Kok Turks

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The first Kok-Turkish Empire at the time of its greatest expansion, around 600 AD.

The early Turks, Kök Turks ( Old Turkish ??? ???? Kök Turk ), were a Turkish tribal confederation living in Central Asia in late antiquity . The Kök Turks conquered the steppe kingdom of the Rouran and founded two great empires in connection with nomadic tribes.

The first Türk Kaganat was created in 552 and was divided into two parts: the western Türk Kaganat , which lasted until 630, and the eastern Türk Kaganat , which existed until 659. Both Kaganates were conquered by the Tang Dynasty China .

The Second Turk Kaganat was created in 682 and lasted until 742; it was followed in the east by the Uyghur Kaganat .

Often both empires are collectively referred to as Kök-Turkish Kaganat , in modern Turkish literature it is also called Göktürk Kağanlığı , Kaganat of the Gökturks / Kökturks' in Turkish .


The designation of the Kök Turks in modern literature is diverse. The name of the ruling tribe or nomad confederation in the inscriptions of Bugut and Orkhon is Turkish . The Chinese name that has been handed down as the oldest was Tūjué ( 突厥 , t'u-chüeh ). As a result, modern literature often only speaks of “Turks”. To distinguish from the modern nation of Turks are conceived with additives terms such as old Turks , Old Turks , East Turks or göktürks , in modern Turkey Turkish language throughout Gök-Turks (Göktürkler) used. The term Eastern Turks can be misleading because the first Turkish Empire was divided into an Eastern and a Western part. Western Turks or similar in this context refers to the Western Turk Kaganat , but also to the On-Ok (ten tribes) who lived and ruled there at the time of the second Turk Kaganat and the Kaghan , among other meanings The Turkic Turks were temporarily subject to, at times allied with him or even enemies.

The term Kök turk appears only once in this compilation in the old Turkish inscriptions, the meaning has not been clarified beyond doubt. The old Turkish word kök , in modern Turkish Turkish gök, actually means 'blue' or 'sky' and is traditionally presumably interpreted as blue according to the Central Asian color orientation in the sense of “Turks of the East”. Sometimes the name is translated as “Heavenly Turks” or as “Root Turks”.

Previously, the name was Turk also connected only to the ruling clan, which the people of the Turks Oghuz should be taken from, but Turks and Oghusen are to be regarded as more recent view each other divorced confederations.

The exact meaning and origin of the name turk is not clear, but in later (early) Turkish dialects it was equated with 'mighty' and 'strong'. In western research literature, an origin from the Old Turkish verb for "sprout, arise, spring" ( door- ) was favored. According to Barthold , it is the Turkish word for custom, custom, ethos ( töre ).

Peter B. Golden e.g. B. leads the origin of the word "turk" ( 突厥 ), whose meaning in the Chinese Sui Shu ( 隋 书 , Suīshū ) is given as "helmet", as well as the tribal name Aschina , back to the Sakian dialects of Hotan . It is emphasized, among other things, that the above-mentioned Chinese word explanation does not find any etymology in the Turkic languages, but with the meaning "lid" in Sakic (in the sense of "lid" or "protective flap"; cf. neupers. ترک/ tark / "hat, helmet"). In this regard, "it was hard to avoid the conclusion that" the Turk would at least close relationships, "if not rooted in irano- Tocharian East Turkistan." Only then leave, according to Rona-Tas also explain why the tribal name Aschina , which is supposedly derived from the Sakic “asseina” and means “blue”, appears again in the later Old Turkish inscriptions as kök . However, these are only speculative hypotheses, since in this context the ethnic affiliation of the Scythians has not yet been clarified beyond doubt. H. Poor interprets this thesis as a coincidental similarity. At the same point, Sui Shu places a completely different origin legend alongside it. The Zhou Shu also offers various legends of origin. It is noteworthy that both Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder mention the "Tyrcae / Turcae" in the 1st century AD, a tribe that lived in the forests north of the Sea of Azov in the eastern areas of the Pontic steppe .

