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Basic data
Greater Region: Northwest China
Autonomous area : Xinjiang
Status: Autonomous District
Residents : 2,992,200 (2016)
Area : 273,200 km²
Location of Ili Prefecture within Xinjiang (China) .png

The Kazakh Autonomous District Ili ( Chinese  伊犁 哈薩克 自治州  /  伊犁 哈萨克 自治州 , Pinyin Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu ; Uighur  ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى, Ili Ⱪazaⱪ Aptonom Wilayiti ; Kazakh ﯨﻠﻪ ﻗﺎﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﯙﺗﻮﻧﻮﻣﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﺑﻠﯩﺴﻰ Ile Qazaq awtonomyalıq oblısı ) is a provincial autonomous region ( Chinese  副 省級 自治州  / 副 省级 自治州 , Pinyin fù shěngjí zìzhìzhōu ) in the northwest of the Uyghur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang in the People's Republic of China . It is named after the Ili River. Its capital is Gulja (Yining). Ili has an area of ​​approx. 273,200 km².

Administrative structure

After its establishment, Ili initially consisted of three administrative districts : Ili, Tacheng and Altay . On October 6, 2001, the Ili administrative district was dissolved and its cities and counties were directly subordinated to the government of the autonomous district. So today Ili is made up of the following administrative units:

