Pauline Christine Wilhelmine zur Lippe (born Princess von Anhalt-Bernburg , since 1796 Fürstin zur Lippe; * February 23, 1769 in Ballenstedt , † December 29, 1820 in Detmold ) was regent of the German Principality of Lippe from 1802 to 1820 and is considered one of them of the most important rulers of Lippe.
She lifted on January 1, 1809 by royal decree replaced the previous serfdom of peasants, preserved the independence Lippes and sought a constitution with which the feudal order was broken. In the collective historical consciousness of the Lippe population, however, their social engagement ranks first. She founded the first children's detention center in Germany, a “vocational school for neglected children”, a “voluntary workhouse for adult alms recipients” and a “nursing home with an infirmary”.
Pauline was born as the daughter of Prince Friedrich von Anhalt-Bernburg and his wife Luise (née von Holstein-Plön ). A few days after the birth, her mother died of measles . She had an older brother, Alexius Friedrich Christian (1767-1834), who was Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg from 1807. It was evident early on that Pauline had an alert mind. Prince Friedrich Albert, her father, personally raised the heir to the throne Alexius and his daughter Pauline. She was a good student, learning French, history and general political science in addition to Latin. At the age of 13 she already supported her father in his government affairs. At first she took over the French correspondence, later all correspondence between the residence in Schloss Ballenstedt and the government offices in Bernburg . Their training was strongly influenced by Christian ethics and Enlightenment ideas . In later years Pauline implemented what she had mentally processed in her youth, such as the teachings of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Jean-Jacques Rousseau .
On January 2, 1796, Pauline married Princess of Anhalt-Bernburg Leopold I, Prince of Lippe . The wedding was celebrated in Ballenstedt, and on January 21, 1796 the bride and groom returned to Detmold to the great cheer of the population. Leopold zur Lippe had tried to get her hand for years, but Pauline had repeatedly refused his solicitation. The marriage was only concluded after Leopold's health had improved, who had previously been incapacitated for a short time due to mental confusion. In the following years Pauline expressed herself positively about her marriage and her "loving" husband. She confessed in a letter to her trusted Augustenburg cousin Friedrich Christian :
“Never have I taken a step with more deliberations than this, never made up my mind more coldly, for love truly did not hold a magnifying glass in front of me […] that my heart would transcend my reason on closer acquaintance. The prince is good, noble and righteous, he loves and values me and has far more intrinsic value than outward appearance. "
Pauline gave birth to two sons, Leopold (born November 6, 1796) and Friedrich (born December 8, 1797); the third child, a girl named Louise, died shortly after giving birth on July 17, 1800.
Leopold I died on April 4, 1802, and on May 18, Pauline took over the reign of her underage son, who later became Prince Leopold II . In the marriage contract between Leopold and Pauline in 1795 it was stipulated that Pauline, as the future mother of an underage prince, should take over the guardianship and regency. There was fierce resistance from the Lippe estates against this regulation. However, the fact that no suitable male guardian was available spoke in favor of this regulation. Pauline had also already proven that she would be a suitable regent. Her reign lasted almost two decades, which is considered a happy period in Lippe's history.
Pauline held the office of mayor of Lemgo from 1818 until her death in 1820 and thus beyond the duration of her reign . The city, which was heavily indebted after the Napoleonic wars, did not find a suitable new head of the city after the death of Mayor Overbeck in 1817, which is why the magistrate and citizenship decided on January 4, 1818 to ask Pauline to and to take finance subject under their direct supervision ”. Pauline replied on the same day and, contrary to expectations, accepted the request. She was represented on site by the capable and committed lawyer Kestner as a commissioner . Through partly unpopular measures, but always in compliance with the parliamentary rules of the city, he succeeded in restructuring Lemgo's finances and improving the social situation. As in Detmold in 1801, Pauline arranged for a workhouse to be set up and a charity to be founded under her leadership.
She planned to spend her retirement in the Lippehof , a baroque palace built in Lemgo in 1734, but a few months after handing over the business of government to her son Leopold II on July 3, 1820, Pauline died on December 29.