According to Chinese tradition, the members of the ruling clan have the family name Ashina , those of the following clan have the family name Ashide .

Central Asia before the Turk

The steppe and desert regions of Central Asia were inhabited by various nomadic and sedentary peoples. The most influential were the sedentary people of the Iranian Sogdians , who dominated trade across the Silk Road . This people is associated with the Iranian-speaking but nomadic Scythians . The Scythians were the first nomadic people of Central Asia to use horse-drawn chariots on their campaigns. They were also familiar with the processing of iron ore . The Scythians were not only a warrior, but also a trading people, who at times ruled the Eastern European steppe areas and were in some cases connected to the Greek cities on the Black Sea and Persia.

Area of ​​influence of the Xiongnu

The China of the Han Dynasty did not notice the barbaric steppe nomads living north of its borders until one began to invade Chinese territory regularly. This steppe people was a federation of various Central Asian tribes, including many Turkish-speaking tribes. The Chinese called this steppe people " Xiongnu " and it was included in the Chinese chronicles because China had to pay tribute to them at that time (see heqin ). The steppe kingdom of the Xiongnu represented from about 200 BC. For more than two centuries a potential threat to China on its northern border.

The southern part of the Xiongnu submitted to the Chinese in the middle of the 1st century AD, the northern part came under increased Chinese pressure at the end of the 1st century and was finally destroyed by the troops of the Han and their allies. The southern Xiongnu group living on Chinese territory rose against the Jin Dynasty in the early 4th century and established two dynasties with fixed centers of power, which were also called Xiongnu or Hu : First the Early Zhao - or Han-Zhao - Dynasty of 304 up to 329, then the later Zhao dynasty from 329–352 AD. Both dynasties were still nomadic pre-state, but they had a close political relationship with China at the time. Southern Xiongnu leaders such as Liu Yuan and Liu Cong were also Sinic; the Chinese cultural influence on the Xiongnu increased over time. Among the many tribes of the Xiongnu is said to have been a tribe that is said to have called itself A-shih-na or Turk . According to legend, these Turk were the armory of the Xiongnu.

Later the nomadic tribal federation of the Xianbei was formed , of which the Chinese chronicles reported in the 5th century. The Xianbei were subjugated by the Turkish Tuoba dynasty to the Tabgach , as were parts of the southern Hu. These southern Hu are now considered Turkish . The Tuoba dynasty mainly ruled those areas that later made up the Xinjiang region .


According to the Chinese writings Zhou shu and Bei shi, the most widespread ancestral myth of the Turk saw a she-wolf as an ancestor who rescued a boy who was the only survivor of his tribe. According to legend, ten cubs emerged from the union with the she-wolf (Asena). Scientists connected the number "ten" with the On-Ok Tribal Federation , the ten tribes that made up the Western Turkish Empire (the western part of the First Empire of the Kök Turks ).

First appearance of the Turk

Asia around 500 with the empire of the Rouran (as Juan-Juan)

In the early 5th century, the nomadic federation of the Rouran expanded , which included almost all Old Turkish and Old Mongolian- speaking nomads. Here the tribe of the Turk ( tujue ) becomes historically tangible for the first time, as the members of this tribe, according to various sources, were armourers and vassals of the Rouran (first mention in 542). When the Rouran rulers refused to give the Turk khan a princess as wife in 552 AD, the latter made an alliance with the then Chinese rulers and destroyed the Rouran empire

In the sixth century, the tribe described by the Chinese as tujue and called turk by its own name appeared in the Chinese annals. The Turks were originally based in East Turkestan and the Altai , and inherited the tradition and administrative experience of their predecessors. They were skilled Ironforge and controlled an economically and strategically important crossroads of two trade routes: one leading to the Altai over and joined the Orkhon -Tal the east with the Ili -Tal in the West, the other led by the upper Yenisei in the north to the Altai and Tianshan after South. In fact, a number of iron-metallurgical sites are known from what is now the Russian part of the Altai for the early Middle Ages.

