Medicine under National Socialism

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The Nazi eugenics was marked by the efforts of Nazi policy, health care to use them for their goals. The main features were the establishment of the social Darwinist- oriented National Socialist “ racial hygiene ” as a new guiding ideology, pronounced performance medicine and “health management”. 45 percent of the 52,000 medical professionals became NSDAP members. These concepts found their acute implementation in hundreds of thousands of forced sterilizations , unscrupulous human experiments with thousands of deaths and tens of thousands of murders of the sick and disabled, euphemistically referred to as euthanasia . Concepts for a " New German Medicine ", which was supposed to combine naturopathy and conventional medicine, among other things , did not go beyond approaches. About 8,000 of the 1933 medics were persecuted as Jews. Especially in this professional group, persecution was very often directly linked to the advantage for a successor. Around 3,000 resident Jewish doctors had to close their practices in 1933. Many of the persecuted emigrated. Only five percent of them returned to Germany or Austria after the Second World War . A large number of those who failed to escape were murdered after 1941.

Group-related discrimination in the field of medical staff

In 1933, the Civil Service Restoration Act, enacted on April 7th of that year, came into force. It was the basis for the removal of civil servants and employees of “ non-Aryan ” descent from the public service, beginning in 1933/34 . In future, minorities such as Jews , Slavs , Sinti and Roma were no longer allowed to work in the public service as civil servants or employees. This affected professors, doctors and medical staff z. B. at universities, health authorities and state hospitals. The ordinance on the admission of doctors to work with the health insurance funds of April 22, 1933 revoked “non-Aryan” doctors and those who had “worked in the communist sense” of their medical license. It was also forbidden for Jewish doctors to hold honorary positions in supervisory bodies, in committees or as advisers and experts. The formation of practice communities or representations between “Aryan” and “non-Aryan” doctors was also prohibited, as was referrals to “non-Aryan” doctors.

In 1938, with the fourth ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Law, Jewish doctors were withdrawn from their medical license , whereby the term “ medical license” was replaced by the term “bestallung”. This term, introduced by the National Socialists , was valid until the Federal Doctors' Ordinance came into force on January 1, 1970, when the term “Approval” was only reverted to. At the same time, the universities revoked the doctorates . “The entire health care system has been cleaned of Jews” - that was the headline of a 1939 newspaper in Berlin with reference to Nazi Reichsärzteführer Gerhard Wagner (1888–1939), who announced in a party conference speech: “The medical profession and medical science are definitely of the Jewish spirit was liberated. ”The professional ban meant the end of the professional existence of Jewish health professionals.

"New German Medicine"

As early as the 1920s there were voices in Germany who accused conventional medicine of too narrow a perspective and characterized the scientific character of medicine as a narrowing of medical treatment methods.

The National Socialists took up this open debate, which was even referred to as the “medical crisis”. The "Reichsärzteführer" Gerhard Wagner published an article in the Deutsches Ärzteblatt in 1933 to all doctors in Germany who deal with biological healing methods , in which he clearly stated that treatment successes could also be achieved with non-conventional medical treatment methods. The naturopathic doctors of all disciplines should organize themselves together. Naturopathic methods that had proven effective should merge with conventional medicine.

For this purpose, the "Working Group for a New German Medicine" was founded in 1935. This was followed by a wave of publications on the subject of naturopathic healing methods and a similar wave of conventional medicine counterpublications. The planned amalgamation of naturopathic and conventional medical approaches did not take place, and in 1937 the working group was dissolved again.

Central paradigm shift in medicine

For the National Socialists, the aim of supporting naturopathic doctors was not just a debate about therapeutic methods, even if naturopathic procedures certainly corresponded better to the fashion and racial theory of ancient Germanic than modern medicine. In the National Socialist sense, the idea of ​​naturopathy, which propagated a more holistic approach to medicine, was almost ideal for further development in the National Socialist sense.

The primary goal of medical endeavors should no longer be the treatment of individual patients. National Socialist medicine was intended to keep the “German national body ” healthy . Via the detour of the “New German Medicine”, the National Socialists laid the foundation stone for anchoring the ideas of National Socialist “ racial hygiene ” in medicine. The basic right to physical integrity could be abolished due to the changed target group of medical action and the associated reinterpretation of medical ethics (also from an individual ethics to a community ethics).