Character, personality and understanding of the state
Compared to her contemporary Queen Luise of Prussia , Pauline is not idealistically glorified in the historical context. She expressed her position publicly and privately and often reacted quite violently to disagreements. This certainly led to some angry and ironic comments during her lifetime.
Pauline's biographer Hans Kiewning has described her as “the Lippe regent who towers over all others and would have been an unusual figure even in larger circumstances”. The historian Heinrich von Treitschke called her "one of the most witty women of her time". The contemporary Ferdinand Weerth described in his sermons the "princely character in their whole being, an unusual measure of intellectual power, the clear, bright mind, [...] and their tireless activity".
Pauline made high demands on her two sons, especially on the heir to the throne Leopold. She carefully selected suitable educators, but found herself too impatient with her sons, which sometimes led to violent confrontations.
“The only thing that Princess Pauline couldn't do was bring up her two sons, her only children. In order to teach them the principles of strict morality, she had tyrannized the two of them moderately and treated them like children for so long that the oldest had become shy and reserved by nature, half a savage. "
The princes and the Lippe government had to come to an agreement on important political issues with the estates, i.e. the knights as noble landowners and the representatives of the cities. Before Pauline took office, the rulers, the government and the cantons often reached consensus or compromise decisions, despite some contradictions. From Anhalt-Bernburg, Pauline was used to a system of government in which the princely will ultimately prevailed. She did not want the estates to talk her out of the realization of her well-intentioned social plans in Lippe. After all, she knew best what was right for the country and its people. In 1805 the estates in the state parliament rejected the introduction of a liquor tax to finance a sanatorium for the mentally ill planned by Pauline. Since then she has hardly called the estates and ruled by them.
Although the Lippe government under a chancellor or a district president had been growing in weight since the 18th century, conflicts with the princess rarely arose, as the reform ideas of both sides largely coincided. Pauline regularly took part in government and chamber meetings and made her decisions there. Pauline often dominated these sessions with her impatience and her will to lead. She participated in administrative work and took over departments when the officials were absent. Her main focus, however, was on foreign policy, as she spoke and wrote French better than any of her officials. She broke through the male monopoly , which in her day was only due to her princely status. Only after 1945 did some women in the Lippe government who worked as female department heads achieve this. After taking over the foreign ministry in 1810, the princess was in charge of the madhouse, premium distribution and penitentiary departments in 1817. In relation to the subjects it was close to the people, but in the end it ruled autocratically.
The publications of the Count of Rumford inspired Pauline to implement her ideas on the state organization of poor relief. She believed that the cause of poverty and the begging associated with it in the country was primarily to be found in the character of the people of Lippe with its "tendency to indolence and to do nothing". From the available scientific literature on the poor, she deduced that real improvement could only be achieved through voluntary or forced labor and not through financial handouts.
With this, Pauline continued the work begun by her mother-in-law Casimire Fürstin zur Lippe, who died in 1778, in accordance with the socio-political currents of her time. The institutions founded by Pauline included the “Employment School” (1799), the “Kinderbewahranstalt” (1802), the hospital (1801/02) and the “Voluntary Workhouse” (1802). The orphanage founded around 1720 and the teachers' college founded in 1781 already existed before that. These six independent institutions were grouped under the name “nursing home” and found their place in the former monastery. It formed the nucleus of today's Fürstin-Pauline-Stiftung in Detmold. The nursing home claimed that everyone in need was helped here "from cradle to grave". It was regarded as unique and was often visited by foreign guests, who especially praised the children's institution. However, the facility was limited to the residents of the royal seat.
The people valued Pauline above all for her social institutions. The integrated welfare institutions were seen as exemplary at home and abroad and were particularly visited by British delegations. Their care for the poor was evident. It alleviated the famine in the years 1802 to 1804 by installing grain stores. She personally took care of the alleviation of the burden of war that had arisen through billeting and troop positions.
