Lucky Luciano

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Lucky Luciano, photo from the 1930s.

Charles "Lucky" Luciano alias Salvatore Lucania (born November 24, 1897 in Lercara Friddi in Sicily , † January 26, 1962 in Naples ) was an American mobster . The news magazine Time lists him in the Time 100 : Most Important People of the Century and counts him among the 100 most influential personalities of the 20th century. He is listed as one of 20 representatives in the “Makers and Titans” category.


Early years

Salvatore Lucania was born as the son of Antonio and Rosalia Lucania (née Cafarella) in the village of Lercara Friddi , about 25 km east of Corleone in Sicily , which was known for its sulfur mining. He had two brothers (Bartolomeo * 1890 and Giuseppe * 1898) and two younger sisters (Filippia * 1901 and Concetta * 1903). In November 1906 the family emigrated to the USA . Upon arrival at Ellis Island , Salvatore was diagnosed with smallpox ; the remaining scars on his face marked him for life. The family settled in New York City in 1907 on the Lower East Side , a predominantly Jewish neighborhood.

In the following year, 1907, Luciano was arrested for shoplifting . After that, he is said to have already collected protection money from students. Anyone who did not pay a cent or two a day was beaten up. This is also where the first anecdote about Luciano , now considered dubious, is located. Accordingly, he is said to have befriended Meyer Lansky because he refused to pay and is said to have had a good fight as a result. In any case, the friendly contacts between Luciano, Meyer Lansky and his friend Dutch Schultz stem from this time .

At the age of 14 he won a surprising US $ 244 in an arcade and was so happy that he was nicknamed "Lucky" (English the lucky one); so the first thesis on the origin of his nickname . In 1911 he was charged with truancy for four months in a reformatory in Brooklyn admitted. He met Frank Costello the same night in 1915 when he and his gang had been kicked out of a theater for hooliganism . In 1916 Luciano was sentenced to six months for trading heroin and morphine ; he was serving her in Hampton Farms Detention Center . After his release, he joined the Five Points Gang with his friend Frank Costello . To save his family the shame, he changed his first name from Salvatore to Charles. There he got to know Al Capone , Frankie Yale and Johnny Torrio , among others .

In 1917, Luciano was supposed to be drafted into the military to fight in the US Army in World War I , but evaded it through a deliberate infection with chlamydia .

Criminal career

Although Luciano - like Costello - was a member of the Italian Five Points Gang , which had fought spectacular mass shootings with the Eastman Gang , they maintained contact with Lansky, who with Bugsy Siegel had become known as the " Bugs and Meyer Mob ". However, the classic gang system in New York City was coming to an end anyway, and the initially ethnically oriented gangs had already indicated that they would work together.

At the time, Joe “The Boss” Masseria can be seen as the capo di tutti i capi (it .: boss of all bosses) about the Sicilian gangsters of New York . He had asserted himself as head of the Morello family , the forerunners of the later Genovese family , and even Peter Morello , who was released from prison, had submitted to him. Luciano was also subject to this balance of power. He had become the driver and bodyguard of Masseria in 1920 and had actively supported them in their supremacy in the Morello Terranova clan: Luciano is considered the alleged murderer of Umberto Valenti , who was murdered on August 11, 1922.

In contrast to the Mafia in Sicily , the American Cosa Nostra did not have the illegal "monopoly of force", but inevitably competed and cooperated with other groups. After the introduction of alcohol prohibition in January 1920 , Luciano initially acted as an independent smuggler, through which he met Vito Genovese and Joe Adonis , among others , but ultimately the organization of the illegal alcohol trade was handled by organized gangs and not by individuals. In the metropolitan area of ​​New York City, the American Cosa Nostra controlled 25% and the so-called Kosher Nostras 70% of the black market; the rest was shared by Irish and other groups.

Arnold Rothstein acted as mentor to Luciano ; Frank Costello made the contact. The ethnically mixed group was also known as the Broadway Mob , which was part of the Seven Group in the supra-regionally organized alcohol smuggling . In 1925, Luciano is said to have earned an annual income of around 300,000 US dollars, which enabled him to bribe politicians like Big Bill Dwyer . Frank Costello, although older, acted as his second husband.