Concept of health management

The National Socialist concept of "health management" was formulated in 1936 by the deputy Reichsärzteführer Friedrich Bartels . To a certain extent, it contains an obligation to health for each individual in order to secure the “performance and health that can be achieved at all because of their genetic makeup” of the “German people”. Against the background of the preparations for war and the manpower required for it, it was unacceptable for Bartels that workers were already significantly reduced in their productivity before they reached retirement age.

For medicine, this meant a clear turn to the idea of ​​prevention and a considerable strengthening of occupational medicine . Both aspects still apply today. For the National Socialists, however, the concept meant a further departure from the principle of individual medicine and a further loss of the importance of the individual. The only decisive criterion for successful treatment was the importance of the manpower that had to be retained - also to the long-term health disadvantage of the individual.

In the area of ​​the desired “ military training ”, sport or movement therapy and physiotherapy (the forerunners of modern physiotherapy ) also played an important role. The basics developed by sports medicine specialist Wolfgang Kohlrausch still influence sports medicine today.

The medical profession fulfilled a central task in the concept of health management. The "New German Medicine" was intended to make up for the loss of trust within the population that conventional medicine had to accept in the course of the debate about the "crisis in medicine".

Wagner's successor as Reichsärzteführer Leonardo Conti broadened the approach of the concept of health management and tried, for example with the help of the German Life Reform Movement , to spread "folk medicine" and thereby transfer more responsibility for their own health not only to medicine, but to each individual .

A "synthesis" of conventional medicine and naturopathy in the sense of a "German medicine" within the framework of the "Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft für eine Neue Deutsche Heilkunde" (Reich Working Group for a New German Medicine), which was initially aimed at, did not go beyond individual approaches; the working group was dissolved again in early 1937. When the four-year plan came into force in 1936 at the latest, efforts to synthesize folk and orthodox medicine took a back seat, the focus was on a diet adapted to the needs of the war, simple measures to maintain personal health and nursing at home.

Mergers of the folk medicine lay associations were sought by various sides and lasted longer. Julius Streicher's attempt to gather the lay associations around his “Kampfbund für Deutsche Gesundheits- und Rassenpflege”, which among other things had rejected vaccinations and animal experiments , failed. The “Kampfbund” was banned in 1935. Gerhard Wagner, head of the top medical associations, tried to organize a “Reich working group of associations for natural living and healing”. This union existed until 1941, the individual associations were dissolved by Karl-Heinrich Franke in September 1941 and transferred to the "German Public Health Association".

In retrospect, a lack of coming to terms with the National Socialist past, especially in the area of homeopathy , is mentioned several times .

Contribution to National Socialist crimes

Human trials

Skull measurement, Racial Hygiene Research Center of the Reich Health Office, Palatinate 1938

The Wehrmacht , the German Ahnenerbe Research Foundation , the German Research Foundation , various universities and the pharmaceutical industry supported human experiments financially, personally and with equipment. Medical experiments were carried out on concentration camp inmates selected as test subjects by doctors of the SS or the Wehrmacht (supported by forced recruited prison functionaries with some nursing or medical training), in the course of which the inmates mostly died in agony. The surviving test subjects and the personnel involved were sometimes killed as a cover-up, as in the Bullenhuser Damm case . Spotted fever experiments, malaria and TBC experiments, and surgical attempts in which the test subjects were inflicted with contaminated gunshot, explosion or incendiary injuries are known. Salt water tests were carried out in Dachau , in Natzweiler-Struthof experiments were carried out with chemical warfare agents in the gas chamber and methods for mass sterilization of women were tested in Auschwitz.

Even outside of the concentration camps, human experiments were carried out on forced laborers and the mentally ill without the consent of the test subjects. Attempts to efficiently murder people were also carried out, as was the case with the Brandenburg test gassing in the old prison in Brandenburg an der Havel .