She was also responsible for improving the country's infrastructure. It had new roads built and introduced street lighting in Detmold using 26 oil lanterns. Princess Pauline did not have any remarkable buildings erected, but in the course of her reign the construction of the classicist houses on the avenue in Detmold began. In 1819 she also arranged for the existing book collections to be merged into a public library , from which today's Lippische Landesbibliothek emerged .
In the summer of 1798 Pauline had turned to social tasks. There was great poverty in Lippe, which the princess assumed was due to the inadequate schooling and education of the population. Many parents did not send their children to school because of economic hardship, but let them work or beg. A close advisor to Pauline on social issues was the inspector of the teacher training college Simon Ernst Moritz Krücke . He recommended that she set up a vocational school where children should acquire theoretical knowledge as well as practical skills. Leopold I agreed and the new school was opened in the orphanage at Bruchtor in Detmold. Here the poor people's children were taught together with the orphans von Krücke. The school was legally equated with elementary school.
Some of the lessons were filled with manual work. Practical skills included knitting - with the assistance of the princess, who joined the children and handed out small rewards. The knitwear was then sold and the children shared in the proceeds. The aim was to dispel the prejudices of parents who would rather send their children to beg. A year later, the successful vocational school was handed over to the state as part of a school festival and inaugurated on June 28, 1799. 60 children who had previously begged and not attended school showed the knowledge and skills they had acquired. Nevertheless, there were always problems when parents preferred to send their children to the fields in summer to tend cattle and collect ears of corn or to beg at Christmas time. Economic constraints under the conditions of largely insecure income and a simultaneous strengthening monetary economy made it difficult for parents to forego the support of their children even temporarily.
Pauline took care of the well-being of the young children, whose parents had to leave the house during the day to work. She read in a Paris newspaper about such an initiative by Napoleon's wife , then still the “First Consul of France”. In Paris, however, only single mothers were affected, while in Detmold the offer was also directed at parents who both had to work. A circular from Princess Pauline to the Detmold ladies with the title Proposal to transplant a Parisian fashion to Detmold is seen as the starting point for the establishment of a “children's institution”. There it says:
"Madame Bonaparte and several graceful and distinguished ladies in the immeasurable capital of the French Empire chose and built, with a truly feminine sense of sisterhood and enviable delicacy, in the quarters of the great city depots or halls, where the delicate little ones of poor mothers busy with external work are for the time being nourished. fed, cared for; Every morning, the mothers calmed down and happy deliver their children, every evening they pick them up happily and gratefully, and the founders of the mild institution take turns taking care of the children. "
Pauline advertised the cooperation of "educated women" to make themselves available free of charge on one weekday in order to supervise. The Princely House wanted to take over the financing. The older girls from the vocational school and from the orphanage should look after the children and at the same time be trained as "child carers". In 1801 Pauline bought a suitable building for her social institutions on Schulstrasse or Süsterstrasse (today's Schülerstrasse) in Detmold. It was the so-called "Schwalenberger Hof", where she opened the first children's institution on July 1, 1802 . The Schwalenberger Hof was a three-story noble court that was demolished at the end of the 19th century. The Leopoldinum grammar school developed from the school that was already located there before Pauline's kindergarten . The children's institution soon found many imitations in Germany. The city of Detmold saw the project as a princely hobby and did not provide any financial support.
Up to 20 children were looked after in the first few years, who had to be “weaned from the mother's breast” and were not older than four years. Four-year-old children, it was believed, could stay at home alone or accompany their parents to the gardens or fields before they went to vocational school. The children's institution was open from June 24th to the end of October when the harvest and gardening work was completed.
According to a report published by Inspector Krücke in 1813, the care lasted from six in the morning to six or eight in the evening. In the mornings, the children were washed and combed by young women from the orphanage and older pupils from the vocational school and dressed in a clean shirt and wool jacket. At the weekend the clothes that were worn during the week were washed. When the facility closed in autumn, the little ones were given these items of clothing. Most of the funding for the children's institution was taken over by Pauline, the rest was financed from the hospital fund. She also managed to win twelve women from the wealthy middle class as supervisors. They had to keep records of certain events so that the princess was always well informed.
