Nuremberg motorcycle industry
Nuremberg was the center of the German two-wheeler industry for many decades . The Nuremberg motorcycle industry has become synonymous with innovation, quality and success in motorsport.
A multitude of new brands and manufacturers soon emerged, so that in the 1920s there were around fifty in Nuremberg and the surrounding area. However, the global economic crisis brought the end of their activities for many of these smaller manufacturers.
The armament of the Wehrmacht in the 1930s then only filled the order books for a few factories. The variety of types was severely restricted. The air raids on Nuremberg in World War II led to the extensive destruction of many factories.
After the end of the war and the reconstruction of the production facilities, the pre-war models were initially only built slightly modified, later supplemented by new two-wheelers, which achieved excellent sales figures until the mid-1950s. In the so-called economic miracle of West Germany , however, the triumphant advance of motorization with affordable cars ( VW Beetle , Lloyd LP 600 , BMW Isetta and others) came at the expense of two-wheeler sales and so towards the end of the decade many plants had to merge with others or close completely.
Manufacturers or brands
Abako was the name of a brand under which motorcycles were created between 1923 and 1925 at Apparatebau AG Kracker & Co. in Nuremberg.
Ardie is a motorcycle company founded by Ar no Die trich, which produced between 1919 and 1958.
The Astoria Motor GmbH was founded on 29 September 1922, initially had its headquarters in the Solgerstr. 6a. Later they produced their own 289 cm³ three-channel two-stroke motorcycles at Äußere Rollnerstrasse 55 in Nuremberg , which were equipped with triangular frames that were open at the bottom and druid forks . The front wheel had no brakes. The drive to the rear wheel was by means of a belt drive , and the rear wheel was equipped with a block brake.
In 1923 Astoria had to be renamed Nestoria because the company Simson, Suhl, had filed an objection to the name. Simson had secured the name "Rennastoria". Astoria changed its name to Nestoria in June 1923 and continued production of these machines. At that time, 140 workers were already employed.
Hans Wolf from Nuremberg, one of the co-owners of "Astoria", won first place in the Franconian reliability test in 1922 in the class up to 350 cm³ on an Astoria.
Bischoff & Pedall Nestoria
See Nestoria on this page.
In 1921, the designer Friedrich Gockerell created an auxiliary bicycle motor with a "square" cross-section - that is: piston stroke = cylinder bore - and a horizontal cylinder that was arranged above the rear wheel of a normal bicycle. On this basis, from 1922 onwards, he developed fast two-stroke light motorcycles with horizontal air and water-cooled 110 cm³ engines and a maximum output of 1.5 hp. The machine was simply pushed. Primary drive with a chain to the two-speed gearbox and belt drive to the rear wheel were common design features. From 1922 Gockerell left these very successful motorcycles at the under Cockerell Fahrzeug- und Motorenwerke GmbH in Siegfriedstr. 17 company located in Nuremberg. These were the halls of the Kracker & Co. company, where the abako were made. Cockerell's headquarters were in Gunzenrainerstr. 6 and Schwanthalerstr. 5 in Munich . Its probably more well-known construction, the Megola motorcycle with a 5-cylinder rotary radial engine in the front wheel, can also be assigned to Munich.
The brand DKW is inseparable from the Dane Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen connected whose Zschopauer Maschinenfabrik in World War one financed by German military authorities D ampf k raft w should develop agen. In mid-1932, the Zschopauer Motorenwerke JS Rasmussen became part of the Chemnitzer Auto Union AG , which was dissolved after the Second World War. Auto Union GmbH , newly founded in West Germany in 1949, sold its Ingolstadt DKW two-wheeler production in 1958 to Zweirad Union in Nuremberg, which was newly created in the same year . This was merged into the Hercules plants of Fichtel & Sachs in the mid-1960s .
The brothers Wilhelm and Josef Eichelsdörfer began at Bogenstrasse 12 in Nuremberg in 1930 with the construction of 200 cm³ and 300 cm³ motorcycles. Side-controlled " JAP " motors were built into the chassis . Sales were probably limited to the narrower region, and Eichelsdörfer had to stop production in 1934.