In terms of National Socialist racial hygiene , the inheritance of diseases , in particular mental illnesses and epilepsy, and the mixing of the Aryan race with allegedly inferior " races " (mainly Jews, Slavs, Sinti and Roma) were incompatible with the concept of public health and should by law for the prevention of genetically ill offspring of July 14, 1933 and the Blood Protection Act of September 15, 1935 (so-called "Nuremberg Laws"). These laws required numerous medical assessments by a wide variety of doctors and had far-reaching consequences for those affected. About 400,000 forced sterilizations were ordered by the hereditary health courts and carried out by doctors. Around 5,000 people, mostly women, died as a result of the surgery.


With the circular issued by the Reich Minister of the Interior on August 18, 1939, doctors and midwives as well as maternity institutions, obstetrical departments and children's hospitals were obliged to notify the competent health department about children with serious hereditary diseases . That was the starting point for a series of systematic killing actions on various patient groups:

  • 1939–1945: Child euthanasia (organized killing of mentally and physically disabled children and adolescents)
  • 1940–1941: Action T4 (adult mentally ill in killing centers)
  • 1941–1944: Aktion 14f13 (concentration camp prisoners unable to work)
  • 1943–1945: Aktion Brandt (mentally ill in hospitals)

The killings were belittled as " euthanasia ". Due to public rejection and after church protests, "Aktion T4" was officially canceled in 1941. General practitioners became more cautious about the disastrous diagnosis of the hereditary disease in their patients. When more and more complaints and legal complications arose at the courts and public prosecutors due to the lack of a legal basis, a meeting of leading judges and public prosecutors took place in Berlin and the Reich Ministry of Justice issued a circular ("concerns: destruction of life unworthy of life ") of April 22, 1941 that these and future legal cases are to be submitted to the ministry unprocessed by the public prosecutor's offices and courts.

Forced labor

Workability study, Artemowsk Labor Office , May 1942, (Wehrmacht propaganda photo)

Depending on their function, the doctors were involved in the complex of forced labor in the “Third Reich” and the occupied territories in different ways. As concentration camp doctors or official doctors , they were responsible for the fitness check , for disinfestation , for compliance with health work standards, for admission to hospital or the infirmary, etc. Under the euphemism of diet food, the scarce diet was further reduced to incapacitated forced laborers . The camp doctor could be heard during punishment. Forced laborers were partially forced sterilizations and forced abortions for racist and economic reasons.

In the medical sector itself, forced laborers were used in state, private and church hospitals, military hospitals, nursing homes and rest homes as essential to the war effort. For teaching and research purposes, the University of Göttingen asked for more pregnant "foreign ethnic" forced laborers to be assigned.

The doctor could in the selection in for work or unable to work a matter of life and death.

Dealing with the dead

Dissection table in the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp

The gold teeth of "euthanasia victims" or dead Russian, Jewish or Polish concentration camp inmates were systematically removed from the corpses, mostly by forced laborers under the supervision of the dental staff. In the case of the concentration camps, the booty was delivered to the Main Economic and Administrative Office .

Human body parts were taken as medical preparations for research purposes. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Promotion of Science received numerous brain preparations from the T4 campaign and the University of Strasbourg ordered a collection of 86 skeletons from living prisoners in the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp through its director of the Anatomical Institute ( August Hirt ) . As far as is known, all anatomical institutes gladly accepted corpses from the numerous executions in order to get to "fresh" tissues and organs, sometimes even in the immediate temporal and spatial proximity of the execution.

Death certificates with false causes of death were often issued to cover up criminal offenses.


The 23 defendants in the Nuremberg medical trial, 1946/47
Organ specimens from prisoners of Buchenwald concentration camp are shown, May 27, 1945

After the Second World War, the Nuremberg doctors ' trial against 20 concentration camp doctors , two administrative specialists and a lawyer was conducted by the Allies from December 1946 to August 1947 . Various euthanasia processes took place in Dresden, Frankfurt, Klagenfurt and other places. SS doctors were persecuted at least because of their membership in a criminal organization. Joseph Mengele escaped to South America via the rat line and, like most doctors who have been involved in medical crimes, has never been held responsible.

The long-standing process of making amends for the victims of human attempts, such as the 1951 cabinet decision of the federal government in favor of surviving victims of human attempts, 1959 reparation to Polish victims, 1960 cabinet decision for bilateral negotiations with Eastern European countries and the subsequent global agreement with Yugoslavia 1961/1963, Hungary 1971 , Czechoslovakia 1969 and Poland 1972, is seen as controversial about the leitmotifs and effectiveness. The Remembrance, Responsibility and Future Foundation followed in 2000 and approved the last application in 2005. No compensation was paid for the physical or mental damage.