To the Turk Kaganats

The Turk-Kaganat (also Khaghanat written or Chaghanat) extended temporarily from the Caspian Sea to Manchuria and was the first state in the history of Central Asian nomadic empires whose own verschriftete and used for official purposes language ( Old Turkish ) because of found grave stele to In honor of its ruler, the Orkhon runes , could be identified beyond doubt.

Gökturk Petroglyphs from Mongolia (8th Century)
Ceramic figurines of the Kök Turks from the Tang Dynasty , Mongolia, (7th century)

The political structure of the Kök-Turkish Empire was far more complex than that of a primitive “tribal democracy”. Young men gathered around a stratum of military leaders who went on forays under the leadership of the Kagan . As a result, the federal-democratic structure of a tribal union was undermined. Considered sacred, the Hakan was the religious, spiritual, and legitimate leader of the association. Power in this society was carried by a kind of warrior class. As in other nomadic societies, traces of older social forms existed among the Kök-Türk. Clans could continue to exist and women played a much more important role than, for example, in the Islamic world.

First empire of the Kök Turks

Beginnings and division

The Turk lived under the sovereignty of the Rouran , with whom there was a dispute for the throne in 520. The Turks helped the Rouran ruler, A-na-kuei, against the presumably Turkish Gaoche . The Turk's leader - Bumin - asked for A-na-kuei's daughter to be his wife, which he refused. Bumin probably took this as an insult and revolted against the Rouran. In the year 552 Bumin defeated the ruling house of the Rouran and thus created the conditions for the foundation of a new empire.

The empire of the Kök Turks after the partition.

Bumin was the first Kagan of the new empire, which was divided into two administrative units as early as 552. The western part was politically subordinate to the eastern part, but was in fact independent. The rift between the two parts of the empire came later under Chinese influence, in 581. Bumin died in 552, his successor Kuo-lo ruled the empire until 553. Bumin's eldest son, Muhan, ruled the eastern part until 572. His representative or Yabghu in the western part was Bumin's younger brother Istämi , who ruled until 575/76. The Altai mountain range formed the border between both parts of the empire .

The eastern part 552–630

In the west of the Eastern Turk Kaganat any expansion was ruled out - the brother state, the Western Turk Kaganat, extended here. In the south the dynasties of the Northern Qi and the Northern Zhou ruled, which split off from the Tabgach from 550 and 557 respectively , engaged in mutual battles and were therefore not strong opponents. In the east there were the apparently Mongolian Kitan and in the north the Kyrgyz people .

Muhan married one of his daughters to the Northern Zhou, leaving his hands free to fight the Kitan and the Kyrgyz. He defeated the Kitan in 560.

Taspar Khan and Buddhism

After Muhan, Mahan Tegin presumably ruled for a few years before Taspar took control of the Eastern Empire. The Buddhist monk Jinagupta accepted an invitation from Taspar Khan to the eastern Turk Kaganat and probably founded the first Buddhist community among the Turks, later Taspar Khan officially accepted Buddhism .

The Kök-Turkish Empire was stable during the reign of Taspar. The two successor states of the Tabgatsch - Northern Qi and Northern Zhou - probably paid tributes to the Kök Turks. The annals of the Sui dynasty - the Sui Shu - reported of the many soldiers of the Turk as well as of the striving of the North Zhou and the North Qi to please the Turk (T'u-küe).

After Taspar's death in 581 and the rise of his brother Nivar to power, there was a rift between the two Turk Kaganates. Between 582 and 584, the Western Turk Kaganat under the Yabghu Tardu broke away from the supremacy of the eastern part. Tardu was apparently a son of Istaemi and possibly a brother of Turxanthos .

