Governments of Czechoslovakia
The governments of Czechoslovakia listed here represent an overview of all governments that were in office on the territory of the former Czechoslovakia from October 1918 (creation of the country) to December 1992 (division of the country on January 1, 1993) .
Although it could appear questionable from a constitutional point of view, for the sake of completeness, due to the complicated history of the country, those governments are also listed that cannot invoke the rule of law - the historical aspects were given priority here. This applies not only to the area of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak State , but also to the governments of the autonomous Slovakia and the Carpathian Ukraine , which belonged to Czechoslovakia with interruptions (from November 2, 1938 to autumn 1944) (as Carpathian Russia or Podkarpatská Rus ) and only finally became part of the Soviet Union through a treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union of June 29, 1945, which came into force on January 30, 1946.
Also included are the governments of the sub-republics (Czech Socialist Republic or Czech Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic or Slovak Republic) 1969–1992, but not the governments of these independent states, some of which have the same name, after January 1, 1993.
- Czechoslovakia 1918–1938
This period refers to the time from the establishment of Czechoslovakia in October 1918 until the German troops marched into the Sudetenland on October 1, 1938 as a result of the Munich Agreement .
During this period there were 4 general elections, 10 prime ministers ruled and 19 governments.
- Czecho-Slovakia 1938–1939
This period, also known as the so-called Second (Czechoslovak) Republic, covers the period from October 1, 1938 to March 14, 1939, after the country was partially occupied.
After the loss of the Sudetenland , Slovakia and Carpathian Ukraine proclaimed their autonomy in October; on November 22nd, 1938 the parliament of Czecho-Slovakia passed the Constitutional Law č. 299/1938 Coll. On the autonomy of the Slovak state and the Constitutional Law 329/1938 Coll. On the autonomy of Carpathian Ukraine (Carpathian Russia) adopted; the area was officially renamed on November 17th from Transcarpathian Russia (Czech: Podkarpatská Rus) to Carpathian Ukraine (Czech: Karpatská Ukrajina).
The state has thus assumed a federal form. Even before the autonomy laws came into force, both parts of the country proclaimed their autonomy (which they had already been granted in 1919), the Slovak and Carpathian-Ukrainian governments were formed, while the previous Czech-Slovak government had the form of a government for the Czech countries. The following governments were in this area.
- Czech countries: 2 prime ministers and 2 governments
- Slovakia: 3 prime ministers and 5 governments
- Carpathian Ukraine: 2 prime ministers and 4 governments
- The Second World War
The country no longer belongs together, the individual parts of the country have their own governments, and a government in exile that is retrospectively recognized as legitimate claims the continuity of the original state.
- Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia ( Protektorát Čechy a Morava ): This period begins on 15/16. March 1939, after the German troops occupied the rest of the territory of the Czecho-Slovak Republic (the so-called smashing of the rest of the Czech Republic ), and ends in the spring of 1945 with the progressive liberation and the installation of a new (provisional) government in Košice. There were 4 prime ministers and 4 governments
- The Slovak State (later also Slovakia): Slovakia proclaimed its independence on March 14, 1939, which also existed until spring 1945 (installation of a new government in Košice). There were 3 prime ministers and 3 governments.
- The independent Carpathian Ukraine, also the Republic of Carpathian Ukraine: On March 15, 1939, the Carpathian Ukraine also proclaimed its independence, but was immediately annexed by Hungary. There was 1 prime minister and 1 government.
- The government in exile: the forerunner of the government in exile that worked in London during the war and was internationally recognized are the Czechoslovak National Committee (Paris, 1939). The government-in-exile, based in London, was in office from July 21, 1940 to April 5, 1945.
- Czechoslovakia 1945–1948
This period, the immediate post-war period, is associated with a free bourgeois democracy. It ends with the Communist takeover in February 1948 . It consists of 2 prime ministers and 3 governments.
- The Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960)
In the first phase after the communist seizure of power, in which the dominance of the communist party was consolidated, the country was ruled centrally. There were 3 prime ministers and 4 governments.