The company Erle und Nestler AG, ENAG for short at Johannisstrasse 9-11 in Nuremberg was an old electrical engineering company. In 1924, however, the construction of two-stroke machines with 248 cm³, which were designed by Theo Steininger, began. A prototype was made in 1923. The series model presented at the Leipzig Trade Fair in 1924 attracted a lot of attention due to the special design features of the engine. The idiosyncratic construction was characterized by a water-cooled horizontal cylinder in connection with an air-cooled cylinder head cover. The water cooling was designed as a thermosiphon cooling .
However, since the expected sales of this machine did not materialize, Erle and Nestler sold the production to the mechanical workshops Michael Sept and Fritz Unger in Schwabacher Strasse 67 in Nuremberg. The machine with a displacement of 348 cm³ and the S&U logo was manufactured there in small numbers until 1926 . The initial belt drive was replaced by a chain in 1925, as was the two-speed gearbox with a three-speed one.
See Eschag on this page.
The EPA motorbikes were of the brothers Edmund and Peter Pazicky in Nuremberg from 1924 until the Great Depression made. The namesake Edmund Pazicky was the company's technical director, while Peter Pazicky was responsible for the commercial area. The addresses are Schnieglingerstraße 321 and Gertrudstraße 26.
The frame and fork were self-made, while all other parts were mainly imported from England. The built-in engines came from JAP and usually had a displacement of 293 cm³, later optionally also 344 cm³. A model with a 1000 cm³ V-twin cylinder and a 600 cm³ single cylinder engine was also manufactured by JAP.
The Eschag engines mbH in the July 14 in Nuremberg built from 1923 to 1926 298-cc three-channel two-stroke engines in small numbers as well as 150-cm³- two-stroke motorcycles , with a belt drive were equipped. With such a 150, the racing driver Engelbrecht from Nuremberg achieved a remarkable second place at the Bavarian Mountain Championship in 1924. In 1925 the company was renamed Enlag Motoren GmbH . Eschag, like many motorcycle manufacturers at the time, did not achieve the hoped-for importance and the planned sales, so that production had to be stopped in 1926. Eschag was forced to close its gates, like so many small clothing manufacturers for motorcycles in Germany at the time, and especially in the motorcycle stronghold of Nuremberg, but this fact is also an essential characteristic of the economic situation in this decade .
Ferbedo was the company name from Fer Dinand Be tthäuser in the Fürther Straße 306 in Nuremberg- Thu os. From 1953 Ferbedo produced a simple motor scooter with the designation R48 and an output of 1.5 HP, driven by a 48 cm³ Zündapp Combimot two-stroke engine , but without any great economic success. Production therefore ended in 1954.
The Fortuna small engine vehicle plant at Fürther Straße 384 in Nuremberg Doos began in 1921 with the production of 249 cm³ and 297 cm³ three-channel two-stroke motorcycles with an external flywheel. Only these two types were manufactured during the entire production period. Karl Kumpt and Eugen Pospischil took first and second places in the Ködelbergrennen on June 28, 1925 with a 249 cm³ Fortuna. Fortuna GmbH was liquidated on March 1, 1929.
L. Seidel produced his motorcycles under the company Franzani Motorenwerk GmbH in Schwabenstrasse 51 in Nuremberg. From 1923 onwards, they were able to offer their own 298 cc two-stroke models, and in 1925 also 350 cc models. The 350 motorcycle, still with belt drive , already had drum brakes . From about 1926, the machines were JAP - four-stroke engines with 198 cc to 496 cc equipped.
The difficult economic situation in 1928 forced the company to restrict it to just one type of motorcycle. Then, albeit only a few, specimens of the type FK59 were built with the three-valve, overhead-controlled 497 cm³ engines designed by Richard Küchen . The sluggish sales made it necessary to sell the company to Gottlieb Düll at Schoppershofstrasse 8 in Nuremberg. There the production was continued under the name Franzani. While the FK59 remained in the range, the range was expanded to include four additional models. The motorcycle range now also included models with 200 cm³, two with 300 cm³ and another with 500 cm³ displacement . The small motorcycle company has probably taken over, because production had to be stopped in 1931.