Decline of the Eastern Turk Kaganat

Tardu must have been encouraged to take this step by the Chinese Emperor Wen. Emperor Wen had united large parts of northern China under the Sui dynasty ; he tried to stir up the conflicts between the Eastern and Western Kaganat and incite the Turks against the Tabgach. The clashes among the Eastern Turks reached such proportions that Nivar Khan , who ruled from 581 to 587, was challenged for power by two of his cousins. In the west of the Eastern Turkish Empire there were armed conflicts with the Western Turks, in the east there were battles with the Kitan. After the eastern Kaganat was weakened, the Chinese now supported Nivar Khan.

Nivar's successor was Mu-ho-tua from 587 (name only known from Chinese tradition). He killed his rival and died himself the year he took office. His successor T'u-lan (name only known from Chinese tradition), who ruled from 587 to 600, was also confronted with a rival named T'u-lin , who was supported by China.

The Chinese took in the defeated T'u-lin and his followers; The result was a split in the Eastern Turkish Empire for several years. In 600 T'u-lin gained power over the entire Eastern Turkish Empire. Under his son Shih-pi (609-619), the eastern Turk Kanat was briefly strengthened again - the Sui dynasty itself was now involved in dynastic disputes and was now faced again with an eastern Turkish threat.

In 624, under the new Khan Xieli , the eastern Turk Kanat launched a new attack against China. The Tang dynasty had now taken power there and successfully fended off Xieli. Six years later, Xieli attacked China again. The Tang dynasty had become very strong under Emperor Taizong . Xieli finally had to submit to the Chinese in 630 after his unsuccessful attack.

The western part 552-659

The first Yabghu of the western part was Istämi , who ruled from 552 to 576. About ten years after taking office, there were armed conflicts with the Hephthalites . As a result, there was an alliance between Sassanid Persia and the Western Turks: The Hephthalites were attacked and defeated from different sides. They then fled the area ( Badakhshan in northeast Afghanistan was their center) and their empire was divided between the Turks and the Sassanids. The Sassanids got Bactria , but the Turks took it away from them. The acquisition of the Hephtalite territory meant that the Turks gained an extremely important economic factor: control of a significant part of the Silk Road .

Eastern Roman-Turkish Alliance

The transport of raw silk from China and silk textiles on the Silk Road was an important part of the Sassanid-Eastern Roman trade. However, Persia and Eastern Rome were traditionally enemies - the Turkish Empire therefore played an important strategic role: it was able to block the Silk Road. After 560 the Eastern Roman Empire tried to win the Turks as allies.

The Sassanids were aware of this danger and tried not to let the middleman get out of their hands. For their part, the Turks felt compelled to establish direct contact with the Eastern Roman-Byzantine Empire and in 567 sent an embassy to Constantinople . A Turkish-Roman alliance against Sassanid Persia developed from this.

In 572 war broke out: the Sassanids under Chosrau I were able to successfully defend themselves against the Roman-Turkish pincer attack and to repel their enemies on both fronts by 573. In 575 Istami died, followed by his son Tardu. There were further diplomatic contacts between Ostrom and the Turkish Kaganat until 576. Overall, however, the eastern Roman hopes were disappointed, the war against Persia dragged on until 591 and was finally ended not because of the alliance with the Turks, but because of internal turmoil (see Roman-Persian Wars ).

Decline of the Western Turkish Empire

Tardu was disgruntled by the alliance between the Byzantines and the Avars , who for him belonged to the Turkish sphere of influence. The conflict with Byzantium soon took on warlike forms; but the Turks also cultivated their hostilities against the Sassanids. Tardu advanced to Herat in 588/589 , but could not take the city; instead, today's northern Afghanistan with the important cities of Kunduz and Balkh became dependent on the Turks. Tardu is considered a statesman with no diplomatic skills. His will to expand his sphere of influence led to clashes with Byzantium, the Sassanids and even with the Eastern Turkish Khan: In 581 there was a rift between the two Turk Kaganates, in 584 Tardu broke away from the Eastern Turkish Empire and allied himself with the China of the Sui Dynasty against it. Tardu was killed in an uprising by the Töliş tribes.