War of Castellammare

The clashes for supremacy in New York City continued. Salvatore Maranzano had been sent from Sicily with several men to take control of the American Cosa Nostra for Don Vito Cascio Ferro . Maranzano won the support of the local people from Castellammare del Golfo , which is why the conflict with Masseria became known as the " War of Castellammare ".

On October 16, 1929, Luciano was kidnapped, beaten, stabbed, and tied to a beam by three gunmen in an abandoned warehouse on Staten Island . He barely survived and was able to free himself and drag himself to Hylan Boulevard where he was found. The police are said to have described this as "happy" to him, from which the second thesis for the origin of his nickname "Lucky" was derived. In addition to his pockmarks, there were those from the knife wounds. Through his friend Meyer Lansky, he learned that it was not Maranzano but Joe Masseria who had commissioned the murder. Masseria was an old school Mustache Pete . The views between the old "greaseballs" (English fat dumplings), as people like Masseria were also called, and the " Young Turks " (English for young Turks ) like Lucky Luciano diverged widely. The collaboration between Luciano and the non-Sicilian Frank Costello, a man from Calabria , should have made Masseria suspicious. Apparently Masseria wanted to get rid of one - from his point of view - potential risk. However, the original thesis that Maranzano was the instigator still holds up today.

On August 15, 1930, Peter Morello , an important man in Masseria, was murdered; in the resulting conflict, Luciano switched to Maranzano's side. On April 15, 1931, Masseria was shot dead in Scarpato's restaurant on Coney Island . According to what is now known as a legend, it was a meeting between Luciano and Masseria. Luciano was in the washroom when four men, allegedly Albert Anastasia , Joe Adonis , Bugsy Siegel and Vito Genovese, committed the act. The escape driver is said to have been Ciro Terranova .

The responsibility of his organization for the murder of Maranzano on September 10, 1931, however, is considered undisputed. When he wanted to quickly switch off Luciano, Genovese, Costello and Al Capone in order to finally become “Capo di tutti i capi” himself, Luciano made use of his contact with Meyer Lansky. Four of Lansky’s men came into Maranzano’s office disguised as tax investigators and killed him.

National Crime Syndicate

In Sicily, too, there had always been agreements between different clans of the Mafia. Thoughts for a general order in the USA had already been developed by Johnny Torrio , whom Luciano knew as a member of the Five Points Gang before he went to Chicago. In the end, Maranzano also came from Sicily with corresponding ideas. However, he wanted to bring the Five Families of New York and the Chicago outfit under his rule as head boss, while Meyer Lansky and Luciano, on the advice of Torrio, had a modern, cooperative management system, as in the legal economy.

In addition to the Italians, Kosher Nostras were also represented in the National Crime Syndicate ; an executive committee of the family bosses, the "Commission" , to which Meyer Lansky also belonged, and in which Luciano acted as a kind of chairman of the board, took the place of a head . This form of organization could not prevent bloody family wars either, but these conflicts were usually contained.

This peace also reduced public awareness, which was startled by gang wars and which had so far increased the pressure of the police to search for organized crime . B. had ultimately led to the imprisonment of Monk Eastman in the past . Protected by corrupt politicians, judges and police officers, the families of the "National Crime Syndicate" would be able to go about their business practically undisturbed; at least that was the idea of ​​Lansky and Luciano.

The condemnation

In 1933, Fiorello LaGuardia was elected Mayor of New York. After one of his predecessors ( Jimmy Walker ) resigned for accepting bribes , charged and fled to Europe, he appointed Thomas E. Dewey as special prosecutor. With this, the new mayor tried to break the power of Tammany Hall , because Dewey turned against organized gambling. This had already been the business basis of the classic gangs such as the Eastman Gang or the Five Points Gang and was now organized in particular by Luciano's childhood friend Dutch Schultz and his rackets ("number rackets"). Dewey asked for information on the radio and received over 3,000 leads. After Schultz was initially charged with tax evasion , Dewey took action against Luciano, who has been linked to the mysterious death of actress Thelma Todd .