Surname Kazakh
(Reformed Arabic script)
in Latin script
(Kona Yeziⱪ)
in Latin
script (Yengi Yeziⱪ)
Chinese Hanyu Pinyin
subordinated directly to the autonomous district:
City of Gulja قۇلجا قالاسى Qulja Qalası غۇلجا شەھىرى Ƣulja Xəⱨiri 伊宁 市 Yīníng Shì
City of Korgas قورعاس قالاسى Qorğas Qalası قورغاس شەھىرى Ⱪorƣas Xəⱨiri 霍尔果斯 市 Huò'ěrguǒsī Shì
Kuytun City كۇيتۇن قالاسى Küytün Qalası كۈيتۇن شەھىرى Küytun Xəⱨiri 奎屯 市 Kuítún Shì
Gulja district قۇلجا اۋدانى Qulja Awdani غۇلجا ناھىيىسى Ƣulja Naⱨiyisi 伊宁 县 Yīníng Xiàn
circle Huocheng قورعاس اۋدانى Qorğas Awdanı قورغاس ناھىيىسى Ⱪorƣas Naⱨiyisi 霍城县 Huòchéng Xiàn
District of Künes كۇنەس اۋدانى Künes Awdanı كۈنەس ناھىيىسى Künəs Naⱨiyisi 新 源 县 Xīnyuán Xiàn
Mongolküre district موڭعۇلكۇرە اۋدانى Moñğulkure Awdanı موڭغۇلكۈرە ناھىيىسى Mongƣulkürə Naⱨiyisi 昭苏县 Zhāosū Xiàn
Nilka district نىلقى اۋدانى Nılqı Awdanı نىلقا ناھىيسى Nilⱪa Naⱨiyisi 尼勒克 县 Nílèkè Xiàn
Tekes County تەكەس اۋدانى Tekes Awdanı تېكەس ناھىيىسى Tekəs Naⱨiyisi 特克斯 县 Tèkèsī Xiàn
circle gongliu county توعىزتاراۋ اۋدانى Toğıztaraw Awdanı توققۇزتارا ناھىيىسى Toⱪⱪuztara Naⱨiyisi 巩留 县 Gǒngliú Xiàn
Xibenik Autonomous County of Qapqal شاپشال سىبە اۆتونوميالى اۋدانى Şapşal Sibe
Avtonomyalıq Awdanı
چاپچال شىبە ئاپتونوم يېزىسى Qapqal Xibə
aptonome Naⱨiyisi
察布查尔 锡伯 自治县 Chábùchá'ěr Xībó
Zìzhì Xiàn
the administrative district Altay (阿勒泰 地区Ālètài Dìqū ;ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى Altay Wilayiti ;التاي ايماعى Altay aymağı ) subject to:
City of Altay التاي قالاسى Altay Qalası ئالتاي شەھىرى Altay Xəⱨiri 阿勒泰 市 Ālètài Shì
Burqin County بۋىرشىن اۋدانى Bwırşın Awdanı بۇرچىن ناھىيىسى Burqin Naⱨiyisi 布尔津 县 Bù'ěrjīn Xiàn
Burultokay district بۋرىلتوعاي اۋدانى Bwrıltoğay Awdanı بۇرۇلتوقاي ناھىيىسى Burultoⱪay Naⱨiyisi 福海 县 Fúhǎi Xiàn
circle jeminay county جەمەنەي اۋدانى Jemeney Awdanı جېمىنەي ​​ناھىيىسى Jeminəy Naⱨiyisi 吉木乃 县 Jímùnǎi Xiàn
Kaba district قابا اۋدانى Qaba Awdani قابا ناھىيىسى Ⱪaba Naⱨiyisi 哈巴河 县 Hābāhé Xiàn
Koktokay County كوكتوعاي اۋدانى Köktoğay Awdanı كوكتوقاي ناھىيىسى Koktoⱪay Naⱨiyisi 富蕴 县 Fùyùn Xiàn
circle Qinggil شىڭگىل اۋدانى Şiñgil Awdanı چىڭگىل ناھىيىسى Qinggil Naⱨiyisi 青 河 县 Qīnghé Xiàn
the administrative district of Tacheng (塔城 地区Tǎchéng Dìqū ;تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى Tarbaƣatay Wilayiti ;تارباعاتاي ايماعى Tarbağatay aymağı ) subject to:
Tacheng City شاۋەشەك قالاسى Şäwesek Qalası چۆچەك شەھىرى Qɵqək Xəⱨiri 塔 城市 Tǎchéng Shì
Usu City شيحۋ قالاسى Şïxw Qalası ۋۇسۇ شەھىرى Wusu Xəⱨiri 乌苏 市 Wūsū Shì
Dorbiljin County ءدوربىلجىن اۋدانى Dörbiljin Awdanı دۆربىلجىن ناھىيىسى Dɵrbiljin Naⱨiyisi 额敏 县 Émǐn Xiàn
circle Yumin county شاعانتوعاي اۋدانى Şağantoğay Awdanı چاغانتوقاي ناھىيىسى Qaƣantoⱪay Naⱨiyisi 裕民 县 Yùmín Xiàn
Shawan County ساۋان اۋدانى Sawan Awdani ساۋەن ناھىيىسى Sawon Naⱨiyisi 沙湾县 Shāwān Xiān
Toli district تولى اۋدانى Tolı Awdanı تولى ناھىيىسى Toli Naⱨiyisi 托里 县 Tuōlǐ Xiàn
Hoboksar Mongolian Autonomous County قوبىقسارى موڭعۇل اۆتونوميالى اۋدانى Qobıqsarı Moñğul
Avtonomyalıq Awdanı
قوبۇقسار موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ناھىيىسى Ⱪobuⱪsar Mongƣul
Aptonom Naⱨiyisi
和 布克赛尔 蒙古 自治县 Hébùkèsài'ěr Měnggǔ
Zìzhì Xiàn

Ethnic breakdown of the total population of the Ili Autonomous District

In the 2000 census, Ili had a total of 3,821,940 inhabitants (population density: 13.99 inh / km²).

Name of the people Residents proportion of
Han 1,697,827 44.42%
Kazakhs 979.343 25.62%
Uighurs 614.981 16.09%
Hui 339,570 8.88%
Mongols 62,671 1.64%
Dongxiang 48,667 1.27%
Xibe 28,960 0.76%
Kyrgyz 16,678 0.44%
Uzbeks 5491 0.14%
Daur 4940 0.13%
Russians 4482 0.12%
Manchu 4045 0.11%
Salar 3097 0.08%
Tatars 2584 0.07%
Others 8604 0.23%

Ethnic division of the former administrative district of Ili

Yurt in Ili

According to the census, the former administrative district of Ili had 2,082,577 inhabitants in 2000.