When in 1989 the Israeli Yad Vashem memorial asked the Federal Chancellor about the anatomical collections of German research institutions from the Nazi era, there were hasty burials of dubious specimens. The documentation of the origin and the fate of the victims was usually not the focus. It was only years later that these institutions began to question their role during the Nazi era.


Diseases are often named after their first description, with which one would like to honor medical professionals. This also helps to place the research in the historical context. On June 8, 2015, a symposium took place at the University of La Sapienza in Rome , which dealt with the eponyms of National Socialist doctors and called for their renaming and replacement. It is about 15 disease names named after Nazi doctors who were not only sympathizers, but also actively involved in human experiments in Nazi concentration camps or who provided medical support, such as

See also


Overall representations

In German: Hippocrates in Hell. The crimes of the concentration camp doctors. Konrad Theiss , Darmstadt 2016, ISBN 978-3-8062-3285-1 .
  • Norbert Frei : Medicine and Health Policy in the Nazi Era. Quarterly books for contemporary history , series of publications. Oldenbourg, Munich 1991.
  • Robert Jütte : History of the German medical profession. Deutscher Ärzteverlag, Cologne 1997, ISBN 3-7691-0345-9 .
  • Robert Jütte, Wolfgang U. Eckart , Hans-Walter Schmuhl , Winfried Suss (eds.): Medicine and National Socialism. Results and perspectives of research. Wallstein, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8353-0659-2 .
  • Michael H. Kater : Doctors as Hitler's helpers. With a foreword by Hans Mommsen. Piper, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-203-79005-X . As paperback: Munich 2002, ISBN 3-492-23407-0 .
  • Ernst Klee : Auschwitz, Nazi medicine and its victims. S. Fischer, Frankfurt 1997.
  • Ernst Klee: German Medicine in the Third Reich. Careers before and after 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt 2001.
  • Christoph Kopke (ed.): Medicine and crime. Klemm & Oelschläger, Münster 2001, ISBN 3-932577-32-9 .
  • Robert Lifton : Doctors in the Third Reich. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1988.
  • Matthias Meusch: Medicine in National Socialism. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 907-915.
  • Benno Müller-Hill : Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany, 1933-1945. Oxford University Press , New York 1988.
    • In German: Tödliche Wissenschaft - The singling out of Jews, Gypsies and the mentally ill 1933–1945. Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-333-00438-0 .
  • Lilli Segal: The high priests of annihilation. Dietz, Berlin 1991.
  • Winfried Süß: The national body in war. Health policy, health conditions and the murder of the sick in National Socialist Germany 1939–1945. Oldenbourg, Munich 2003.
  • Achim Thom , GI Caregorodcev: Medicine under the swastika. Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin 1989.
  • Rolf Winau , Heinz Müller-Dietz (ed.): Treatises on the history of medicine and the natural sciences. H. 62. Matthiesen, Husum 1991, ISBN 3-7868-4062-8 .
  • Walter Wuttke: Medicine in National Socialism. A work book. 2nd, unv. Edition. Schwäbische Verlags-Gesellschaft, Tübingen 1982.

