Royal Bavarian State Railways
The Royal Bavarian State Railways (K.Bay.Sts.B.) were the state railways of the Kingdom of Bavaria . They were founded in 1844. By the end of the First World War, the company developed into the second largest German state railroad after the Prussian state railways with a route network of 8,526 kilometers (including the Palatinate Railways , which was taken over on January 1, 1909 ) . After the end of the monarchy on November 8, 1918, the title royal was dropped in the name .
The Bavarian State Railways were formally transferred to the Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen on April 1, 1920, and from April 24, 1920 formed the Bavarian Group Administration within the same . The administration of the Bavarian route network was divided into five Reichsbahndirektion, so called from 1922: Reichsbahndirektion Augsburg , Reichsbahndirektion Munich , Reichsbahndirektion Nürnberg , Reichsbahndirektion Regensburg and Reichsbahndirektion Würzburg ; The latter, however, was dissolved again in 1930, incorporated into the Nuremberg Railway Directorate and its route network divided between the Augsburg and Nuremberg directorates. The former Palatinate Railways formed the Ludwigshafen Reich Railway Directorate . The group administration set up in Germany within the Deutsche Reichsbahn exclusively at the Bavarian directorates as an intermediate instance was dissolved on October 1, 1933.
After private companies were able to successfully set up railway operations in the Kingdom of Bavaria between Nuremberg and Fürth in 1835 and between Munich and Augsburg from 1839 , the state railway era began in 1841 with the establishment of the Royal Railway Construction Commission in Nuremberg . This should organize the construction of a railway line from Lindau via Augsburg and Nuremberg to Hof .
The Royal Bavarian State Railways initially focused on building three main lines:
- The Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn with a length of 548 kilometers was built between 1844 and 1854.
It was built in three construction phases at the same time: the northern section runs from Nuremberg via Bamberg and the inclined plane to Hof with a connection to the Saxon railway network. The middle section leads from Augsburg via Donauwörth to Nördlingen . A connection to the Württemberg rail network was hoped for there. From Nördlingen, the route continues via Gunzenhausen and Pleinfeld to Nuremberg. In order to guarantee the connection to the state capital, the Munich-Augsburg railway company with its 62 km long railway line was taken over for a purchase price of 4.4 million guilders. The southern section leads from Augsburg via Buchloe , Kaufbeuren and Kempten to Lindau in Lake Constance .
- The Ludwigs-West-Bahn with a length of about 100 kilometers was built from 1852 to 1854 and opened in sections. From the connection to the south-north railway in Bamberg , it leads along the Main Valley via Schweinfurt and Würzburg to Aschaffenburg with a connection to Hesse.
- The Bavarian Maximiliansbahn , built from 1853 to 1860, created an east-west connection from the border with Württemberg near Neu-Ulm over the existing Augsburg – Munich line to Austria. The western part of Augsburg - Günzburg - Neu-Ulm was 85 km long. In the eastern section, the Isar was crossed with the Großhesseloher bridge and the route was led via Holzkirchen to Rosenheim . There the route branched south towards Kufstein and east via Traunstein towards Salzburg .
Due to the tight cash situation, the state parliament passed a law on March 19, 1856, which allowed the establishment of private railway companies and facilitated the financing of railway construction through state interest guarantees. On April 12, 1856 Maximilian II granted the AG der Bayerische Ostbahnen the concession to build and operate the following routes:
- from Nuremberg via Amberg to Regensburg,
- from Munich via Landshut to the Danube (near Straubing ),
- from Regensburg via Straubing and Passau to the border with Austria and
- from the Amberg – Regensburg line near Schwandorf via Furth im Wald to the border with Bohemia .
These routes were built within just five years under the direction of Paul Denis and the architect Heinrich Hügel . In the concessions of January 3, 1862 and August 3, 1869, the construction of branch lines and simplifications in the route network were regulated, e.g. B. the shorter route from Regensburg via Neumarkt to Nuremberg. Since the interest guarantee was threatened to be claimed from 1874, the state takeover was decided on April 15, 1875 and the Ostbahn was incorporated into the state railway on January 1, 1876.
In the field of Pfalz on 1 January 1870, the three companies were Ludwigsbahn which Maximiliansbahn and the Northern Railways to the Palatine railways summarized. At the same time, the Nordbahnen took over all shares in the Neustadt-Dürkheimer Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft . On January 1, 1909, what was then the largest private railway company in Germany was incorporated into the state railways as the Royal Bavarian Railway Directorate Ludwigshafen . At that time, the route network had a length of 870 km, 60 km of which were narrow-gauge. The state had to spend around 300 million marks on this purchase.
In the following decades, the state railway network was expanded more and more and gaps were closed. At the beginning of the 20th century, the country was opened up with the help of an extensive local railway network. In 1907 the General Directorate of the Royal Bavarian State Railways was dissolved and their responsibilities were distributed among the individual directorates.
On April 1, 1918, in alignment with the neighboring Prussian State Railways , 4th class was also introduced at the Royal Bavarian State Railways .
With the end of the monarchy in November 1918, the title "royal" was dropped. The Bavarian State Railways were transferred to the German State Railways on April 1, 1920 as the Bavarian group administration .
The general administration of the Royal Railways was founded in Munich on April 15, 1845 as the central administration . This was subordinate to the railway offices in Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg and Bamberg as regional administrations, in the following period further railway offices were created. In June 1847, the administration of railways and post offices was merged into the new General Administration of the Royal Posts and Railways and, from March 1, 1851, was named the General Directorate of the Royal Transport Authority . The transport authorities were assigned to the Bavarian Ministry of Commerce, from 1871 they were subordinate to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs .
