|Greater Region:||Northwest China|
|Autonomous area :||Xinjiang|
|Residents :||2,992,200 (2016)|
|Area :||273,200 km²|
The Kazakh Autonomous District Ili ( Chinese 伊犁 哈薩克 自治州 / 伊犁 哈萨克 自治州 , Pinyin Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu ; Uighur ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ۋىلايىتى, Ili Ⱪazaⱪ Aptonom Wilayiti ; Kazakh ﯨﻠﻪ ﻗﺎﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﯙﺗﻮﻧﻮﻣﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﺑﻠﯩﺴﻰ Ile Qazaq awtonomyalıq oblısı ) is a provincial autonomous region ( Chinese 副 省級 自治州 / 副 省级 自治州 , Pinyin fù shěngjí zìzhìzhōu ) in the northwest of the Uyghur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang in the People's Republic of China . It is named after the Ili River. Its capital is Gulja (Yining). Ili has an area of approx. 273,200 km².
After its establishment, Ili initially consisted of three administrative districts : Ili, Tacheng and Altay . On October 6, 2001, the Ili administrative district was dissolved and its cities and counties were directly subordinated to the government of the autonomous district. So today Ili is made up of the following administrative units:
(Reformed Arabic script)
|in Latin script
script (Yengi Yeziⱪ)
|subordinated directly to the autonomous district:|
|City of Gulja||قۇلجا قالاسى||Qulja Qalası||غۇلجا شەھىرى||Ƣulja Xəⱨiri||伊宁 市||Yīníng Shì|
|City of Korgas||قورعاس قالاسى||Qorğas Qalası||قورغاس شەھىرى||Ⱪorƣas Xəⱨiri||霍尔果斯 市||Huò'ěrguǒsī Shì|
|Kuytun City||كۇيتۇن قالاسى||Küytün Qalası||كۈيتۇن شەھىرى||Küytun Xəⱨiri||奎屯 市||Kuítún Shì|
|Gulja district||قۇلجا اۋدانى||Qulja Awdani||غۇلجا ناھىيىسى||Ƣulja Naⱨiyisi||伊宁 县||Yīníng Xiàn|
|circle Huocheng||قورعاس اۋدانى||Qorğas Awdanı||قورغاس ناھىيىسى||Ⱪorƣas Naⱨiyisi||霍城县||Huòchéng Xiàn|
|District of Künes||كۇنەس اۋدانى||Künes Awdanı||كۈنەس ناھىيىسى||Künəs Naⱨiyisi||新 源 县||Xīnyuán Xiàn|
|Mongolküre district||موڭعۇلكۇرە اۋدانى||Moñğulkure Awdanı||موڭغۇلكۈرە ناھىيىسى||Mongƣulkürə Naⱨiyisi||昭苏县||Zhāosū Xiàn|
|Nilka district||نىلقى اۋدانى||Nılqı Awdanı||نىلقا ناھىيسى||Nilⱪa Naⱨiyisi||尼勒克 县||Nílèkè Xiàn|
|Tekes County||تەكەس اۋدانى||Tekes Awdanı||تېكەس ناھىيىسى||Tekəs Naⱨiyisi||特克斯 县||Tèkèsī Xiàn|
|circle gongliu county||توعىزتاراۋ اۋدانى||Toğıztaraw Awdanı||توققۇزتارا ناھىيىسى||Toⱪⱪuztara Naⱨiyisi||巩留 县||Gǒngliú Xiàn|
|Xibenik Autonomous County of Qapqal||شاپشال سىبە اۆتونوميالى اۋدانى||Şapşal Sibe
|چاپچال شىبە ئاپتونوم يېزىسى||Qapqal Xibə
|察布查尔 锡伯 自治县||
|the administrative district Altay (阿勒泰 地区Ālètài Dìqū ;ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى Altay Wilayiti ;التاي ايماعى Altay aymağı ) subject to:|
|City of Altay||التاي قالاسى||Altay Qalası||ئالتاي شەھىرى||Altay Xəⱨiri||阿勒泰 市||Ālètài Shì|
|Burqin County||بۋىرشىن اۋدانى||Bwırşın Awdanı||بۇرچىن ناھىيىسى||Burqin Naⱨiyisi||布尔津 县||Bù'ěrjīn Xiàn|
|Burultokay district||بۋرىلتوعاي اۋدانى||Bwrıltoğay Awdanı||بۇرۇلتوقاي ناھىيىسى||Burultoⱪay Naⱨiyisi||福海 县||Fúhǎi Xiàn|
|circle jeminay county||جەمەنەي اۋدانى||Jemeney Awdanı||جېمىنەي ناھىيىسى||Jeminəy Naⱨiyisi||吉木乃 县||Jímùnǎi Xiàn|
|Kaba district||قابا اۋدانى||Qaba Awdani||قابا ناھىيىسى||Ⱪaba Naⱨiyisi||哈巴河 县||Hābāhé Xiàn|
|Koktokay County||كوكتوعاي اۋدانى||Köktoğay Awdanı||كوكتوقاي ناھىيىسى||Koktoⱪay Naⱨiyisi||富蕴 县||Fùyùn Xiàn|
|circle Qinggil||شىڭگىل اۋدانى||Şiñgil Awdanı||چىڭگىل ناھىيىسى||Qinggil Naⱨiyisi||青 河 县||Qīnghé Xiàn|
|the administrative district of Tacheng (塔城 地区Tǎchéng Dìqū ;تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى Tarbaƣatay Wilayiti ;تارباعاتاي ايماعى Tarbağatay aymağı ) subject to:|