- The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic 1960–1990
On July 11, 1960, the state received a new "socialist" constitution and, as a result, a new name. As one of the few changes envisaged during the Prague Spring , the state was transformed into a federal republic on January 1, 1969, with the addition of a central government, the Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic having their own governments. The following governments were in office:
- Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (with one central government): 6 prime ministers and 14 governments
- Czech Socialist Republic : 6 prime ministers and 6 governments
- Slovak Socialist Republic : 5 prime ministers and 6 governments
- The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic 1990–1992
The Czechoslovak Federal Republic was established on March 29, 1990 and was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic on April 22, 1990 . In addition to the central government, both states had their own government. On January 1, 1993, this republic split into the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. The following governments were in office:
- Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (with one central government): 2 prime ministers and 3 governments
- Czech Republic : 5 prime ministers and 3 governments
- Slovak Republic : 3 prime ministers and 4 governments
Governments during the Czechoslovak Republic 1918–1938
- Provisional Czech-Slovak government , chaired by: Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1918)
- Karel Kramář government (November 14, 1918 - July 8, 1919)
- Government of Vlastimil Tusar I (8 July 1919 - 25 May 1920)
- Government of Vlastimil Tusar II (25.5.1920 - 15.9.1920)
- Government of Jan Černý I (15.9.1920 - 26.9.1921)
- Edvard Beneš government (September 26, 1921 - October 7, 1922)
- Antonín Švehla I government (October 7, 1922 - December 9, 1925)
- Antonín Švehla II government (December 9, 1925 - 3.1.1926)
- Government of Jan Černý II (March 18, 1926 - October 12, 1926)
- Antonín Švehla III government (October 12, 1926 - 2.1929)
- František Udržal I government (2.1.1929 - December 7, 1929, resignation October 27, 1929)
- František Udržal II government (December 7, 1929 - October 29, 1932, resignation October 24, 1932)
- Government of Jan Malypetr I (October 29, 1932 - 2.1934)
- Government of Jan Malypetr II (February 14, 1934 - June 4, 1935, resignation May 28, 1935)
- Government of Jan Malypetr III (June 4, 1935 - November 5, 1935)
- Government of Milan Hodža I (November 5, 1935 - December 18, 1935)
- Milan Hodža II government (December 18, 1935 - July 21, 1937, resignation July 17, 1937)
- Milan Hodža III government (July 21, 1937 - September 22, 1938)
- Jan Syrový I government (September 22, 1938 - October 4, 1938)
Governments during the Czecho-Slovak Republic 1938–1939
Czecho-Slovakia (central government)
- Jan Syrový II's government (October 4, 1938 - December 1, 1938)
- Rudolf Beran I government (December 1, 1938 - March 15, 1939)
- Jozef Tiso I government (October 6/7, 1938 - December 1, 1938)
- Jozef Tiso II government (1.12.1938 - 20.1.1939)
- Government of Jozef Tiso III (20.1.1939 - 9.3.1939)
- Jozef Sivák's government (9 March 1939 - 11 March 1939)
- Karol Sidor government (March 11, 1939 - March 14, 1939)
- Carpathian Ukraine
- Andrij Brodij's government (October 11-26, 1938)
- Avgustyn Voloshyn I government (October 26 - December 1, 1938)
- Avgustyn Voloshyn II government (1.12.1938 - 6.3.1939)
- Avgustyn Voloshyn III government (6.3.1939 - 15.3.1939)
Governments during World War II
- Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
- Rudolf Beran II government (March 16, 1939 - April 27, 1939)
- Alois Eliáš government (April 27, 1939 - January 19, 1942)
- Jaroslav Krejčí's government (19.1.1942 - 19.1.1945)
- Richard Bienert government (19.1.1945 - 5.5.1945)
- Slovak state
- Government of Jozef Tiso IV (March 14, 1939 - October 17, 1939)
- Vojtech Tuka government (October 27, 1939 - September 5, 1944)
- Štefan Tiso government (September 5, 1944 - April 4, 1945)
- The Republic of Carpathian Ukraine
- Julijan Rewaj's government (March 15-18, 1939)
- The government in exile
- Czechoslovak government in exile - includes the governments
Governments during the Czechoslovak Republic 1945–1948
- Government of Zdeněk Fierlinger I (4./5.4.1945 - 6.11.1945)
- Government of Zdeněk Fierlinger II (November 6, 1945 - July 2, 1946)
- Government of Klement Gottwald I (July 2, 1946 - February 25, 1948)
Governments of the Czechoslovak Republic 1948–1960
- Government of Klement Gottwald II (25.2.1948 - 15.6.1948)
- Antonín Zápotocký's government (June 15, 1948 - March 21, 1953)
- Government Viliam Široký I (March 21, 1953 - December 12, 1954)
- Viliam Široký II government (12.12.1954 - 11.7.1960)
Governments of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic 1960–1990
- Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
- Government of Viliam Široký III (July 11, 1960 - September 20, 1963)
- Jozef Lenárt government (September 20, 1963 - April 8, 1968)
- Oldřich Černík I government (8.4.1968 - 31.12.1968)
- Oldřich Černík II government (1.1.1969 - 29.9.1969)
- Oldřich Černík III government (29.9.1969 - 28.1.1970)
- Lubomír Štrougal I government (January 28, 1970 - December 9, 1971)
- Lubomír Štrougal II government (December 9, 1971 - November 11, 1976)
- Lubomír Štrougal III government (11.11.1976 - 17.6.1981)
- Lubomír Štrougal IV government (June 17, 1981 - June 16, 1986)
- Lubomír Štrougal V government (June 16, 1986 - April 20, 1988)