Pauline and Napoleon
There is ample evidence that Pauline greatly admired Napoleon. She was grateful to him for maintaining Lippe's state independence. Pauline's attitude was reinforced by the correspondence with the highly educated diplomat Karl Friedrich Reinhard , who was in French service and a friend of Goethe . Reinhard was enthusiastic about the French Revolution and was envoy to the court of the Kingdom of Westphalia in Kassel . Until the end, Pauline believed in Napoleon's victory. The news of Napoleon's defeat in Russia did not change their convictions either. She refused to leave the Confederation of the Rhine and had soldiers from Lippe who had deserted from Napoleon's army prosecuted.
She let the Prussian lieutenant von Haxthausen, who was in Russian service and who had behaved improperly towards her, be thrown into the madhouse. He could only be freed when Lippe was occupied by Prussian troops as a hostile country after the Battle of Leipzig. The commander of the Prussians, Colonel von der Marwitz , described the incident in a letter to his wife and described Pauline with the following words: “The princess-regent is a rascal; she always served Napoleon most faithfully ”.
In addition to Pauline's commitment to social causes in the country, maintaining Lippe's independence was her greatest foreign policy success. As the guardian of her son, she felt obliged to do everything possible to preserve his son's rights as far as possible. The small country was at that time between the warring powers France , Prussia and Hesse and threatened to be occupied by one or the other neighbor in the course of the conflict. At the beginning of her reign, Lippe was in a contractually agreed neutral protection zone that all warring parties respected. Prussian observation troops were in Lippe to ensure neutrality. In 1806, on the initiative of Napoleon, the so-called Rhine Confederation was created . Prussia responded with the project of a North German Confederation and recruited members.
Pauline saw Lippe's independence threatened and sought as a solution to join the Confederation of the Rhine. With a document on April 18, 1807, Napoleon confirmed Lippe's membership of the Rhine Confederation, and Pauline traveled to Paris to negotiate the special arrangements she wanted for Lippe. She was considered an admirer of Napoleon, an attitude that later earned her a lot of criticism. In a justification for her decision, she stated that she would rather submit to distant France than to neighboring Hesse or Prussia.
The admission to the Rhine Confederation meant that Lippe had to provide troops for Napoleon's army. The Lippers resisted and riots broke out. Many young men either evaded recruitment or deserted during the French campaigns. After Napoleon's defeat in the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Lipper beat up the French officials to Pauline's horror. Until the end she had believed in Napoleon's victory. Lippe was occupied by the Prussians as a hostile country and Pauline was considered a collaborator . As a result, Lippe declared his exit from the Rhine Confederation. Legation Councilor Preuss concluded the alliance treaties with Austria and Russia on November 29, 1813. A volunteer corps from Lippe was formed, which was equipped with donations from citizens of Lippe. To this end, the regent issued an appeal and had every gift, regardless of size, published in the intelligence sheet with the name of the donor .
The fact that Lippe emerged unscathed from the political catastrophe of 1813 was due to the restorative tendencies of the politics of Austria and Russia. Because the southern German states of the Rhine Confederation were also accepted as allies, the Lippe, which was ready to turn back, could not be treated differently.
The dramatic events led to a nervous breakdown in Pauline, from which she recovered only slowly. It therefore did not take part in the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, in which Europe was reorganized after the victory over Napoleon. Many small states disappeared from the map, but Lippe's sovereignty was confirmed at the Congress of Vienna. The preamble to the German Federal Act of July 8, 1815 shows the listed sovereign princes in the last position:
"Your Highness the Princess von der Lippe as regent and guardian of the Prince of your son [...]"
Abolition of serfdom
On December 27, 1808, Pauline Fürstin zur Lippe signed the ordinance on the abolition of serfdom in Lippe against the will of the estates, which had been switched off by the co-government since 1805. The ordinance came into force on January 1, 1809. It followed the example of most other states from the Rhine Confederation. In the era after the French Revolution , serfdom was generally rejected as a "relic of the Middle Ages".
