but also an encounter with Jennerwein at the Holzhackerball in Gasthof Glasl in Oberach . Jennerwein provoked Pföderl in front of everyone present by stroking his face with his chamois beard and is said to have said: “You see Pföderl, Söller's herb grows in your garden, but brocka tua`si!” (You see Pföderl, something like that Herb grows in your garden, but I pick it!) Furthermore, Heim says: On November 6, 1877 at a quarter to ten, farmers heard a shot that was fired at the Peißenberg , which was shot shortly after one another at around one o'clock two more shots followed. But it was not until November 13, 1877 that “Schlierseer boys” came across Jennerwein's body. Heim quotes from “Abeles Wildschützenbuch”: “The corpse was a horrific sight. The right foot was bare, the shoe and stockings were taken off and lay next to it. The big toe was clamped in the trigger guard of the rifle, the barrel of which was pointed at the face ... The lower jaw was shattered. ”(In the line on Jennerwein, the above-mentioned baptismal register contains a handwritten addendum, which shows another location of the dead Jennerwein names: "NB! The famous game shooter who was shot on the Kuhn ?? gl ( Brecherspitze ) on Leonhard's Day in 1877 ".)
Helm also describes the attempt to reconstruct how Jennerwein could have found death without a clear assignment of a source : Presumably before dawn, Jennerwein had positioned himself in a ditch in the Schwarzenholzeck to hunt chamois and at the same time to have a clear view of it to have royal forester's house. Pföderl approached the Schwarzenholzeck in order to select a chamois for his announced (?) Hunting guest "Dichter Kobell" ( Franz von Kobell ?). According to one thesis , the two of them unexpectedly meet. In reflex Jenner wine jumps, the Pföderl imagined even in the forest house, back and revolves around it. Pföderl, however, also shoots Jennerwein in the back in a reflex and runs back to the forester's house in his panic. Another thesis says: Pföderl returned to Jennerwein after a conversation with forest warden Mayr, "the content of which was never known", in order to fire at least one shot in his head with his rifle and thus simulate Jennerwein's suicide.
In the "wording after a copy in the Tegernsee Forestry Office" on November 25, 1878, the royal prosecutor at the jury court of Upper Bavaria put four questions to the jury in the trial against Pföderl: "First, Pföderl has the woodworker Jennerwein, after he had previously hit the same with one from his rifle The fired bullet had pierced the left chest and lungs, deliberately and illegally, but without consideration while carrying out the deed ... that he smashed the same head with one or two bullet charges fired from Jennewein's own two-barreled rifles and thereby his immediate death caused? If the answer to question one is in the affirmative, the answer must be, second, whether there are mitigating circumstances?
If the answer to question one is in the negative, then the third answer is, did Pföderl deliberately and unlawfully but unintentionally kill the woodworker Jennerwein with a bullet fired from his rifle, piercing the left chest and lungs as a result of which injury the death of Georg Jennerwein soon occurred? If the answer to question three is in the affirmative, the fourth answer is, are there any extenuating circumstances? ”
The jury replies were:“ Question one: No; Question Two: Not applicable; Question three: Yes, but without the consequence of death; Question four: Yes. ”According to this, Pföderl's shot injured Jennerwein, but not killed, and mitigating circumstances had to be taken into account for this crime. For example, Pföderl was sentenced to eight months in prison on behalf of the king for "offenses of physical harm".
After the trial, the hunting assistant was transferred. The legend says: Pföderl would then have completely addicted to alcohol in the Valepp and finally, "as the Tegernsee stonemason Wackersberger reports," died during a thunderstorm in the Tegernsee hospital. "When lightning struck, he jumped up from the pillow, screamed for the devil and sank back dead."
Michael Helm opened his discussions on Jennerwein with the remark that in 1917, 40 years after Jennerwein's death, a hunter had caught several poachers and was murdered by them in the exercise of his duty - and has long been forgotten. But the “criminal Jennerwein” became an idol whose alleged grave in the Westenhofen cemetery is visited by hundreds of Jennerwein admirers every year ( see also section: Commemoration and designations in his honor ). He can only explain this from the coincidence of several circumstances: “It's the sonorous name, the Jennerwein song and the stage plays, it is a coincidence that photographs exist and Jennewein's face cannot be forgotten, the playcock feather placed in front of him Mustache - and it is above all the shot in the back that makes him immortal, because it becomes a symbol of freedom that Schiller believes he has located in the mountains. "
Jennerwein became a "romantic legend" and his poaching was stylized as a revolt against the authorities. The novels, films and plays with him as protagonist, which have been created from 1896 to the present (most recently in 2012), began with Jennerwein, which has become a folk song , or Freedom lives on the mountains . Starting with the line “It was a Schütz in his prime”, Georg Jennerwein transfigured it into a folk hero who was even compared to Robin Hood , although nowhere is it recorded that he would ever have shared his booty with those in need.