- Government of Lubomír Štrougal VI (April 21, 1988 - October 11, 1988)
- Government of Ladislav Adamec (October 12, 1988 - December 10, 1989)
- Government of Marián Čalfa I (December 10th, 1989 - June 27th, 1989)
- Marián Čalfa II government (June 27, 1989 - July 2, 1992)
- Czech Socialist Republic (Partial Republic, 1969–1990)
- Stanislav Rázl government (8.1.1969 - 29.9.1969)
- Government of Josef Kempný and Josef Korčák (September 29, 1969 - December 9, 1971)
- Josef Korčák II government (December 9, 1971 - November 4, 1976)
- Josef Korčák III government (November 4, 1976 - June 18, 1981)
- Josef Korčák IV government (June 18, 1981 - June 18, 1986)
- Government Josef Korčák V, Ladislav Adamec, František Pitra and Petr Pithart (June 18, 1986 - June 29, 1990)
- Slovak Socialist Republic (partial republic, 1969–1990)
- Government of Štefan Sádovský and Peter Colotka (2.1.1969 - 8.12.1971)
- Government of Peter Colotka I (December 8, 1971 - November 4, 1976)
- Government of Peter Colotka II (November 4, 1976 - June 18, 1981)
- Government of Peter Colotka III (June 18, 1981 - June 18, 1986)
- Government of Peter Colotka IV, Ivan Knotek and Pavol Hrivnák (June 18, 1986 - December 8, 1989)
- Milan Čič government (12.12.1989–26.6.1990)
Governments of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic 1990–1992
- Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
- Marian Čalfa II government (June 27, 1990 - July 2, 1992)
- Jan Stráský government (2.7.1992 - 31.12.1992)
- Czech Republic (partial republic)
- Government Josef Korčák V, Ladislav Adamec, František Pitra and Petr Pithart (June 18, 1986 - June 29, 1990)
- Petr Pithart's government (June 29, 1990 - July 2, 1992)
- Government of Václav Klaus I (2.7.1992 - 4.7.1996)
- Slovak Republic (partial republic)
- Milan Čič government (12.12.1989 - 26.6.1990)
- Vladimír Mečiar I government (June 27, 1990 - April 22, 1991)
- Ján Čarnogurský's government (April 23, 1991 - June 24, 1992)
- Vladimír Mečiar II government (June 24, 1992 - March 15, 1994)
- Some of the governments served as governments of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (or its sub-republics) and the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (or their sub-republics) as well as the governments of the independent successor states of the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic after 1 January 1993; therefore, double counting occurs.
- The legally enshrined autonomy of Slovakia (Law 299/1938, text online ) and the Carpathian Ukraine (Law 328/1938, text online ) established two autonomous governments for these two parts of the country; the so-called "Czech Lands" (part of the country consisting of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia) did not receive their own government and were administered by the Czech-Slovak central government in Prague, which also took on some tasks for the entire state (such as foreign policy, defense, etc.).
- The last government of pre-war Czechoslovakia , the government of Rudolf Beran I (1.12.1938 - 15.3.1939), continued its official business after the occupation of the country by the Wehrmacht as the first government of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , the government Rudolf Beran II (March 16, 1939 - April 27, 1939), gone; in official sources, including the documents of the government of the Czech Republic, the governments are treated as two separate governments ( cf.vlada.cz/...(= Beran I) and vlada.cz/...(= Beran II ) ), although other sources simply write about the "Rudolf Beran government". The official two-government version is adopted here.
- The date 9/27/1969 given in some sources, including on the government server quoted here, is an obvious error.
- This government served as the government of both the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Czech and Slovak Republics from March 6, 1990
- This government functioned as both the government of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Czech Republic from March 6, 1990
- This government functioned as both the Slovak Socialist Republic and the Slovak Republic from March 6, 1990
- This government functioned both as the government of the Czech Republic within the Federation and the independent Czech Republic from January 1, 1993
- This government functioned both as the government of the Slovak Republic within the Federation and the independent Slovak Republic from January 1, 1993
- The State Treaty (so-called minority treaty) of Saint-Germain-en-Laye between four allied powers USA, United Kingdom, France and Japan on the one hand and Czechoslovakia of September 10, 1919, as Law 508/1921 Sb., Online; forum.valka.cz , in Czech, in which Article 53 of the Treaty of Saint-Germain was specified, online on Wikisource, State Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , both accessed on July 16, 2011
- Order 186/1946 Sb. (Treaty on Carpathian Ukraine) of June 29, 1945, online at: www.zakonyprolidi.cz , Czech / Slovak, accessed on July 16, 2011
- Ústavní zákon o autonomii Slovenské země 299/1938 Sb., Adopted on November 22, 1938, valid from November 23, 1938, online at: cs.wikisource.org , Slovak, accessed on July 16, 2011
- Ústavní zákon o autonomii Podkarpatské Rusi 329/1938 Sb., Adopted November 22, 1938, valid from December 16, 1938, online at: cs.wikisource.org , Czech, accessed July 16, 2011
- Website of the Government of the Czech Republic, Overview of Governments since 1918, online at: vlada.cz/.../prehled-vlad-cr ,
- Website of the Government of the Czech Republic, History of the Office of the Government, online at: vlada.cz/.../historie ,