His empire subsequently fell victim to intra-dynastic rivalries. Tardu's grandson Shih-kuei received the west of the Western Turk Kaganat, Ch'u-lo received the east. Since Ch'u-lo showed similar attempts at power as Tardu, the Chinese withdrew their support, so that Shih-kuei prevailed. But once again a rise was achieved. Shih-kuei's successor T'ung shih-hu (618–630) managed to expand the Turks' sphere of power beyond the Oxus . At that time the western part stretched from the Altai over the Hindu Kush to the Caspian Sea . In 627, the Turks intervened again in the conflict between the East and the Sassanids, attacking eastern Persia as an ally of the emperor Herakleios . This time their intervention seems to have contributed decisively to the defeat of the Persians under Chosrau II .

But their power ended a little later: T'ung-shih-hu died in 630 during a Karluk uprising . Power struggles broke out between the ten western Turkish tribes, the On-Ok , as a result of which the Chinese succeeded in dividing the western Turkish territory into two Chinese protectorates in 657. In 659, the western Turkish empire was finally annexed by China.

Second Empire of the Kök Turks (682–742)

The second Kök-Turk empire in 700

The Turks did not accept submission by China and in 679 a revolt broke out. Chinese sources report several uprisings by Turkish tribes - raids, looting, which, however, were repeatedly successfully suppressed.


The descendant of the last ruler of the first Eastern Empire of the Kök Turks, Kutluğ went with a few loyal followers to the Otüken area north of China and subjugated the neighboring tribes.

The seaweed were now weakened; the Tibetans had taken control of the Tarim Basin in 670 and inflicted severe defeats on the Chinese; dynastic disputes had begun.

Kutluğ was employed by the military leader Tonyuquq (also: Tonjukuk) under the honorary name of Elteriš (or Eltäriş Khan, 'the Reich Collector'). In 681 Elteriš suffered a bitter defeat against the Chinese, but from 682 he subjugated the Kök Turks together with 16 allied tribes and relied in particular on the tribe of the Karluken . By 687 he had gained control of most of the tribes of the former Eastern Empire, only the Tolu ruler Hushile Khagan was able to flee to China with some tribesmen .

With this, Elteriš founded the second Türk Kaganat and, after numerous campaigns, ruled the steppes from the Great Wall to the outposts of the Arabs (who had been advancing into Transoxania since 705 ) with the center in the area of ​​the Changai Mountains .


When Elteriš died in 691, his brother Bökö (ruled 692-716) was appointed head of the empire on a Kuriltai of the tribes under the name Qapagan (Kapagan Khan). From 699 onwards, the Türgesch succeeded in expanding their power at the expense of the Kök-Turk. In the following period Qapagan renewed the power of the Kök-Turk. He was only the guardian of his nephew Kültigin , who was six years old at the time. He again carried out raids against China. The tribes of the Karluken and Oghusen , among others, submitted to him voluntarily. But also non-Turkish peoples like the Kitan were subjugated. At 710 he was able to defeat the door. Qapagan led a tough regiment over the peoples of his empire, 711/12 there was renewed unrest among the peoples of the Basmıl and parts of the On-Ok. But by and large, prosperity flourished in the kingdom of the Kök-Turk. He was less successful in the fight against the Muslim Arabs who overran Central Asia from 705 onwards . Kültigin was violently repulsed here near Bukhara , an anti-Arab uprising in Sogdia failed in 722 (see Dēwāštič ).

The Türgesch evaded the Kök-Turk from 715 onwards, subordinated themselves to China in 717 and went their own political paths. Their leader was Suluk (r. 717-738), who in turn led battles against the Arabs, supported by Sogdian princes (see Ghurak ). At the same time, the Oghuz began to slowly migrate westwards and to settle in the area of ​​the originally Iranian- speaking Turkestan , which belonged to the domain of the On-Ok.

Qapagan lost his life in 716 on a punitive expedition against the tribes that were incited against him by the Tang Chinese .