See Cockerell on this page.
The hail motor cycle AG in Nuremberg produced from 1923 to 1925 only a very small number of motorcycles a respected designer and three-channel two-stroke engines with 247 cc displacement. It was a box-frame construction modeled on the White Mars . Sports successes or press advertisements are not known.
Hecker produced from 1922 to 1956, initially so-called Emora built-in motorcycles, and later complete motorcycles with different cubic capacities.
The Heilbrunn & Co. motorcycle factory at Bauerngasse 21 in Nuremberg produced the Heilo motorcycles from 1923 to 1925 . In a very appealing and torsion-resistant chassis, the most obvious feature of which was the four straight pipes from the steering head to the rear axle mount, the manufacturer used a two-stroke engine with a 348 cm³ displacement of its own design. A chain was provided for the primary drive to the three-speed gearbox, while a chain or belt was optionally available for the secondary drive to the rear wheel . The motorcycle was decelerated by means of internal shoe brakes in both wheels. The front wheel was guided in a parallelogram suspension fork .
From 1923 to 1926, the Heller motorcycle factory in Prechtlgasse 14 in Nuremberg produced motorcycle types with two different chassis designs and various engines.
The machine, similar to the Victoria K.RI , is relatively well-known , because it also had a boxer engine of the type M2 B15 with 494 cm³ , which was also designed by Martin Stolle at BMW . Machines with side-controlled 746 cm³ boxer engines were also manufactured by the Fürst Hohenzollernsche Maschinenfabrik, Immendingen . The power was transmitted via a three-speed gearbox and V-belt to the rear wheel. The motorcycle was only decelerated with the pad brake built into the rear wheel.
The second type of motorcycle was a double-loop tubular frame construction that was remarkable for the time! A 200 cc engine in either a two-stroke or four-stroke version and a 350 cc kitchen engine were available for this chassis .
Hercules was a bicycle, moped and motorcycle manufacturer founded in 1886 as the Velocipede Factory Carl Marschütz & Co. and operating as the Nuremberg Velocipede Factory Hercules from 1887. In 1963 Fichtel & Sachs took over the Hercules works. From 1987 Fichtel & Sachs was taken over by Mannesmann and Hercules von Mannesmann was sold to the Dutch Accell Group in 1995. From 2006 to October 2007 Hercules Fahrrad GmbH & Co. KG was based in Neuhof . Hercules was then transferred to Sennfeld near Schweinfurt.
Javon , so J ohann A dam Vo gler vehicle, Rohrmattstrasse 16 in N ürnberg Zabo, produced a small number of 198-cm³- and 498 cc engine with side-valve four-stroke engines, which he of Sturmey-Archer moved. Vogler bought in 1925, the company is located in bankruptcy Abako , production of Abako motorcycles led largely unchanged on until the Great Depression . In 1929 he too went bankrupt, presumably planned, because he acquired the bankruptcy assets of the motorcycle brands Ocra and Lloyd at this time . However, he did not continue the production of these brands, but built his own machines under the Javon brand until 1932. Vogler also ensured the supply of spare parts for the motorcycle brands Abako , Ocra, Cockerell and Lloyd . Two machines (198 cc Sturmey-Archer engine) are still known today. One of them is ready to drive, only parts of the other are left. There is also a photo of a Javon with a displacement of probably 500 cm³.
J ohann H irschmann & C o. Motorradbau in Nuremberg, JHC for short , produced small numbers of motorcycles with their own 200 cc two-stroke machines from 1921 to 1923 . The horizontally installed engine drove the rear wheel directly via V-belts without a gearbox. The braking device consisted only of a rim block brake for the rear wheel, as was the standard at the time.
Motor & Fahrradbau Kofa AG at Neutorstrasse 10 in Nuremberg produced very few motorcycles with a 289 cm³ two-stroke engine from 1923 to 1925 . This was built into a triangular tube frame.