Dewey's research was based on Luciano's prostitution and girl trafficking activities , which brought in up to $ 12 million for Luciano. Luciano initially evaded the process by fleeing to Hot Springs in Arkansas , where New York's Cosa Nostra had expanded through Owney Madden . In fact, Dewey's indictment was weak. He only had the testimony of the drug addict prostitute "Cokey" Flo Brown that Luciano was the actual head of an entire prostitute ring, and the connection to their actual pimp, Dave Betillo, was based on statements by the Waldorf-Astoria staff that members of the Luciano- Mobs and Dave Betillo would have regularly met with Luciano in his room.

Even before the verdict was announced, Luciano tried to stop Dutch Schultz , who was also charged by Dewey, from murdering him. The “Commission” therefore decided on Schultz's death in order to avert danger to the organization as a whole that would inevitably have resulted from the murder of the public prosecutor. Schultz was murdered on October 23, 1935. The trial of Luciano began on May 11, 1936.

“Frankly, my witnesses are prostitutes, madams, heels, pimps and ex-convicts. I wish to call to your attention that these are the only witnesses we could possibly have brought here. We can't get Bishops to testify in a case involving prostitution. And this combination was not run under the arch lights of Madison Square Garden. We have to use the testimony of bad men to convict other bad men. "

“Frankly, my witnesses are prostitutes, puffmothers, marauders, pimps and ex-convicts. I wish to inform you for your information that these witnesses are the only ones who have been able to be brought here. You cannot have bishops as witnesses in a prostitution case. And this association did not operate under the glare of Madison Square Garden. We have to use the statements of bad men to judge other bad men. "

- Thomas E. Dewey at the trial of Lucky Luciano in 1936

Despite these shady witnesses, Moses Polakoff failed to successfully defend Luciano. A total of 68 witnesses, including 40 prostitutes, testified at the trial, and Luciano was sentenced to 30 to 50 years in prison at the Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora , Clinton County, New York; in the end it only became ten years. The conviction shocked the mobsters of the American Cosa Nostra, later ruled by Pentito Joe Valachi when he gave his own testimony to the US authorities.

During his imprisonment, Luciano donated a church to the prison, the altar of which was furnished with two original doors from the ship of the explorer Ferdinand Magellan .

Formally, Vito Genovese became the successor to the Cosa Nostra clan of Luciano, which has since been classified as the Genovese family. Whether Vito would have accepted the role as “acting boss” of the imprisoned Luciano in the long run or already - as later - had more ambitious ambitions , did not turn out at the time, since Vito left for Naples in 1937 due to a threatened murder charge . In this way Frank Costello became head of the family.

Second World War

The United States entered World War II with the attack by the Japanese on December 7, 1941 on the Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii , and Adolf Hitler declared war on the United States on December 11, 1941. During Operation Paukenschlag, German submarines sank a number of merchant ships on the east coast of the United States from January 13, 1942 , so that the American side suspected that collaborators and spies were at work in their own ports .

Lafayette capsized on February 22, 1942

These assumptions reached their climax when, in February 1942, the confiscated French passenger ship Normandie was to be converted into a troop carrier with the new name Lafayette . As part of the renovation work, however, aided by serious safety deficiencies and negligence, a fire broke out during welding work , injuring several workers and dying one. During the fire fighting the ship capsized due to the unevenly absorbed extinguishing water . Rumors arose that the ship had been sabotaged by German spies. It was later deduced from this that the US government had decided to work with the American Cosa Nostra to fend off further attacks in the port of New York City . Without a doubt, Luciano, who controlled the dockworkers via Frank Costello and the docks via Albert Anastasia , would have been the contact person for such an arrangement and thus the forerunner for the proven cooperation between the CIA and the mafia in the case of Cuba ( Operation Mongoose ) in the 1960s.

In addition, it is still suspected to this day that the US government used contacts with Luciano to secure the Allied landing on Sicily in 1943 and the subsequent Italian campaign. These circumstances are said to have led to Luciano's release after 10 years in prison. Jack Higgins took this as a model for his 1982 novel "Luciano" (OT: Luciano's Luck).

At least the direct cooperation in relation to the landing in Sicily is rejected by the Mafia expert John Dickie . This is also supported by Vito Genovese's support for the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini , who organized the assassination of the labor leader Carlo Tresca on January 11, 1943 in New York City. The persecution of the Mafia in Sicily had long since ended; only after the Allies landed in Italy did Genovese switch to their side.

However, it is said to have been the United States Navy who hoped for information about the Italian ports and hostile activities there from Mafia connections.