In the preamble to the ordinance, the princess commented on her humanistic and, above all, economic motives. Pauline's words were read from the pulpits, published on posters and printed in the Lippische intelligence papers :
"Convinced that serfdom, even if it is as moderate as it has been in the country up to now, always has a negative influence on morality, the industry and the credit of the self-employed, we find ourselves to promote the prosperity of this class of loyal subjects Motherly motivated to give up such a relationship after the process of other federal states [...] "
With the ordinance of December 27, 1808, the purchase of wine and death , which had been in force until then, were abolished. The purchase of wine referred to an entry fee that had to be paid to the landlord when taking over a colony . In the event of death, when the serf died, his best piece of clothing or the most valuable head of cattle, also called mortuary or best head, had to be given to the landlord.
This ordinance initially only affected Pauline's own serf farmers, from Vollspänner to Hoppenplöcker , and their relatives. Within a short time, however, the landed gentry, the landowners, the church institutions and the wealthy citizens followed. This gave the Lippe farmers and their family members a significant upgrade of their previously modest social status. However, the Lippe variant of serfdom could by no means be compared with the Prussian manor rule or even with the Russian serfdom. It was merely a mild form of dependency and its abolition was not a special event that sparked celebration among those affected. The farmers had a much more pressing burden on the numerous tension and hand services, as well as payments in cash and in kind, the replacement of which was not to be legally anchored in Lippe until the 1830s.
The state estates were composed of representatives of the knighthood and the cities and met annually to a state parliament to negotiate the affairs of Lippe and to pass resolutions. With the admission of Lippe to the Rhine Confederation, these rights were suspended and the princess was appointed sovereign . Pauline understood her new authority to mean that she would not need the approval of the estates:
"I am not able to endure, although it is perhaps a fault of my violent character [...], the presumptuousness and syllabic carving, the disrespectful tone, the eternal obstacle to every good thing that the classes allow themselves year after year."
Pauline did not dissolve the estates but ruled largely without them, like the absolutist Friedrich Adolf a century earlier. Her relationship with the estates had been clouded in any case since they had rejected the spirits tax she had demanded in 1805 to finance the planned sanatorium for the mentally ill. After leaving the Rhine Confederation, the estates demanded their old rights back and a bitter dispute with the Princely House ensued.
In the Vienna Final Act , the final document of the Vienna Congress, it says in paragraph 13: "A state constitution will take place in all German states". Pauline then had a Lippe constitution drafted based on the model of some southern German states, the final version of which she wrote down personally. This was passed by the government on June 8, 1819 and then published to the cheers of the population. The estates protested against the restriction of their traditional rights and asked the emperor to oppose the princess's "subversive and democratic zeitgeist flattering hustle and bustle". At the instigation of Metternich , the so-called Karlsbad resolutions against “democratic activities” were passed. They coincided with the heated argument about the Lippe constitution. The Federal Assembly of the German Confederation immediately asked Pauline to repeal the Lippe constitution.
After Pauline's death, Leopold II and the Lippe government held on to the princess' legacy for a long time and wanted to incorporate the necessary changes in their draft constitution. In long and difficult negotiations with the estates, namely the knighthood, this principle could not be adhered to. Finally a compromise was found in which the knighthood was given back some of the old privileges. In 1836 the new Lippe constitution came into force.
She was often disappointed with the heir to the throne Leopold because of his phlegm and of the opinion that she could not transfer the reign to him with a clear conscience. So she postponed the handover several times until critical voices were raised. Finally, on July 3, 1820, she announced her resignation to her surprised son. Leopold II initially needed your help with government business, which, however, was not allowed to be visible to the outside world. Pauline therefore planned to end this situation and to swap her residence in Detmold Castle with the widow's residence in Lemgoer Lippehof as soon as possible . This did not happen, however, because Pauline died on December 29, 1820 of painful pulmonary suppuration. She was buried in Detmold in the reformed church on the market square, today's Church of the Redeemer .
On March 5, 1822, an obituary for Pauline by Helmina von Chézy appeared in the Dresdner Abendzeitung . Her anti-Prussian policies were condemned and used as an excuse:
"But who will demand from a woman, and if she were empress, her own correct political view and tactful action in matters of war?"