The author of the Jennerwein song is unknown; it was probably written before the end of the 19th century, possibly shortly after Jennerwein's death. By 1900 the song and its interpretation of the events around Jennerwein were already widespread within Upper Bavaria. The Kiem Pauli , a folk song collector, wrote the song "before the First World War " and published it in his "Collection of Upper Bavarian Folk Songs" in 1934.
The following is a relatively original text version as an "event-related memorial song for the dead" within "a narrow group of people", as "Hartl, called Scherrerbauer" sang it in 1910 in the Tegernsee mountains :
It was a Sagittarius in his prime
There he rests gently in his grave, like everyone else,
The folk song is performed by many groups to this day in versions that have been partially rewritten and some stanzas have been added.
The Hot Dogs (1955-2004) - Germany's most successful Dixieland band - presented a Dixieland version under the title Der Wildschütz Jennerwein in 1966 on the B-side of the single of their first major success, Ja, so warn's, the old knights . The title was also used decades later a. a. frequently performed on television by the band.
The beginning bars of the melody of the Jennerwein song are identical to those of the Horst Wessel song . In its judgment of March 15, 1989, the Bavarian Supreme Court ruled that the tune of the Jennerweinlied as a whole is not regarded as a mark of unconstitutional organizations in spite of this agreement , unless special circumstances arise. The performance of the melody of the Jennerweinlied is therefore neither punishable nor prohibited.
The song was mentioned by Monika Maron in her novel Animal triste (1996) and quoted with ten lines of verse.
Films, novels and plays
in the movies
- Wildschütz Jennerwein - hearts in need. German movie. Direction and leading role: Hanns Beck-Gaden . Mercedes-Film, Munich 1929 (Premiere 1930).
- Jaider - the lonely hunter . German feature film , based on the life of Jennerwein. Director: Volker Vogeler , main role: Gottfried John . Bavaria Atelier for WDR 1970 (premiere 1971).
- Jennerwein . TV movie . Director: Hans-Günther Bücking , main role: Fritz Karl . BR and ORF , 2003.
in the novels
- Otto von Schaching : Jennewein, the game shooter - A true story from Bergen . Manz Verlag, Regensburg (4th edition) 1919
- Georg Stöger-Ostin : Georg Jennerwein, the Wildschütz. Novel. Müller & Königer, Munich 1929; New editions: Pflaum Verlag, Munich 1947; Berg Verlag, Munich (7th edition) 1974 ISBN 3-7634-0091-5 .
- Manfred Böckl : Jennerwein: the poached game shooter. Historical novel. Ehrenwirt, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-431-03284-2 .
- New editions: Jennerwein - A Bavarian poacher drama. Tb . Structure, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-7466-1291-8 ; HC . Bayernland, Dachau 2011, ISBN 978-3-89251-424-4 .
- Barbara Haltmair: My beloved Jennerwein. Novel. Rosenheimer Verlagshaus , Rosenheim 1997, ISBN 3-475-52884-3 .
in the plays
- Ferdinand Winter: s`Almröserl or Jennewein's end . Self-published in 1896; Theaterverlag Xaver Bauer, Mittenwald 1921 (several editions).
- Werner Schlierf : Short process - the Wild-Schütz Jennerwein . Play in and for the Schliersee farmers' theater . Premiere 1998, performed annually until 2010.
- Sebastian Schlagenhaufer: Jennerwein - Bluat vo da Gams. Play, Nonpareille, Grafing near Munich. Premiere 2012 in the Markus Wasmeier Open Air Museum .
Commemoration and designations in his honor
On the 99th anniversary of Jennewein's death, a poached chamois was hung on his grave cross. On the 100th anniversary of his death in 1977, a tortoise was built a few hundred meters from the floor cutting house in his memory .
Even today (as of 2017) the grave is tended by "local folk costume " and visited by Jennerwein fan clubs.
Several Bavarian shooting clubs have named themselves after him, including in Etting , a district of Rain , in Oberlauterbach, a district of Aresing and in Eicherloh, a district of Finsing . And there were entertainment musicians who called themselves "Wildschütz-Jennerwein musicians".
Grave cross on a false grave
Jennerwein is buried in the Westenhofen cemetery in Schliersee . The grave cross was later moved by influential community council members because they did not want their relatives to be buried next to Jennerwein. The incorrectly marked grave site overgrown during the Second World War , but in 1947 a private person paid the "foundation fee" to maintain this grave site and from 1961 the members of the Schlierachtaler Trachtenverein took over the care of the grave. Where the actual grave was and the remains of Jennerwein remained is uncertain. In addition, the information on the grave cross (see illustration) "shot ... at the age of 29" contradicts the information in the baptismal register, see introduction at the top.