|Tacheng City||شاۋەشەك قالاسى||Şäwesek Qalası||چۆچەك شەھىرى||Qɵqək Xəⱨiri||塔 城市||Tǎchéng Shì|
|Usu City||شيحۋ قالاسى||Şïxw Qalası||ۋۇسۇ شەھىرى||Wusu Xəⱨiri||乌苏 市||Wūsū Shì|
|Dorbiljin County||ءدوربىلجىن اۋدانى||Dörbiljin Awdanı||دۆربىلجىن ناھىيىسى||Dɵrbiljin Naⱨiyisi||额敏 县||Émǐn Xiàn|
|circle Yumin county||شاعانتوعاي اۋدانى||Şağantoğay Awdanı||چاغانتوقاي ناھىيىسى||Qaƣantoⱪay Naⱨiyisi||裕民 县||Yùmín Xiàn|
|Shawan County||ساۋان اۋدانى||Sawan Awdani||ساۋەن ناھىيىسى||Sawon Naⱨiyisi||沙湾县||Shāwān Xiān|
|Toli district||تولى اۋدانى||Tolı Awdanı||تولى ناھىيىسى||Toli Naⱨiyisi||托里 县||Tuōlǐ Xiàn|
|Hoboksar Mongolian Autonomous County||قوبىقسارى موڭعۇل اۆتونوميالى اۋدانى||Qobıqsarı Moñğul
|قوبۇقسار موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ناھىيىسى||Ⱪobuⱪsar Mongƣul
|和 布克赛尔 蒙古 自治县||
Ethnic breakdown of the total population of the Ili Autonomous District
In the 2000 census, Ili had a total of 3,821,940 inhabitants (population density: 13.99 inh / km²).
|Name of the people||Residents||proportion of|
Ethnic division of the former administrative district of Ili
According to the census, the former administrative district of Ili had 2,082,577 inhabitants in 2000.
|Name of the people||Residents||proportion of|
Kuldscha / Ili under Manchu rule
After the destruction of the Djungarian Empire between 1754 and 1759 by troops of the Qing dynasty , the Manchu commanders established a military colony in the Ili region. The city of Neu-Kuldscha, founded in 1764, was completely destroyed in 1866.
Since the occupation by the Manchu administration, the region on the upper reaches of the Ili has been under Chinese sovereignty almost continuously until the present day. The Kuldscha region (Chinese name Ili province , Russian name Kuldscha district ) was often subject to changing political influences.
After the fall of Manchuria in 1862, the Chinese influence fell here during the Dungan uprisings . In the period between 1862 and 1864, fighting against external influences broke out, during which the Russian consulate and the trading post in Kuldscha were also destroyed. Numerous refugees escaped this confusion in the Russian Seven Rivers country . A Muslim power structure from the local population established itself.
Disintegration of Chinese rule and formation of the Tarantschi Sultanate
In January 1866, regional groups of the Dungans and armed members of the East Turkestan or Uzbek population (tarantschi) stormed the fortress held by the Chinese in New Kuldscha and took it. The Chinese regional administrator, his officials and other relatives were killed.
When Jakub Bek began in 1867 from neighboring Kashgar to eliminate Chinese rule in the region of East Turkestan, created his own khanate and established connections with the English, the Russian side feared an expansion of these tendencies over the Kuldscha region into the Seven Rivers.
The autonomous sultanate established in the Kuldscha region as early as 1864 achieved little internal stability. The fourth and last Sultan Alija-chan Obil-ogly did not succeed in pacifying the troubled situation in his domain. They continued to spread to the neighboring areas of the Russian Seven Rivers. As a result, the local military commander General Gerasim Alexejewitsch Kolpakowski (troops of the General Government of the Steppe ) was forced to intervene. He first conducted negotiations with the Sultan and when these were unsuccessful, he had a troop unit occupy the Musart Pass (mountain crossing in the Tianschan ) in the autumn of 1870 . This cut off the connection to Kashgar on the west side of the mountains.