In 1930, the archivist Hans Kiewning wrote the most influential positive Pauline biography to date under the title Fürstin Pauline zur Lippe, 1769 - 1820 . There Kiewning expressed his admiration for Pauline:
"In addition, there is hardly any doubt that Pauline towered far above all of the Lippe regents who were before or after her and made a name for herself beyond the borders of her country during her lifetime like no one among them."
Pauline's personality, politics, and reforms have been the subject of numerous studies and publications. The Lippe bibliography currently lists around 170 personal titles alone. It was not until the second half of the 20th century that historical research began to question Pauline's largely uncritical view of history. In her contribution to the Lippische Mitteilungen aus Geschichte und Landeskunde, in 1969, Elisabeth Solle posed the question of the princess's religiosity in order to better understand her diaconal interests.
In a survey by the Lippische Landeszeitung at the end of 2009, Pauline Fürstin zur Lippe was chosen as the most important personality in Lippe with 28 percent of the votes submitted. In second place on the list came the former state president Heinrich Drake with 22 percent and third place was shared by Arminius , the winner of the Varus Battle , and ex-Chancellor Gerhard Schröder , each with 9 percent of the votes cast.
There is a Pauline memorial on the Lindenhaus site in Lemgo and in the spa gardens of Bad Meinberg . A blackboard is attached to a building on Detmold's Schlossplatz. In addition, the association "Paulines Töchter", a mineral spring ("Paulinenquelle") in Bad Salzuflen and a number of street names in several places in Lippe remember the princess. Today's Fürstin-Pauline-Stiftung is a foundation under private law based in Detmold. The focus is on youth and elderly care, as well as a range of day-care centers. In the interests of its founder, the foundation endeavors to provide help in various areas to people who need it.
The alternative culture and communication center Alte Pauline in Detmold was named after Princess Pauline.
In 1913 the Berlin Paulinenkrankenhaus was opened under her name.
- Johannes Arndt : The Principality of Lippe in the age of the French Revolution, 1770-1820. Waxmann, Münster 1992, ISBN 3-89325-090-5 .
- Johannes Arndt, Peter Nitschke (eds.): Continuity and upheaval in Lippe - Social-political relationships between Enlightenment and Restoration 1750–1820 , Landesverband Lippe, Detmold 1994, ISBN 3-9802787-6-X
- Hans Adolf Dresel: The Princess Pauline to Lippe and the Superintendent General Weerth: memorial sheets . Meyer, Lemgo & Detmold 1859 ( LLB Detmold ).
- August Falkmann : Pauline . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 25, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1887, pp. 275-277.
- Willi Gerking: The Counts of Lippe-Biesterfeld . 1st edition. heka-Verlag, Bad Oeynhausen 2001, ISBN 3-928700-62-6 .
- Milena Kempkes / Julia Schafmeister / Michael cell (eds.): Princess Pauline. European actor and mother of the Lippe region , Mainz: Nünnerich-Asmus 2020, ISBN 978-3-96176-130-2 .
- Hans Kiewning : Princess Pauline zur Lippe, 1769-1820 . Detmold 1930.
- Hilde Kraemer: The reference library of Princess Pauline to Lippe . In: Lippe messages from history and regional studies . tape 38 . Detmold 1969.
- Burkhard Meier: Fürstin Pauline Stiftung, From the oldest children's institution to the modern Diakonie company . Detmold 2002, ISBN 3-9807369-3-8 .
- Hermann Niebuhr: A princess on the move, travel diaries of Princess Pauline zur Lippe 1799-1818 . Detmold 1990, ISBN 3-923384-10-6 .
- Pauline zur Lippe, Friedrich Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg : Letters from the years 1790-1812 . Ed .: Paul Rachel. Leipzig 1903 ( LLB Detmold ).
- Elise Polko : A German princess, Pauline zur Lippe . Leipzig 1870 ( LLB Detmold ).