Accordingly, after the first suspicions of sabotage in the wake of the increasing success of the German submarines, after a tip from District Attorney Frank S. Hogan to Joseph "Socks" Lanza , the ruling mobster over the Fulton Fish Market , approached. However, its influence was too small to overcome the resistance of the suspicious dock workers in particular. Lanza therefore advised the naval military intelligence service to turn to the influential Luciano, who despite his prison sentence was still able to exercise his power as head of the Genovese family and the National Crime Syndicate through Frank Costello . Luciano's arm reached into the docks and the relevant union.

In particular, breakfast is said to have taken place on April 11, 1942, at Longchamps Restaurant on West 58th Street with Meyer Lansky, Moses Polakoff (Luciano's attorney), District Assistant Attorney Murray I. Gurfein, and Intelligence Officer Charles R. Haffenden . So at the end of April 1942 I got in touch with Luciano. Since Polakoff and Lansky considered the distance from Luciano's detention center to be too far to establish constant contact, they proposed that he be transferred to Sing Sing , which was rejected. For this, Luciano was transferred from Dannemora to Meadow Prison in Comstock on May 12, 1942 , where the Navy Secret Service could hold discreet meetings with him. Luciano accepted the offer; in return, he asked for a noticeable reduction in his sentence. In addition, he insisted on absolute secrecy with regard to his cooperation, as he presumably already expected to be deported to Italy later due to his lack of citizenship .

Due to the cooperation, various German spies could be picked up in the port areas.

After the World War, the US Navy officially denied any collaboration with Luciano, Meyer Lansky or other criminal persons. An official investigation conducted in 1954 by New York State Coroner William B. Herlands concluded that "Salvatore Lucania" and other important exponents of the Mafia had been actively involved in US military activities during World War II. At the request of the Navy, over 3,000 pages of the Herlands Committee of Inquiry files were suppressed and only officially released in 1975.

Return to Italy

In 1946, Moses Polakoff was able to obtain Luciano's release from Thomas E. Dewey . As early as February 1943, George Wolf - another criminal defense attorney for Luciano - had appealed the amount of the sentence. In 1945, Luciano was summoned before a pardon committee.

On January 4, 1946, Luciano was released on condition that he leave the United States. When he boarded his ship at Pier 7 on February 8, 1946, numerous guests came to a reception to see him off. On February 10, 1946 at 8:50 a.m., the SS Laura Keene cast off for Italy.

The Italian authorities prohibited Luciano from leaving the greater Naples area on arrival and also monitored his visitors. Nevertheless, he managed to keep up his contacts with the New York families over the phone. This point in time is seen today as the actual successor to Frank Costello as head of the later so-called Genovese family. It is said that Luciano enjoyed meeting US soldiers while traveling by train through Italy in the late 1940s, being recognized and photographed by them and giving autographs.

In Sicily , Luciano first met Tommaso Buscetta and began to promote him. Luciano was now usually to be found in Cuba , where Meyer Lansky owned shares in the Hotel Nacional in Havana . A mafia conference took place there in December 1946, in which Frank Costello also took part. At the meeting the foundation stone for the casino business was laid with the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista , whose advisor Meyer Lansky had become. In addition, the murder of Bugsy Siegel was decided, because he had cost the American Cosa Nostra and other donors a lot of money in Las Vegas with its too expensive casino “The Flamingo” .

In 1947, Luciano was forced to leave Cuba because the American government did not tolerate his presence on the island and put pressure on the Cuban government by threatening to suspend drug deliveries until Luciano left the country. Luciano left Cuba on March 29, 1947 on the Turkish freighter SS Bakir and returned to Italy. There he was able to build on the black market deals and drug trafficking of Vito Genovese, who had returned to New York after the end of the war. He soon ran three exclusive nightclubs in Rome . It wasn't until 1954 that the police were able to establish a link with chemical factories that had exported half a ton of heroin to the United States. However, in the March 1958 trial, Luciano was acquitted.