Individual areas

  • Gerhard Aumüller , Kornelia Grundmann, Esther Krähwinkel: The Marburg Medical Faculty in the “Third Reich”. Saur, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-598-24570-X . ( Academia Marburgensis, Volume 8)
  • Udo Benzenhöfer : The Frankfurt University Medicine between 1933 and 1945. klemm + oelschläger, Münster / Ulm 2012, ISBN 978-3-86281-050-5 .
  • Sigrid Oehler-Klein (Ed.): The Medical Faculty of the University of Gießen during National Socialism and in the post-war period: people and institutions, upheavals and continuities. Steiner, Stuttgart 2007 ( The Medical Faculty of the University of Gießen 1607 to 2007, Volume 2, edited by Volker Roelcke ).
  • Detlef Bothe: Neue Deutsche Heilkunde: 1933–1945 - Represented using the magazine "Hippokrates" and the development of the folk medicine lay movement. Dissertation . Free University of Berlin 1991.
  • Annemone Christians: Authority and Public Health . Public health in National Socialist Munich. Wallstein, Göttingen 20134, ISBN 978-3-8353-1258-6 .
  • Section “History of Veterinary Medicine ”: Veterinary medicine in the Third Reich. DVG, Giessen 1998.
  • Ursula Ferdinand, Hans-Peter Kröner, Ioanna Mamali (eds.): Medical faculties in the German university landscape 1925–1950. Synchron, Heidelberg 2013.
  • Ralf Forsbach : The Medical Faculty of the University of Bonn in the “Third Reich”. Oldenbourg, Munich 2006.
  • Matthias Heyn: National Socialism, Naturopathy and Preventive Medicine: The New German Medicine of Karl Kötschau. Dissertation Hannover Medical School 2000.
  • Wolfgang Kirchhoff (Hrsg.): Dentistry and fascism. Mabuse, Frankfurt am Main 1987.
  • Matthis Krischel, Friedrich Moll, Julia Bellmann, Albrecht Scholz: Urologists in National Socialism. Volume 1: Between Adaptation and Displacement ; Volume 2: Biographies and Materials. Hentrich & Hentrich, Berlin 2011.
  • Regine Lockot: Remembering and working through: on the history of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy during National Socialism. Fischer-Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 1985.
  • Matthias Meusch: Medical faculties under National Socialism. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 390 f.
  • Jürgen Peter: The breach of racial hygiene in medicine. Effects of racial hygiene on thinking collectives and medical fields from 1918 to 1943. Frankfurt am Main 2004.
  • Robert N. Proctor : Blitzkrieg Against Cancer. Health and Propaganda in the Third Reich. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2002.
  • Rohrbach, Jens Martin: Ophthalmology in National Socialism. Schattauer, Stuttgart 2007.
  • Eduard Seidler : Pediatricians 1933–1945. Disenfranchised - fled - murdered. Bouvier, Bonn 2000.
  • Lars Endrik Sievert: Naturopathy and Medical Ethics in National Socialism. Mabuse, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-929106-28-0 .
  • Johannes Vossen: health authorities under National Socialism. Racial hygiene and open health management in Westphalia 1900–1950. Klartext, Essen 2001.
  • Matthis Krischel, Mathias Schmidt, Dominik Groß (Hrsg.): Medical specialist societies in National Socialism. Inventory and perspectives. Berlin 2016.
  • Heike Drummer: "Service to the People" - National Socialist Health Policy in Frankfurt am Main. In: City Health Office (ed.), From “stede arzt” to City Health Office. The history of public health in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Waldemar Kramer 1992, ISBN 3-7829-0425-7 , pp. 86-111.

Processing after 1945


  • Hitler's elite after 1945. Doctors - medicine without a conscience. Documentation, 45 min., A film by Gerolf Karwath, production: SWR , first broadcast: July 31, 2002

