Monserrat (Buenos Aires)
Monserrat or Montserrat is a district in the east of the Argentine capital Buenos Aires . It has 43,560 inhabitants (as of 2001) on an area of 2.2 km² , the population density thus corresponds to 19,800 per km².
The district is bordered by Avenida Rivadavia , Avenida Leandro N. Alem , Calle Bartolomé Miter, Avenida Rosales, Avenida La Rábida norte, Avenida Ingeniero Huergo, Calle Chile, Calle Piedras, Avenida Independencia and Avenida Entre Ríos . North of Monserrat is San Nicolás , east Puerto Madero , south San Telmo and Constitución and west Balvanera .
The history of Monserrat goes back to the founding of Buenos Aires, when the Spanish Adelantado Juan de Garay landed there in 1580 . First a fort was built there in 1594 . In 1608 Jesuits were granted two hectares of land, on which construction work for the Church of San Ignacio began in 1686. Consecrated in 1734, it is the oldest surviving church in Buenos Aires. The school and library attached to the church were the best in colonial Buenos Aires and were the only facilities to offer classical education. It was therefore popularly known as "Manzana de las Luces" (House of the Enlightened).
Other orders also settled in Monserrat, including the Catalan brotherhood of the "Virgin of Montserrat", after which the district was given its current name in 1769.
Little happened in Monserrat until the end of the 19th century. When the economic boom in Argentina began around 1875, the cobblestone streets of Monserrat were not spared from the modernization. The construction of docks in today's Puerto Madero , east of Monserrat, also led to the construction of the Paseo Colón, which is still an important thoroughfare today. In 1884 the Plaza de Mayo was laid out, on which the seat of the Argentine President, the Casa Rosada , is located. To create the Avenida de Mayo , many buildings from the colonial era were demolished, including parts of the Cabildo. But the area south of Plaza de Mayo is still the oldest part of Buenos Aires, only a few buildings are younger than 100 years.
In 1913, the first metro station in Buenos Aires was opened on Avenida de Mayo .
Monserrat is the political center of Buenos Aires: The Presidential Palace, the Casa Rosada , the Cabildo and the city hall are located on the Plaza de Mayo , a little east of the Casa Rosada, in the Parque Colón you can see the twenty-story Ministry of Defense . The Plaza de Mayo is connected by the Avenida de Mayo to the Plaza del Congreso , the location of the Congress Palace , where the Argentine Parliament meets. While the Plaza del Congreso still belongs to Monserrat, the Congress Palace is already in Balvanera , as the Avenida Entre Ríos separates both the Congress Palace from the Plaza and the two parts of the city.
Avenida 9 de Julio has been running through Monserrat since 1950 . The western part of the district, previously inhabited by members of the middle class, developed into a bohemian quarter, but also a popular place to live for those who appreciate the proximity to the financial district in San Nicolás to the north .
Its architectural richness and the quiet, narrow streets led to a new interest since 1990, similar to the neighboring San Telmo . Due to the numerous Spanish restaurants and facilities of the Spanish-born Argentinians, e.g. B. Clubs, Monserrat is associated with the Spanish tradition in Buenos Aires and is therefore also attractive to tourists , both for cultural reasons and because of its ambience. The famous Café Tortoni is also located here. The Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires is also in Monserrat.