Lloyd or Ocra
The O ttmar Cra mer ( Ocra ) Lloyd Motors plant in the Lower Tower Street 16 in Nuremberg, later in the Poppenreuther 56, 1922 began the construction of a light motorcycle. This was a built-in motorcycle manufactured by Hecker , called Emora , in which a Maurer two-stroke engine with 118 cm³ was installed. This was followed by motorcycles with 500 cm³ JAP engines as well as those with overhead steered 350 cm³ Kühne engines from Dresden . These already had a three-speed transmission, chain drive to the rear wheel and shoe brakes on both wheels. From 1924 the motorcycles were sold under the name Lloyd. Sporting successes are just a few. In the traditional Würgauer hill climb , which existed before the First World War , an Ocra under the driver Gaßmann, Nuremberg, took second place in the industrial driver class and Bickel, Nuremberg, first place in the men's driver (!) Class up to 500 cm³. In the Franconian reliability run in 1925, Gaßmann was also able to achieve second place in the class up to 250 cm³. After economic difficulties, Johann Adam Vogler Javon took over the company in 1925 .
The machine factory Berner & Co on Ludwig-Feuerbach-Straße, later on Innere Laufer Gasse 20 in Nuremberg, produced a number of interesting motorcycles under the brand name Mammut from 1925 to 1933 . Initially, 198 cc Baumi- were two-stroke engines used, followed machines with its own two-stroke and four-stroke engines with 250, 300 and 350 cc displacement . From 1928 to 198 cc engine produced with English Villiers - two-stroke -Einbaumotoren and 196-, 348- and 496-cc engine, also with English engines Blackburne . Berner & Co. also built motorcycles with various built-in engines from the Swiss companies Motosacoche and Moser as well as machines with JAP single-cylinder engines. But in 1933 the end had come for the company. After the Second World War there were mammoth motorcycles again, but from Bielefeld and they were not related to the Nuremberg machines described here.
In the years 1926 to 1928 very successful racing machines were built with overhead Blackburne engines with 248 cm³ and 348 cm³ displacement, which delivered an output of eleven and 15 hp respectively. In 1928 Reinhard, Frankfurt, won on the trotting track in Gelsenkirchen in the 250 cm³ class and Degen, Frankfurt, in a race in Bad Aibling in the up to 350 cm³ class with a 250 cm³ mammoth. Degen was the only one to remain unpunished on the winter night trip in 1929. Later English engines from JAP were used in the racing machines. In 1931, Weidemann, Hanover, won second place at the Eilenriederennen and the Fichtenhainrennen and a victory at the Teterower Bergring-race, which he repeated in 1932.
Mars was founded in 1873 by Paul Reissmann to manufacture cast iron American stoves . Later motorcycles of various displacement classes were produced. Mars also built a number of automobiles up until 1907. The White Mars became famous in the 1920s. In 1958 Mars was forced to file for bankruptcy.
Ludwig Maurer's automobile factory at Dürrnhofstrasse 8-10 and 16 and Bahnhofstrasse 91-93 in Nuremberg produced between 1906 and 1910 with a workforce of around 400 workers 300–400 Maurer Union automobiles per year. An interesting construction detail was the faceplate friction gear used, which was also known as a friction gear. In the early 1920s, Maurer built the prototype of a water-cooled four-cylinder motorcycle with such a Maurer-Union motor-gear unit.
From 1920, Maurer began building motorcycles powered by a 118 cm³ two-stroke engine. A year later, the Emora installation frames built by Hecker were used and engines with a displacement of 172 cm³ were used. In 1923 a motorcycle appeared with a horizontally installed, water-cooled two - stroke engine with a displacement of 225 cm³ with a V-belt drive to the rear wheel as well as a block brake and an unbraked front wheel. In 1924 a version with an upright cylinder and 247 cm³ came on the market, which already had a chain drive to the rear wheel. Another year later, a water-cooled model with a longitudinally installed two-cylinder boxer engine was presented. However, this elaborately manufactured motorcycle met with too strong competition from the cheaper mass-produced products of its competitors, and the company management was forced to discontinue production in 1928.