Name of the people Residents proportion of
Han 675.150 32.42%
Uighurs 566,774 27.22%
Kazakhs 469.634 22.55%
Hui 244,706 11.75%
Dongxiang 41,289 1.98%
Xibe 27,139 1.3%
Mongols 26,624 1.28%
Kyrgyz 14,739 0.71%
Uzbeks 4903 0.24%
Manchu 2689 0.13%
Salar 2638 0.13%
Others 6292 0.29%


The Khan of the Chagatai Khanate , established in the 13th century, resided in Almaliq , which was near today's Gulja .

Kuldscha / Ili under Manchu rule

After the destruction of the Djungarian Empire between 1754 and 1759 by troops of the Qing dynasty , the Manchu commanders established a military colony in the Ili region. The city of Neu-Kuldscha, founded in 1764, was completely destroyed in 1866.
Since the occupation by the Manchu administration, the region on the upper reaches of the Ili has been under Chinese sovereignty almost continuously until the present day. The Kuldscha region (Chinese name Ili province , Russian name Kuldscha district ) was often subject to changing political influences.

After the fall of Manchuria in 1862, the Chinese influence fell here during the Dungan uprisings . In the period between 1862 and 1864, fighting against external influences broke out, during which the Russian consulate and the trading post in Kuldscha were also destroyed. Numerous refugees escaped this confusion in the Russian Seven Rivers country . A Muslim power structure from the local population established itself.

Disintegration of Chinese rule and formation of the Tarantschi Sultanate

In January 1866, regional groups of the Dungans and armed members of the East Turkestan or Uzbek population (tarantschi) stormed the fortress held by the Chinese in New Kuldscha and took it. The Chinese regional administrator, his officials and other relatives were killed.

When Jakub Bek began in 1867 from neighboring Kashgar to eliminate Chinese rule in the region of East Turkestan, created his own khanate and established connections with the English, the Russian side feared an expansion of these tendencies over the Kuldscha region into the Seven Rivers.

The Kuldscha District (outlined in red)

The autonomous sultanate established in the Kuldscha region as early as 1864 achieved little internal stability. The fourth and last Sultan Alija-chan Obil-ogly did not succeed in pacifying the troubled situation in his domain. They continued to spread to the neighboring areas of the Russian Seven Rivers. As a result, the local military commander General Gerasim Alexejewitsch Kolpakowski (troops of the General Government of the Steppe ) was forced to intervene. He first conducted negotiations with the Sultan and when these were unsuccessful, he had a troop unit occupy the Musart Pass (mountain crossing in the Tianschan ) in the autumn of 1870 . This cut off the connection to Kashgar on the west side of the mountains.

Kuldscha under Russian administration

In the spring of 1871 the situation came to a head. Kyrgyz herders from Russia invaded the Kuldscha area and tried to support the sultan. They attacked Cossack troops on the border. This incident led to the Russian invasion of the sultanate. On June 21, 1871, Sultan Obil-ogly surrendered to the Russian military , which occupied the city of Kuldscha the following day. The Russian Empire took over the landscapes on the upper reaches of the Ili in its administration and incorporated it into the General Government of Turkestan . In 1872 Russia and Kashgaria signed a trade agreement.

During the Russian administrative period, the doctor Albert Regel worked in the city of Kuldscha , who contributed to the archaeological and natural history research of the Turfan region.

The Englishman Edward Delmar Morgan traveled to Kuldscha in 1880 and subsequently left a description of the area.

The expectations of the Russian side regarding the development of their political and economic influence over the Kuldscha district were perceived as unsatisfactory because the state's interests went far beyond Kuldscha.

When Jakub Bek was defeated by the Chinese troops in a military conflict in 1877 and his two sons were unable to hold the khanate, his empire fell apart in 1878 after the fall of Khotan . This development temporarily weakened the Russian government's interest in the Kuldscha district. As a result, there were contract negotiations between the Russian government and a Chinese negotiator in Livadia in September 1879 . The result was not confirmed after the negotiator's return in Beijing and he himself was sentenced to death (later pardoned). As a direct result, there were mutual military concentrations on the Russian-Chinese border and the Imperial Russian Navy took up threatening positions off the coast of China. A new advance was made with the Chinese ambassador in Paris , Marquis Tseng. His inaugural audience took place on August 10 (23) 1880 in Saint Petersburg . As a result, the military confrontation that had been going on until then returned to increasingly peaceful channels.