- Jutta Prieur: woman - regent - reformer. Princess Pauline zur Lippe 1802–1820 . In: Special publications of the Natural Science and Historical Association for the State of Lippe 69, accompanying volume for the exhibition of the NW State Archives Detmold (October 27, 2002 to February 2, 2003) . Detmold 2002.
- Memories from the life of Princess Pauline zur Lippe-Detmold: From the posthumous papers of a former Lippe state servant . Gotha 1860 ( MDZ Munich , Google ).
- Literature by and about Pauline in the catalog of the German National Library
- Princess Pauline. In: fuerstin-pauline-stiftung.de.
- Lippe, zur, Pauline (1769-02-23 - 1820-12-29). In: Internet portal "Westphalian History". October 21, 2010.
- Estate of Pauline Fürstin zur Lippe in the Lexicon of Westphalian Authors
- ↑ a b Princess Pauline is at the top. In: Lippische Landes-Zeitung . 304/2009, 2009, archived from the original on February 3, 2010 ; accessed on December 29, 2020 .
- ↑ a b c d e f g Traute Princess zur Lippe: On the history of the Paulinenanstalt in Detmold . In: Heimatland Lippe . March 1991, p. 81 .
- ↑ a b c d Burkhard Meier: 200 years of the Princess Pauline Foundation . In: Heimatland Lippe . (April / May), 2002, pp. H: 62 .
- ↑ a b Julia Lederle: Princess Pauline zur Lippe . In: Heimatland Lippe . October 2002, p. H: 178 .
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Erich Kittel: home chronicle of the district of Lippe . Archive for German Heimatpflege GmbH, Cologne 1978, p. 185 ff .
- ^ A b Manfred Berger : Pauline (Paulina) Christine Wilhelmine Fürstin zur Lippe-Detmold. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 22, Bautz, Nordhausen 2003, ISBN 3-88309-133-2 .
- ^ Karl Meier-Lemgo : History of the city of Lemgo . In: Natural science and historical association for the land of Lippe (Hrsg.): Lippe cities and villages . 2nd Edition. 1 (special publication). FL Wagner, Lemgo 1962, p. 190-191 .
- ^ A b Karl Meier-Lemgo : History of the City of Lemgo . In: Natural science and historical association for the land of Lippe (Hrsg.): Lippe cities and villages . 2nd Edition. 1 (special publication). FL Wagner, Lemgo 1962, p. 191-1196 .
- ↑ a b c d e f g Lippe, zur, Pauline (1769-02-23 - 1820-12-29). In: Internet portal "Westphalian History". October 21, 2010, accessed December 29, 2020 .
- ↑ Malvida Freiin von Meysenbug: Memoirs of an idealist . No. (1869-1876 .
- ↑ a b c d Tobias Arand: Princess Pauline zur Lippe. In: Adelheid M. von Hauff (ed.): Women shape diakonia. Volume 2: From the 18th century to the 20th century. Stuttgart, 2006 p. 62 ff.
- ↑ Princely-Lippisches intelligence sheet. 1814 No. 2
- ↑ a b c d Dr. Wolfgang Bender: Princely feat? The abolition of serfdom in Lippe 200 years ago . In: Heimatland Lippe . January 2009, p. 20th f .
- ↑ Country constitution document of the Principality of Lippe. 1819
- ^ Hans Kiewning: Hundred years of the Lippe constitution, 1819-1919. Detmold, 1935
- ^ Hermann Niebuhr: A princess on the way, travel diaries of Princess Pauline zur Lippe 1799-1818 . Detmold 1990, ISBN 3-923384-10-6 .
- ↑ Welcome to the website of the Fürstin-Pauline-Stiftung. In: fuerstin-pauline-stiftung.de. Retrieved December 29, 2020 .
Regent of Lippe
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Anhalt-Bernburg, Pauline Christine Wilhelmine von (maiden name); Lippe, Pauline zur|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Regent of the Principality of Lippe. Founder of the first day care center in Germany|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 23, 1769|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ballenstedt|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 29, 1820|
|Place of death||Detmold|