In 1875 the Bavarian Transport Authority introduced ten upper railway offices as an additional administrative unit, to which the individual railway offices were subordinate. The main railway offices were in Augsburg, Bamberg, Ingolstadt, Kempten, Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg, Rosenheim , Weiden and Würzburg. In 1886, the post office and the railroad were separated again and the new general management of the Royal Bavarian State Railways was created, which took over the central administration of the ten upper railway offices.
The rail expert Heinrich von Frauendorfer served as Minister of State of the newly established State Ministry for Transport Affairs from 1904 to 1912 and, in addition to the electrification of the railways in Bavaria, also initiated a new administrative organization. The General Directorate of the Royal Bavarian State Railways was dissolved and its tasks were taken over by the Ministry. On April 1, 1907, the railway operations departments were created instead of the upper railway authorities . They included the Augsburg , Ludwigshafen / Rhein, Munich , Nuremberg , Bamberg, Regensburg and Würzburg divisions, which were taken over by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in 1920, with the exception of Bamberg (assigned to Nuremberg) .
Locomotives of the Bavarian State Railways
Like most regional railways, the Royal Bavarian State Railways also obtained their locomotives from locomotive manufacturers in their own country. Joseph Anton von Maffei and the locomotive factory Krauss & Co. (both Munich) were the house suppliers. Smaller series - mostly for test purposes or when the local suppliers were busy - also came from German-speaking countries, such as B. a series of freight train three-couplers from Sigl from Austria or individual pieces from Württemberg and Alsace-Lorraine . Four extraordinary locomotives were bought from Baldwin in the United States in 1899 and 1901 to study American construction techniques. These locomotives were of poor quality and in some cases were structurally typically American-typically simple, but in some things (e.g. the bar frame) more advanced than European locomotives. The knowledge gained from this flowed into the construction of new Bavarian machines and the bar frame shaped the southern German locomotive construction in the following decades.
Special Bavarian locomotives
The only machine in the S 2/6 series was developed and built within five months under the direction of the chief designer at the locomotive factory J. A. Maffei, Anton Hammel , and presented to the public at the Nuremberg State Exhibition in 1906. After returning from the exhibition, the Royal Bavarian State Railways took it over on November 21, 1906. On the Munich – Augsburg route, the machine set a world record for steam locomotives in July 1907 with a top speed of 154.5 km / h . After it was taken out of service in 1925, it was kept in the Nuremberg Transport Museum .
After the success of this record locomotive, A. Hammel developed a Pacific machine for the Kingdom of Bavaria based on the machines of the IV f series (DR 18.2 series) built by Maffei for the Grand Duke of Baden State Railways , but with the maximum axle pressure of 16 t. These express train locomotives, which were set up in Bavaria as S 3/6 , were a great success and were still procured by the Deutsche Reichsbahn as classes 18.4 and 18.5 until 1930.
In 1914, the first machines of the most powerful Bavarian steam locomotive finally came into service, the Mallet tank locomotive Gt 2 × 4/4 (DR class 96.0). They were mainly used on the steep Bavarian ramps in the pushing service. The drive on eight axles reduced the axle pressure while maintaining the friction weight .
Passenger car of the Bavarian State Railways
Freight wagon of the Bavarian State Railways
- Günther Scheingraber: The Royal Bavarian State Railways. Franckh, Stuttgart 1975, ISBN 3-440-04233-2 .
- Ludwig von Welser: Railway Journal. Bavaria Report. Volumes 4-9. Merker, Fürstenfeldbruck 1994–2001.
- Walther Zeitler: Railways in Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate. 2nd edition Amberg 1997, ISBN 3-924350-61-2 .
- ↑ https://www.themt.de/beschreibung/kbaystsb-000.png
- ↑ http://www.kbaystb.de/kbaystb-kbaystb/kbaystb-geschichte/geschichte-reichsbahngruendung/geschichte-weimarer_verfassungs.html
- ↑ http://www.kbaystb.de/kbaystb-kbaystb/kbaystb-geschichte/geschichte-reichsbahngruendung/geschichte-reichsbahngruendung.html
- ^ Sybille Grübel: Timeline of the history of the city from 1814-2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1225-1247; here: p. 1235.
- ↑ bahnstatistik.de: Railway Directorate Würzburg , accessed on February 15, 2016
- ↑ Aktiensammler 05/07, p. 14f, ISSN 1611-8006
- ^ Albert Mühl: The Pfalzbahn , p. 36
- ↑ No proof of the route kilometers and the purchase price
- ↑ Railway Directions District Mainz (ed.): Official Gazette of the Royal Prussian and Grand Ducal Hessian Railway Directorate in Mainz from April 6, 1907, No. 18. Announcement No. 186, p. 211.
- ↑ Eisenbahndirektion Mainz (ed.): Official Gazette of the Royal Prussian and Grand Ducal Hessian Railway Directorate in Mainz of March 16, 1918, No. 12. Announcement No. 214, p. 86.
- ^ Meyers Konversationslexikon from 1888
- ↑ Klaus-Dieter Korhammer, Armin Franzke, Ernst Rudolph: Turntable of the South. Munich railway junction . Ed .: Peter Lisson . Hestra-Verlag, Darmstadt 1991, ISBN 3-7771-0236-9 , p. 137-138 .
- ^ Organizational structure of the Royal Bavarian State Railways