Bilge Khan

On a peace Kuriltai , Bilge Khan , a son of Elteriŝ 'and older brother Kültigin, was suddenly proclaimed Kagan. This brought Tonyuquq and Kültigin to his side as advisors and thus restored peace in the empire. This also marked the beginning of the political rise of the later Uighurs .

Bilge Khan successfully reformed the Turk's war techniques. From 717 onwards, he extended the Kök-Turk's sphere of influence: he subjugated the areas as far as Syr-Darja in the west, in the east his sphere of influence extended to the Chinese province of Shandong and in the south to Tibet . He was also able to subjugate the tribes of the Tula region.

The second Turk Kaganat covered the areas from the Black Sea to China and from the Altai to the Hindu Kush . The rank of the Kagan had changed: Originally only a subordinate leader's title, which was far below the old title of “ Shanyu ” or “Tanhu”, he was almost a demigod for the late Kök Turks. Kültigin died in 731 and Tonyuquq rose to become Bilge Khan's sole advisor. In 734 Bilge Khan was murdered.


On a Kuriltai in 734 the followers of Bilge Khan pushed through the election of his son Yiran. But he died in the same year, so that his underage son Bilge Kutluq-Tengri was appointed ruler. As his guardian, two of his uncles were placed at his side, who commanded the western and eastern parts of the empire and in whose hands the real power lay.

When Tang China recognized Tengri's rule over the Eastern Turks in 740 , his mother Pofu invited one of his uncle, Il-Itmysh Bilge, ruler of the western part, to a Kuriltai and had him beheaded by her bodyguard. The Western Turks then submitted to Tengri, who now called himself "Oghus Khan". But this mother's betrayal had consequences: The other uncle, Ozmysh Khan, the ruler of the eastern part, saw his power threatened, attacked Tengri in 741 and murdered him.

The end

Ozmysh Khan wanted to succeed Tengri and assumed the Khagan title under the name "Wusumishi" - but he was unpopular. In 744 the Karluken joined forces with the Basmıl and Oghuz tribes, attacked Ozmysh and killed him; with that the Second Turk Kaganat came to an end.

Bomei-Tegin Khan, Ozmysh Khagan's brother, tried to seize power in the Eastern Empire as "Bomei Khagan", but he was murdered by Uighurs in 745 .

Karluken, Oghusen and Basmıl now founded the Uyghur Kaganat in the territory of the Eastern Empire . The first ruler from the "Uighur family" was the Chinese mercenary Gulipeiluo. This empire was to last from 744 to 840. Gulipeiluo now assumed the title "Kutluq Bilge Kül Khagan" and made the city of Kara Balgasun (at the upper Orkhon , the old Ordu Balyk), the center of his empire.

Finally, the Karluken had their headquarters in Kuz Ordu, today's Balasagun . They were the first Turkish people in history to create a uniform official language, which radiated as far as the Persian Khorezm Empire and is known today as "Karluk Choresm" or "Karluk Uighur".

After the two realms

The criteria which, according to ethnologists, make up an ethnic group largely applied to the population of the empire of the Kök-Turks. After the collapse of the Turkish Empire, the Turkish tribes dispersed. Various ethnic communities developed or reappeared on the history scene, e.g. B. the Oghuz or the Kipchaks . They kept elements of the kök-Turkish culture, but grew in new directions. These processes are reflected in Mahmud al-Kashghari's portrayal of the Turkish world.

After the collapse of Genghis Khan's empire , a similar process occurred. This time, however, established tribal communities dissolved and formed new confederations, which over time became the modern peoples.