The motor vehicle factory M ax F ischer in Nuremberg Johannis manufactured similar motorcycles under the name MF from 1922 to 1925 for Victoria KRI. The boxer engine type M2 B15 manufactured by BMW was installed . After BMW started producing its own R32 motorcycles in 1923, supplies of such units to competitors were discontinued, and Max Fischer found a replacement at the English company Blackburne . From this point on, motorcycles with side-steered 347 and 497 cc single-cylinder engines from Blackburne were built.
MJS and NIS
At the vehicle factory Schönfeld & Schwarz in Nuremberg, simple 245 cc two-stroke machines with the model designation Type C were produced in small numbers from 1924 to 1925 under the MJS brand . Equipped with a three-speed gearbox and a V-belt drive for the rear wheel, these motorcycles only had a block brake on the rear wheel. In 1925 a sport type D machine with a 298 cm³ engine from JAP was available. After economic problems and a reorganization, motorcycles were offered under the NIS brand from 1926 . But this did not prevent the gates from closing forever in 1928.
The Nestoria Motor GmbH resided after the name change from Astoria in Nestoria in Outer Rollnerstraße 55 in Nuremberg . At that time, 140 workers were already employed. On September 8, 1926, bankruptcy proceedings were opened against Nestoria, and on January 24, 1930, after the final distribution, it was repealed. Hans Bischoff was given power of attorney as early as 1925, as was Johann Pedall. Presumably in the course of the bankruptcy they received rights to the company and then traded as Bischoff & Pedall Nestoria Motor Vehicle Manufacturing.
Initially, 289 ( Astoria ) and 346 cc two-stroke machines were built. From 1926 onwards, 346 and 498 cc motorcycles with overhead engines were built by Richard Küchen . In the years 1927 to 1928 machines with built-in engines from Motosacoche (MAG) with 496 cm³ and 598 cm³ displacement followed . From 1928 onwards, built-in engines with 500 cm³ and 200 cm³ from Sturmey-Archer were installed. However, the customer could also get a Blackburne or JAP engine in their vehicle on request .
Sporting successes were mainly achieved with the two-stroke engines, u. a. In 1924 a second and a fourth place in the North Bavarian Reliability Race, or a fifth place in the Reichsfahrt in the same year. In the Würgauer Bergfahrt, a Nestoria in the men's driver class up to 350 cm³ took first place. In 1930 a Nestoria-JAP won the Teterower mountain ring race in the 250 cm³ and 500 cm³ classes.
In 1931 the production had to be stopped. A repair shop continued to operate in Mittlerer Kanalstrasse 1b until the company was completely liquidated in 1933.
See MJS on this page.
See Lloyd / Ocra on this page.
The Triumph Werke AG in the Fürther Straße 212 in Nuremberg separated from Triumph in Coventry in 1929. After legal battles over the trademark rights to Triumph / Coventry were the German Triumph models from 1929 to 1931 for export under the name Orial , after a protest by a French company of the same name, it was finally sold under TWN for Triumph Werke Nürnberg. These were 346 cm³ to 746 cm³ machines with Motosacoche built-in engines.
In O tto W ittkopf & S öhne shortly Owus in Nuremberg was established in 1927, a masterpiece in the form of a vehicle equipped with an overhead 249-cc four-stroke engine with 4.5 hp motorcycle with trapezoidal fork. This unique piece is exhibited in the Museum for Industrial Culture in Nuremberg.
The Premier works . AG, bike & Maschinenfabrik (JC Brown) in the Wächterstraße 2 in Nuremberg produced from 1911 to 1913 269-cm³- two-stroke - and side-valve 293 and 348-cm³- four-stroke engines . Premier was founded by the parent company Premier Cycle Company of bicycle pioneers William Hillmann , William Henry Herbert and George Beveley Cooper in Coventry, England . Bicycles have been produced there since 1891 and motorcycles since 1908. The premier factories moved to Eger shortly before the First World War and by 1930 developed into the largest motorcycle factory in Czechoslovakia . The Nuremberg branch was established in 1911 through a merger with the Christian Braun company.