From October 10th to 14th, 1957, organized by Joseph Bonanno , a meeting between Sicilian and American mafiosi took place in the Grand Hotel des Palmes and in the Spano restaurant in Palermo ( Palermo Mafia Summit ). According to other sources, however, "Lucky" invited Luciano, Genco Russo , Tommaso Buscetta, the brothers La Barbera and Salvatore "Cichiteddu" Greco and the Americans Bonanno, whose underboss Carmine Galante , cousin Steve Maggadino from Buffalo and Giovanni "Papa John" Priziola from Detroit were the invited guests. Agreements were made to start the largest heroin drug trafficking in history. As in the USA, a "commission" of twelve members was formed to pacify, the first chairmanship of which was taken by Salvatore Greco and not one of the La Barbera brothers favored by Luciano. As a result, the Sicilians were allowed to sell their drugs themselves in the United States against payment of a levy. However, Vito Genovese and Carmine Galante did not adhere to this agreement.

Genovese, who already after the arrest Luciano 1936 and 1937 before he fled to Sicily head or "acting-boss" of the Genovese crime family had been harbored ambitions to get back his old rank as the head and instructed Vincent Gigante with an attack in which Frank Costello was grazed on the head on May 2, 1957 and retired as boss. On October 25, 1957, Albert Anastasia , now head of the mafia clan, later classified as the Gambino family , was murdered.

These murders actually required the approval of the US “Commission”, and so Genovese organized a meeting of the National Crime Syndicate on November 14, 1957 , the so-called “ Apalachin Meeting ”, in order to obtain this approval retrospectively. In addition, Genovese planned to be proclaimed “Capo di tutti i capi” at the Apalachin meeting and thus to oust Luciano and Lansky for good. The meeting resulted in a mass arrest by local police. Meyer Lansky had not attended the meeting due to illness and it was later suspected that he had betrayed the meeting to the police; moreover, Genovese was arrested shortly afterwards during a drug operation by the police. Here, too, a tip is said to have played a role; as Luciano later claimed, this came from him and Lansky.

Even so, it became increasingly clear that Luciano was no longer in direct command. He had grown into a criminal businessman without armed forces of his own. When he was slapped by the petty criminal Vittorio Nappi on November 13, 1950 on the Agnano racing course in Naples , there was nothing he could do about it. However, he was later murdered by the Italian Cosa Nostra because of the slap in the face in honor of Luciano, and Luciano's words continued to carry weight. When he found out that Eugenio Giannini - whom he met in prison in 1942 and who had set up penicillin smuggling to Italy and heroin smuggling to New York City - was apparently a Pentito who was now about to betray him, his notification of this passed in New York City his murder on September 20, 1952 in Harlem.

The end

On January 26, 1962, Luciano died of a heart attack in the Aeroporto di Napoli-Capodichino , the airport in Naples , when he was about to pick up his biographer. He was buried in St. John's Cemetery in Queens , New York, after a federal court ruled that a burial in American soil could not be prevented because a corpse was no longer a citizen of any state and was therefore not subject to immigration controls or deportation laws .

Interestingly, the First Great Mafia War broke out in Italy a few weeks after Luciano's death , in which Mafia boss Angelo La Barbera - despite the use of numerous car bombs - was unable to provide evidence that he could do without American help: “Luciano was known to have close ties Relations with the La Barberas,… ”.

Name Development - From Salvatore Lucania to Lucky Luciano

Lucky Luciano was born as Salvatore Lucania ; but in his later American passport Luciano was entered and he took the English name Charles . There are three theses about the development of his nickname Lucky . The first refers to a lucky win at the age of 14; the second relates to the survived assassination attempt in 1929. However, at the time of the assassination attempt it was already common to refer to him as "Lucky" Luciano in the press, which can be considered a refutation of the second thesis. There is a third theory: Da Luciano grew up in a Jewish neighborhood, his name Lucania [was LUKANIA ] not called Italian, but he walked on the streets of the Lower East Side to a [ lʌk.aːˌniːa ], from which the short Lucky was. This last thesis seems impressive, since Salvatore was also called "Charlie Lucky" and not "Lucky Charlie".