See also


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  • René Giraud: L'Empire des Turcs Célestes. Les Règnes d'Elterich, Qapghan et Bilgä (680-734). Contribution to the History of the Turcs d'Asie Centrale. Adrien-Maisonneuve, Paris 1960.
  • René Grousset : The steppe peoples. Attila, Genghis Khan, Tamerlane. Magnus-Verlag, Essen 1975.
  • Elcin Kürsat-Ahlers : On the early formation of states by steppe peoples. About the socio- and psychogenesis of the Eurasian nomadic empires using the example of the Xiongnu and Gök Turks, with an excursion about the Scythians (= social science writings. Vol. 28). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-428-07761-X (also: Hanover, University, dissertation, 1992).
  • Liu Mau-Tsai: The Chinese news on the history of the Eastern Turks (T'u-küe) (= Göttingen Asian research. Vol. 10, 1–2, ZDB ID 503905-8 ). 2 volumes (Vol. 1: Texts. Vol. 2: Notes, Appendices, Index. ). O. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1958.
  • Ali Kemal Meram: Göktürk İmparatorluğu (= Milliyet Yayin Ṣti. Yayinlari. Tarih Dizisi. Vol. 35, ZDB -ID 2394701-9 ). Milliyet Yayinlari, Istanbul 1974.
  • Edward H. Parker: A thousand years of the Tartars. S. Low, Marston & Co., London 1895 (reprinted. Routledge, London et al. 1996, ISBN 0-415-15589-4 ).
  • Jürgen Paul : Central Asia. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2012 ( New Fischer World History , Volume 10).
  • Wolfgang Scharlipp: Brief overview of the Buddhist literature of the Turks. In: Materialia Turcica. Vol. 6, 1980, ISSN  0344-449X , pp. 37-53.
  • Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp : The early Turks in Central Asia. An introduction to their history and culture. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1992, ISBN 3-534-11689-5 .
  • Denis Sinor : Inner Asia. History - Civilization - Language. A syllabus (= Indiana University Publications. Uralic and Altaic Series. Vol. 96, ISSN  0445-8486 ). Indiana University, Bloomington 1969.
  • Denis Sinor: The Establishment and Dissolution of the Turk Empire . In: Denis Sinor (ed.): The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990, ISBN 0-521-24304-1 , pp. 285-316.
  • Sören Stark: On Oq Bodun. The Western Türk Qaghanate and the Ashina Clan. In: Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi. Vol. 15, 2006/2007, ISSN  0724-8822 , pp. 159-172.
  • Sören Stark: The Old Turkish Period in Central and Central Asia. Archaeological and historical studies (= nomads and settled people. Vol. 6). Reichert, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-89500-532-9 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Kultegin memorial, TÜRIK BITIG
  2. Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp The Early Turks in Central Asia , p. 30
  3. z. B. Sören Stark: The Old Turkish Period in Central and Central Asia. Archaeological and historical studies. Ludwig Reichert, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-89500-532-9
  4. z. B. Liu Mau-Tsai: The Chinese News on the History of the Eastern Turks (T'u-küe). Wiesbaden 1958.
  5. z. B. in: Hermann Kinder, Werner Hilgemann: dtv-Atlas for world history. Volume 1: From the beginnings to the French Revolution. Maps and chronological outline. 6th edition. dtv - Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1970.
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  7. ^ Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. P. 117.
  8. Xavier de Planhol: Cultural Geographical Foundations of Islamic History. Artemis, 1975, p. 23.
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  10. Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: On the role of the old Turkish runic writing in the Turkish scholarly world. In: Materialia Turcica. Volume 17, 1996, pp. 79–86, p. 84, from turkey-turkish kök , German 'root'
  11. ^ Wilhelm Barthold: Twelve lectures on the history of the Turks in Central Asia. Berlin 1935, p. 31.
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  17. ^ A. Róna-Tas: Hungarians & Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History. Central European University Press, 1999, pp. 275ff.
  18. ^ Jürgen Paul : Central Asia (New Fischer World History 10). Frankfurt am Main 2012, pp. 57–58: "The fact that many of them spoke Iranian languages ​​should not go unmentioned, but it is certain that the cultural characteristics are also represented by other ethnic-linguistic groups. It is not entirely clear whether the Scythian confederation did not also include groups ... which, for example, did not speak an Iranian language. "