The main mosque in Kuldscha around 1882

The kuldscha question was ended with the treaty of February 2 (14), 1881. As a result, Russia returned the region to China, but demanded compensation for the temporary administrative expenses and compensation for the damage suffered by Russian citizens during this period amounting to 9 million silver rubles . Furthermore, the treaty stipulated that the western part of the area would remain with Russia, since people willing to resettle should find a new home there.
The treaty also provided that Russia's right to maintain consulates in western China would be further extended and a guaranteed road for Russian traders to the port of Tientsin would be established. The ratification took place by Russia on August 4th (16th) 1881 and by the Chinese Emperor on May 3rd (15th) 1881.

Gulja as part of China

At the end of the 19th century, the city of Gulja had become an important economic center west of Mongolia. The population of the city was made up extremely inhomogeneously. In addition to numerous mosques, there were two Buddhist temples, a Greek Catholic and a Roman Catholic church . Coal was mined north of the city and the trade route was very popular to the east and west.

During the Chinese Revolution of 1911, the situation in the Gulja region returned to an unstable position. Russia then strengthened its consular protection forces in Xinjiang .

The Russian consulate in Gulja was closed in 1918. It was only able to resume its work between 1924 and 1925, even beyond 1927 when China broke off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union .

In November 1944, unrest broke out among the Kazakh population in the Ili region ( three-district revolution ), which was also joined by members of the Uyghurs . The East Turkestan Republic was proclaimed in the city of Gulja . This movement served to better represent the interests of the non-Chinese population.

Negotiations with the regional government in Ürümqi led to a convergence of interests in mid-1946. The head of the regional government and General Zhang Zhizhong , appointed by the Chinese side, initiated a liberal policy towards Gulja's political representatives. As a result, there was a regional constitution for the Gulja area, financial policy corrections and the release of political prisoners. The Kuomintang government’s expectations of political developments in the region have not been adequately met. On the other hand there were further demands of the regional forces striving for independence. This led to the dismissal of Zhang in 1947 (he remained in the government) and Masud Sabri took over his position . His conservative positions, however, exacerbated the situation and led to his removal through the influence of the Kuomintang. He was followed in 1948 by the Beijing-oriented politician Burhan Shahidi . The majority, however, developed in favor of communist influences. The Soviet Union had significant political and military influence in the region until 1949.

When the Communist Party of China called a CPPCC meeting in 1949 , representatives of the Gulja movement and Zhang attended. As a result, a Provisional People's Government was formed in Xinjiang on December 17, 1949, and the Gulja area came back under the control of the Chinese central government. Unlike the Kuomintang, the Chinese communist forces involved non-Chinese representatives in the areas of public administration at the time. In 1954, the Ili region was declared the Ili Kazakh Autonomous District .

See also


  • Gavin Hambly (Ed.): Central Asia . Frankfurt am Main (Fischer TB Verlag) 1995, ISBN 3-596-60016-2

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Xinjiang / Sinkiang (China): Prefecture Level, Cities & Counties - Population Statistics, Maps, Graphics, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved May 12, 2018 .
  2. Zhōngguó dìmínglù中国 地 ​​名录 (Beijing, Zhōngguó dìtú chūbǎnshè中国 地图 出版社 1997); ISBN 7-5031-1718-4 .
  3. Hənzuqə-Uyƣurqə luƣət (sinaⱪ nus'hisi) . Xinjiang həlk̡ nəxriyati, Ürümqi 1974, pp. 1170-1172.
  4. Hambly, 1995, p. 223
  5. Hambly, 1995, p. 308
  6. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Erg Vol. 19. 1881–1882, p. 76
  7. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Erg Vol. 18. 1880–1881, pp. 570–571
  8. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Erg Vol. 19. 1881-1882, pp. 562-564
  9. Hambly, 1995, p. 315
  10. Hambly, 1995, p. 318

Coordinates: 43 ° 30 '  N , 82 ° 0'  E