- Michael Heim : Immortal by a shot in the back - 125th anniversary of the death of the legendary game shooter Georg Jennerwein , article from 2002, updated on March 29, 2009 in Münchner Merkur , online at merkur.de
- Matthias Köpf: The legend of the rebellious Wildschütz Jennerwein lives on , on October 22, 2017 in the Süddeutsche Zeitung , online at sueddeutsche.de , accessed on December 22, 2017.
- Church book of the Cath. Church in Föching Digital Archive Archdiocese of Munich and Freising , inventory: CB096 Föching-St Johann Baptist - 1676-1940, call number: CB096, M1817, p. 54, accessed on Nov. 16, 2019.
- Michael Heim : Immortal by a shot in the back - 125th anniversary of the death of the legendary game shooter Georg Jennerwein , article from 2002 (updated on March 29, 2009) in Münchner Merkur , online at merkur.de
- Text to: Jennerwein - Wildschützenlied in the folk music archive of the district of Upper Bavaria , online at volksmusik-archiv.de , accessed on December 20, 2017.
- The poacher Georg “Girgl” Jennerwein ( memento from October 20, 2019 in the Internet Archive ), online until October 2019 at rathaus.schliersee.de
- Who was the poacher "Georg Girgl - Wildschütz Jennerwein?" In: Südtiroler Jagdportal , accessed on December 19, 2017.
- Gladly: Who was Georg Jennerwein? , on May 30, 2011 in the Passauer Neue Presse , online at pnp.de.
The full name of the author as well as the exact title of "Abeles Wildschützenbuch" was not named by Michael Heim, it is probably
Andreas Aberle (ed.): It was a contactor in his most beautiful years - von Wildschützen u. Hunters, dairymaid etc. Hunters, magic rifles, etc. Free balls . Rosenheimer Verlagshaus, Rosenheim 1972, its 5th edition under the title It was a contactor - from poachers and hunters in the same publisher 2001 ( ISBN 978-3-475-53149-1 ), and thus one year before publication of the article by Heim has appeared.
The sociologist Roland Girtler also quoted it in his book Poacher - Social Rebels in the Mountains. Böhlau, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-205-98823-X , from p. 287
- ?? = illegible
- The legend Jennerwein: From poacher to folk hero. Bayerischer Rundfunk dossier on the 2003 TV film Jennerwein
- text on: Jennerwein or Auf den Berge freedom lives in the folk music archive of the district of Upper Bavaria , adds u. a. about statements about the documentation by the Kiem Pauli
- Keyword search "Jennerwein, Wildschütz" in the online database of the German National Library
- The Wildschütz Jennerwein . With two music examples. In: Südtiroler Jagdportal , accessed on December 19, 2017.
- Bandleader of the Hot Dog passed away . Hello Munich, December 2, 2010, accessed on December 2, 2017.
- Hot Dogs - Der Wildschütz Jennerwein , excerpt from the TV recording Golden Hit Parade of Folk Music 1993 in SAT.1 , online at youtube.com , uploaded on October 11, 2011
- The Hot Dogs 1994 in a ZDF broadcast with Carolin Reiber
- Hot Dogs albums with Der Wildschütz Jennerwein , online discogs.com
- New Orleans Hot Dogs * - Yes, So Sand's De Oidn Rittersleit / Der Wildschütz Jennerwein , online at discogs.com
- Judgment of the Bavarian Supreme Court of March 15, 1989, file number 3 St 133/88, reference: NJW 1990, 2006
- Quotation and mention of the "Jennerwein song" in: Monika Maron : Animal triste , S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-10-048807-5 ; unpaginated e-book edition Frankfurt a. M. 2010, online at google.de
- Wildschütz Jennerwein. Hearts in Need , online at filmportal.de
- Publishing history of the theater publisher Xaver Bauer, beginning with s`Almröserl or Jennewein's end , online at theaterverlag-mittenwald.de
- A life for theater and music - Elisabeth Oberhorner , in Kulturbegegegen im Landkreis Miesbach , PDF file, p. 8 of 24 pages
- Jennerwein- Bluat vo da Gams , online on the author's homepage, including reviews
- Festschrift "20 years HBW Tegernsee Freidogs Schdammdisch" ( Memento from December 15, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), with a section on the attachment of the Jennerwein Marterl in 1977 and mention of the chamois on the grave cross, (PDF; 152 kB) p. 7 of 8 pages
- "Wildschütz-Jennerwein-Musikanten" , recorded in the German National Library
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Girgl from Schliers|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Bavarian poacher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 21, 1852|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Haid near Holzkirchen|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 6, 1877|
|Place of death||at the Rinnerspitz in the Schliersee mountains|