  19. ^ A b Peter B. Golden: "Ethnogenesis in the Tribal Zone: The Shaping of the Turks" . In: Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 16, 2011, pp. 5–7 (Reprinted with addenda in Peter B. Golden, Studies on the Peoples and Cultures of the Eurasian Steppes, ed. C. Hriban, Florilegium magistrorum historiae archaeologicaeque Antiquitatis et Medii Aevi , IX (Bucharest-Brăla 2011): Pages 17-64): “It is not unlikely that some of the peoples who appear in the Greek sources as“ Scythians ”and as“ Saka ”in Old Persian may have been speakers of other, non-Iranian languages ​​who were included in the polyglot confederations typical of the Eurasian steppe world. These may have included Turkic-speakers who had come westward. "
  20. ^ Liu Mau-Tsai, The Chinese News on the History of the Eastern Turks (T'u-küe), Volume 1, Wiesbaden 1958, pp. 40 f.
  21. ^ Liu Mau-Tsai, The Chinese News on the History of the Eastern Turks (T'u-küe), Volume 1, Wiesbaden 1958, pp. 5 f.
  22. Liu Mau-Tsai: The Chinese News on the History of the Eastern Turks (T'u-küe). Volume 1, Wiesbaden 1958, p. 40; Sören Stark: The Old Turkish Period in Central and Central Asia. Wiesbaden 2008, p. 101.
  23. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia , p. 18; Sören Stark: On Oq Bodun. The Western Türk Qaghanate and the Ashina Clan. In: Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi. Volume 15, 2006/2007, pp. 161-170.
  24. Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia , pp. 12, 18.
  25. Sören Stark: The Old Turkish Period in Central and Central Asia. P. 57.
  26. Denis Sinor: The legendary Origin of the Türks. In: Egle Victoria Zygas, Peter Voorheis: Folklorica. Festschrift for Felix J. Oinas. P. 223 f .: “ Of all the great nomad empires centered on Mongolia, that of the Türks was the first whose official language can be identified without the shadow of a doubt. It was a Turkic dialect well known to us through some funeral steles erected in the eighth century, the first monuments of any Turkic — indeed of any Uralic and Altaic — language.
  27. Michael Neumann-Adrian, Christoph K. Neumann: Turkey. One country and 9,000 years of history. Munich 1990, p. 152.
  28. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 11f.
  29. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. Pp. 18f., 30, 133.
  30. Linska, Handl, Rasuly-Paleczek: Introduction to the Ethnology of Central Asia, p. 59
  31. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 19.
  32. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 19.
  33. a b Wolfgang Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 20.
  34. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 20f.
  35. Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia , p. 21f.
  36. Linska, Handl, Rasuly-Paleczek: Introduction to the ethnology of Central Asia. P. 59.
  37. a b Wolfgang Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 22.
  38. a b Wolfgang Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 23.
  39. a b Wolfgang Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 24.
  40. ^ J. Paul: Central Asia. P. 76.
  41. a b Wolfgang Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 25.
  42. a b Wolfgang Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 26.
  43. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 27.
  44. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 27f .: The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang reports that a member of the western Turkish ruling house ruled in this area.
  45. Linska, Handl, Rasuly-Paleczek: Introduction to the ethnology of Central Asia. P. 59.
  46. a b Wolfgang Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 28.
  47. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 28f.
  48. ^ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 29.
  49. a b Wolfgang Ekkehard Scharlipp: The early Turks in Central Asia. P. 30.
  50. Edith G. Ambros, PA Andrews, Çiğdem Balim, L. Bazin, J. Cler, Peter B. Golden, Altan Gökalp, Barbara Flemming, G. Hazai, AT Karamustafa, Sigrid Kleinmichel, P. Zieme, Erik Jan Zürcher: Article Turks. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam . Brill, digital edition, section 1.1 The pre-Islamic period: the first Turks in history and their languages .
  51. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. Frankfurt am Main 2012, p. 78.
  52. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. Frankfurt am Main 2012, p. 80.
  53. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. Frankfurt am Main 2012, p. 81.
  54. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. Frankfurt am Main 2012, p. 82.
  55. ^ Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East. P. 2.