The Hercules Werke GmbH in Fürth Street 191-193 in Nuremberg also planned to export to England years 1930 off. The fact that Great Britain had not joined the Madrid trademark agreement made it possible to set up a company in Birmingham called Hercules . The Hercules company in Nuremberg, which was founded in 1886, was older, so that the products were sold under the brand name Prior (from Latin : prior = literally the "earlier"). This name was used until the 1960s, when the excellent DKW brand could be used through the merger into Zweirad Union .
The Rex motor vehicle GmbH in Behringersdorf near Nuremberg produced from 1923 to 1925 motorcycles with 350- (according to other sources with 283-) cm³ two-stroke engines and a triangular frame open at the bottom and a druid fork . The rear wheel was driven directly by means of a V-belt without a gearbox. Only the rear wheel was decelerated with a block brake. The manufacturer should not be confused with the company located in Possenhofen (later Munich ), which manufactured engines and bicycles with auxiliary engines after the Second World War. It also has nothing to do with today's Rex brand scooters, which are sold by the Westphalian bicycle manufacturer Prophete .
August Gernet built a light motorcycle with a 250 cm³ two-stroke engine with two-speed gearbox and belt drive to the rear wheel under the brand name Rut from 1923 to 1924 at Mittlerer Kanalstrasse 18 in Nuremberg . According to another source, however, primitive 132 cc two-stroke machines with an external flywheel. In any case, without any success.
S & G
S & G was the name of the S charrer & G roß machine factory at Grenzstrasse 13 in Nuremberg, which produced motorcycles from 1925 to 1931 and also the VELOX three-wheeled express delivery van . Even before entering into motorcycle production, Scharrer & Groß had extensive experience in the construction of stationary diesel engines, marine engines and motorcycle engines.
Initially, Scharrer & Groß side-controlled 350 and 500 cm³ built-in motors (type 350 S and 500 S ) also manufactured for the Hecker company. These engines were also used for the Velox tricycle. In 1927, the models 350 K and 500 K with 14 and 20 HP power, equipped with head-controlled motors, appeared on the market. In 1928, models followed that were equipped with side or head-controlled 600 cm³ engines. The following year brought the saddle tanks instead of the plug-in tanks, and the sword shift of the gearbox also produced by Scharrer & Groß was replaced by the more modern tank shift. In 1928 the construction of tax-free and license-free two - stroke models using the 176 cm³ and 196 cm³ built-in engines produced by Villiers in England began.
S & U
See Enag on this page.
Steib was probably one of the best-known manufacturers of motorcycle sidecars in Germany.
Triumph was founded as a subsidiary in Nuremberg in 1896 by the Nuremberg businessman Siegfried Bettmann, who emigrated to England in 1884 and founded Triumph in Coventry there . In 1929 the company separated from the English parent company. In 1956 motorcycle production had to be stopped.
Victoria was founded in 1886 and started producing high bikes. Later, for many decades, the company produced very successfully motorcycles in a wide variety of cubic capacity classes. 1958 the merger to the Zweirad Union , which was later taken over by Hercules .
Ziejanü / ZJN
The company founder Ferdinand Zie glgänsberger and Max Yes kob in the lower channel line 1 and Table Field Road 71 in Nü rnberg built and sold their motorcycles from 1923 to 1926 under the brand name Ziejanü and ZJN . At the beginning - not dissimilar to the Zündapp K249 - two-stroke motorcycles with a displacement of 249 cm³ as well as two-speed transmission and belt drive to the rear wheel were created. Starting in 1925, the company's own engine production was stopped, probably for cost reasons, and English built-in engines from JAP and Blackburne with different cubic capacities were used.
The Zünder-Apparatebau-Gesellschaft was founded during the First World War in 1917 in Lobsingerstraße 8 by Fritz Neumeyer together with F. Krupp AG ( Essen ) and the clock and machine tool factory Gebr. Thiel GmbH ( Ruhla ). Neumeyer became the sole owner of the plant in 1918, which launched its first motorcycle in 1921. In the course of the following decades a number of interesting constructions followed, including the Wehrmacht team KS 750 or the "Green Elephant" KS 601 . The lack of sales of the small car Janus , which was brought to production with high financial commitment, forced Neumeyer to sell the Nuremberg plant to Robert Bosch GmbH in 1958 and to relocate the company headquarters to the Anzinger Str. 1-3 in Munich , which was built in the early 1950s .