Documentaries, films and film quotes


  • John Dickie: Cosa Nostra: The History of the Mafia , Frankfurt a. M. 2006, Fischer Verlag. English translation by Sebastian Vogel. ISBN 978-3-596-17106-4 .
  • Rodney Campbell: Company Luciano. The role of the mafia in World War II. , Bergisch Gladbach 1977, Gustav Lübbe Verlag. English translation by Susanne Bock. ISBN 3-404-65053-0 .
  • Martin A. Gosch and Richard Hammer: The Last Testament of Lucky Luciano . Boston 1974. Little Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-32140-0 .
  • Selwyn Raab: Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires . St. Martin's Press 2006. ISBN 0-312-36181-5 .
  • Cat Klerks. Lucky Luciano: The Father of Organized Crime (True American Amazing Stories Series) Publisher: Altitude Publishing, Ltd. 2005. ISBN 1-55265-102-9 .
  • Hickam Powell: Lucky Luciano, his amazing trial and wild witnesses . Barricade Books Inc. 2000. ISBN 0-8065-0493-5 .
  • Sid Feder and Joachim Joesten: Luciano Story . Da Capo Press 1994. ISBN 0-306-80592-8 .

Web links

Commons : Lucky Luciano  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The `TIME 100 'Project -' People of the Century ' on (English)
  2. "Criminal Mastermind: Lucky Luciano" by Edna Buchanan on (English)
  3. a b c d A Gangster is Born. In: Archived from the original on April 16, 2008 ; accessed on August 28, 2013 .
  4. a b c Dieter Sinn: The great criminal lexicon . Licensed edition 1984. Manfred Pawlak Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. P.188f. ISBN 3-88199-146-8 .
  5. History of the Mafia ( Memento of the original from March 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. at (English) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  6. ^ A b c d John Dickie: Cosa Nostra: The History of the Mafia , Frankfurt a. M. 2006, Fischer Verlag, pp. 265,265,273ff, 279ff, 291ff, 351,358,362ff, 381ff, 419. ISBN 978-3-596-17106-4 .
  7. Lucky Luciano on
  8. ^ Martin A. Gosch, Richard Hammer: Last Testament of Lucky Luciano . Dell Pub Co. Reissue Edition June 1981. ISBN 0-440-14705-0 .
  9. ^ "Mafia, Secret Services, and US Politics. Part 1 (1865 to 1938) " on (English)
  10. a b c The Short Return of Charlie Lucifer (Part I) on by John William Tuohy (English)
  11. Lucky Luciano on, May 7, 1998
  12. a b “Bad Guys Done Good” on
  13. Jack Higgins: Luciano . Bastei-Verlag Gustav H. Lübbe GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach 1985. ISBN 3-404-10579-6 .
  14. ^ Rodney Campbell: The Luciano Project: The Secret Wartime Collaboration of the Mafia and the US Navy , McGraw-Hill. 1977, ISBN 978-0-07-009674-5 .
  15. ^ Tim Newark: Mafia Allies: The True Story of America's Secret Alliance with the Mob in World War II . Zenith Press. First edition 2007.
  16. Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair: Whiteout: the CIA, drugs, and the press , Verso December 2, 1999, ISBN 1-85984-258-5 .
  17. ^ Charles "Lucky" Luciano. In: Archived from the original on August 3, 2010 ; Retrieved August 28, 2013 .
  18. "The American Mafia: Chronology - Section IV 1932-1949" ( Memento of the original from April 22, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. at (English) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  19. InStoria, Il contributo mafioso alla Vittoria Alleata in Sicilia
  20. ^ Rodney Campbell: Company Luciano. The role of the mafia in World War II , Europaverlag, Vienna 1978 ISBN 3-203-50661-0 (p. 31).
  21. The Honorable Society - Power, Myth and Murder of the Mafia by Norman Lewis at from Der Spiegel issue 51 of December 16, 1964
  22. Mob Corner ( Memento of the original from July 10, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. by Thom L. Jones on (English) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  23. Lucky Factor. In: Archived from the original on April 12, 2008 ; accessed on August 28, 2013 .
  24. ^ "Mafia, Secret Services, and US Politics. Part 4 (1956 to 1960) " on (English)
  25. Puparo presents: The Roaring 1950s. In: Archived from the original on June 3, 2010 ; accessed on August 28, 2013 .
  26. Salvatore "Lucky Luciano" Lucania in the Find a Grave database (accessed July 6, 2017).
  27. ^ "Who Was Who in the American Mafia: Lucky Lucania" on (English)
predecessor Office successor
Joe Masseria Head of the “ Genovese family ” of the American Cosa Nostra
Frank Costello