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Matthias Meusch: Medical faculties under National Socialism. 2005, p. 390.
  2. Anne of Villiez: The expulsion of the Jewish doctors Hamburg from working life from 1933 to 1945. ( Memento from May 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF). In: Hamburger Ärzteblatt. No. 3, 2004, p. 110 ff.
  3. J. Rat : 70 years later: Withdrawal of license to practice medicine 1938. In: HaGalil. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  4. Eighth ordinance on the Reich Citizenship Act of January 17, 1939. - In: RGBl. I. - No. 9 of January 18, 1939. - P. 47 f.
  5. Thomas Beddies, Susanne Doetz, Christoph Kopke (eds.): Jüdische, Ärztinnen und Ärzte under National Socialism; Disenfranchisement, expulsion, murder. (= European-Jewish studies. Articles. Volume 12). de Gruyter Oldenbourg, ISBN 978-3-11-030605-7 , p. 53.
  6. Hagalil: 70 years later: Withdrawal from medical school in 1938.
  7. Matthias Meusch: Medicine in National Socialism. 2005, p. 911.
  8. ^ A b Robert Jütte: Homeopathy and National Socialism - a historical expertise. (As of June 2008) Head of the Institute for the History of Medicine at the Robert Bosch Stiftung Stuttgart
  9. a b Bertram Karrasch: Folk healing lay associations in the Third Reich. 1997. ( ( Memento from December 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive ); PDF; 20 kB)
  10. ^ Günter Schwarberg: Hanging twenty children takes a long time. In: Die Zeit , No. 15/2005.
  11. ^ Ernst Klee: German human consumption . In: The time . No. 49/1997.
  12. ^ Susann Gasse: Human experiments in concentration camps . Jewish History and Culture, accessed January 27, 2015.
  13. Sven Felix Kellerhoff : For testing gassed: How the Nazis were rehearsing the mass murder in Brandenburg. In: Welt Online . January 10, 2011, accessed February 16, 2015.
  14. ^ Nazi forced sterilization The "Erbgesundheitsrichter" (hereditary health judge) . ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Stern. January 23, 2004; accessed February 1, 2015.
  15. Alfred Möhrle: The doctor in National Socialism: The way to the Nuremberg doctor process and the conclusions from it. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt . October 25, 1996, accessed February 27, 2015.
  16. Lothar Gruchmann: Euthanasia and Justice in the Third Reich. (PDF). In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte . 1972, issue 3, p. 271 ff.
  17. Ute Vergin: The National Socialist Labor Administration and its functions in the deployment of foreign workers during the Second World War. Osnabrück 2008. (full text, pdf)
  18. ^ Forced labor and medicine in the Third Reich . In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt . 2001; accessed January 25, 2015.
  19. Forced labor during the Nazi era in medicine using the example of Göttingen. ( Memento from June 1, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Institute for Ethics and History of Medicine, University of Göttingen, accessed January 25, 2015.
  20. Ralf Banken: Precious Metals Shortage and Large Robbery: The Development of the German Precious Metals Sector in the “Third Reich” 1933–1945. Walter de Gruyter, 2009, ISBN 978-3-05-008695-8 , p. 564 ff.
  21. a b Christoph Redies, Sabine Hildebrand: Anatomy in National Socialism: Without any scruples . In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt . 2012; Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  22. The murderers are still among us . In: Der Spiegel . No. 28 , 1988 ( online ).
  23. Matthias Meusch: Medicine in National Socialism. 2005, p. 914.
  24. Stefanie Michaela Baumann: Human attempts and reparation: The long dispute over compensation and recognition of the victims of National Socialist human experiments. Walter de Gruyter, 2009, ISBN 978-3-486-58951-1 .
  25. In memory of the victims . Max Planck Society , January 27, 2015; Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  26. Medicina e Olocausto, uno scandalo ancora tutto scrivere there., Rome, (Italian); accessed on July 16, 2015.
  27. Daniel Mosseri: “We think that's unbearable” - Cesare Efrati on diseases that are named after Nazi doctors . In: Jüdische Allgemeine . June 18, 2015. Accessed July 16, 2015.
  28. ^ Reporting , (Italian), Sapienza University. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  29. A. Woywodt, EL Matteson: Wegener's granulomatosis - probing the untold past of the man behind the eponym. In: Rheumatology. 45, 2006, p. 1303, doi: 10.1093 / rheumatology / kel258 .
  30. a b c Dave W. Lu, Kenneth A. Katz: Declining use of the eponym “Reiter's syndrome” in the medical literature, 1998-2003. In: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 53, 2005, p. 720, doi: 10.1016 / j.jaad.2005.06.048 .
  31. Daniel Kondziella: Thirty Neurological Eponyms Associated with the Nazi Era. In: European Neurology. 62, 2009, p. 56, doi: 10.1159 / 000215880 .
  32. Hans Heinz Simmer , Jochen Suss: The gestagen test on infantile rabbits. The invention of Willard M. Allen and its application by Carl Clauberg. A contribution to the problem of eponyms. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 13, 1995, pp. 399-416; here: p. 399 f. and 403 ff.
  33. ^ A. Winkelmann, T. Noack: The Clara cell: a "Third Reich eponym"? In: European Respiratory Journal. 36, 2010, p. 722. doi: 10.1183 / 09031936.00146609 .
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  35. The book comments on the German-language literature on medicine under National Socialism. Intended for readers who want to deepen their knowledge in this field or do further research.