The motor and pump factory, founded by A. King at Plärrer produced 4 in Nuremberg and sold under the name dwarf 1923-1925 lightweight motorcycles with 147 cc and 187 cc engine capacity with nose pistons - two-stroke engines .
There were several other motorcycle brands in the vicinity of Nuremberg.
- In the neighboring village of Fürth , Julius Höflich produced the small Juhö motorcycles from 1922 to 1925 .
- In Burgfarrnbach , motorcycles were built from 1924 to 1926 under the name KZ , which stood for Kolb & Ziegler . They were single-cylinder four-stroke machines with a two-speed gearbox, V-belt drive and parallelogram fork . The brakes were normal block brakes. There was also a sports machine with a 350 cm³ Kühne built-in engine and chain drive to the rear wheel.
- Also in Burgfarrnbach , Veit Schuh built motorcycles under the VS brand from 1922 to 1924 with a special design of the front fork, because the spring elements were housed invisibly in the steering head. Engines of unknown origin were used with, according to the nameplate, 78 mm bore and 87 mm stroke, i.e. 415 cm³ and an output of 2.4 / 5 hp.
- Karl Ludwig Konrad built motorcycles under the Odin brand in Schwabach from 1923 to 1925 . They were simple two-stroke models with a displacement of 125 cc, 2.4 hp, a two-speed transmission and a block brake in the rear wheel.
- Albert Roder and Karl Zirkel were the founders of the Ziro company in Fürth , later in Forchheim . These interesting harvester constructions with 150, 250 and 350 cm³ cubic capacity were extremely powerful two-stroke rotary valve and were built from 1920 to 1925. Roder and Zirkel founded EMAG in Erlangen in 1923.
- EMAG , Erlanger Motoren Aktien Gesellschaft was initially called the motorcycle company in Erlangen, which Albert Roder co-founded in 1923 and renamed Ermag in 1924 . a. produced very powerful 250 cc four-stroke machines with hairpin valve springs .
- G. Seidel: Intern. Motorcycle type show 1928–1944 . IBERA Verlagsgesellschaft, Vienna
- Erwin Tragatsch : All motorcycles from 1894 to today . Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-87943-410-7
- Erwin Tragatsch: Motorcycles in Germany 1894–1967 . Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1967
- Tilman Werner: From Ardie to Zündapp . Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-613-01287-1
- Matthias Murko: motorcycle legends . W. Tümmels, new edition Nuremberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-921590-27-0
- Thomas Reinwald: Motorcycles from Nuremberg . ZWEIRAD-Verlag, Erlangen 1994, ISBN 3-929136-03-1
- Rauch, Sengfelder: Zündapp in the picture . Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-613-01919-1
- Thomas Reinwald: Victoria . PODSZUN, Brilon 2001, ISBN 3-86133-262-0
- Thomas Reinwald: Nuremberg motorcycle industry . PODSZUN, Brilon 2002, ISBN 3-86133-299-X
- Thomas Reinwald: Ardie and Dürkopp motorcycles . Johann Kleine Vennekate, Lemgo 2003, ISBN 3-935517-10-6
- Thomas Reinwald: Triumph Motorcycles . Johann Kleine Vennekate, Lemgo 2004, ISBN 3-935517-14-9
- Register files of the Nuremberg District Court for Astoria / Nestoria Motorenwerk GmbH
- Motorcycle Museum in the Museum of Industrial Culture (Nuremberg)
- Virtual exhibition at Google Arts & Culture: The pioneering days of motorbikes from Nuremberg
- Virtual exhibition at Google Arts & Culture: Legends in chrome and steel - The motorcycle stronghold Nuremberg
- The master things of Nuremberg: Nuremberg motorcycle industry