Kuldscha under Russian administration
In the spring of 1871 the situation came to a head. Kyrgyz herders from Russia invaded the Kuldscha area and tried to support the sultan. They attacked Cossack troops on the border. This incident led to the Russian invasion of the sultanate. On June 21, 1871, Sultan Obil-ogly surrendered to the Russian military , which occupied the city of Kuldscha the following day. The Russian Empire took over the landscapes on the upper reaches of the Ili in its administration and incorporated it into the General Government of Turkestan . In 1872 Russia and Kashgaria signed a trade agreement.
The Englishman Edward Delmar Morgan traveled to Kuldscha in 1880 and subsequently left a description of the area.
The expectations of the Russian side regarding the development of their political and economic influence over the Kuldscha district were perceived as unsatisfactory because the state's interests went far beyond Kuldscha.
When Jakub Bek was defeated by the Chinese troops in a military conflict in 1877 and his two sons were unable to hold the khanate, his empire fell apart in 1878 after the fall of Khotan . This development temporarily weakened the Russian government's interest in the Kuldscha district. As a result, there were contract negotiations between the Russian government and a Chinese negotiator in Livadia in September 1879 . The result was not confirmed after the negotiator's return in Beijing and he himself was sentenced to death (later pardoned). As a direct result, there were mutual military concentrations on the Russian-Chinese border and the Imperial Russian Navy took up threatening positions off the coast of China. A new advance was made with the Chinese ambassador in Paris , Marquis Tseng. His inaugural audience took place on August 10 (23) 1880 in Saint Petersburg . As a result, the military confrontation that had been going on until then returned to increasingly peaceful channels.
The kuldscha question was ended with the treaty of February 2 (14), 1881. As a result, Russia returned the region to China, but demanded compensation for the temporary administrative expenses and compensation for the damage suffered by Russian citizens during this period amounting to 9 million silver rubles . Furthermore, the treaty stipulated that the western part of the area would remain with Russia, since people willing to resettle should find a new home there.
The treaty also provided that Russia's right to maintain consulates in western China would be further extended and a guaranteed road for Russian traders to the port of Tientsin would be established. The ratification took place by Russia on August 4th (16th) 1881 and by the Chinese Emperor on May 3rd (15th) 1881.
Gulja as part of China
At the end of the 19th century, the city of Gulja had become an important economic center west of Mongolia. The population of the city was made up extremely inhomogeneously. In addition to numerous mosques, there were two Buddhist temples, a Greek Catholic and a Roman Catholic church . Coal was mined north of the city and the trade route was very popular to the east and west.
The Russian consulate in Gulja was closed in 1918. It was only able to resume its work between 1924 and 1925, even beyond 1927 when China broke off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union .
In November 1944, unrest broke out among the Kazakh population in the Ili region ( three-district revolution ), which was also joined by members of the Uyghurs . The East Turkestan Republic was proclaimed in the city of Gulja . This movement served to better represent the interests of the non-Chinese population.
Negotiations with the regional government in Ürümqi led to a convergence of interests in mid-1946. The head of the regional government and General Zhang Zhizhong , appointed by the Chinese side, initiated a liberal policy towards Gulja's political representatives. As a result, there was a regional constitution for the Gulja area, financial policy corrections and the release of political prisoners. The Kuomintang government’s expectations of political developments in the region have not been adequately met. On the other hand there were further demands of the regional forces striving for independence. This led to the dismissal of Zhang in 1947 (he remained in the government) and Masud Sabri took over his position . His conservative positions, however, exacerbated the situation and led to his removal through the influence of the Kuomintang. He was followed in 1948 by the Beijing-oriented politician Burhan Shahidi . The majority, however, developed in favor of communist influences. The Soviet Union had significant political and military influence in the region until 1949.
When the Communist Party of China called a CPPCC meeting in 1949 , representatives of the Gulja movement and Zhang attended. As a result, a Provisional People's Government was formed in Xinjiang on December 17, 1949, and the Gulja area came back under the control of the Chinese central government. Unlike the Kuomintang, the Chinese communist forces involved non-Chinese representatives in the areas of public administration at the time. In 1954, the Ili region was declared the Ili Kazakh Autonomous District .
- Gavin Hambly (Ed.): Central Asia . Frankfurt am Main (Fischer TB Verlag) 1995, ISBN 3-596-60016-2
- Xinjiang / Sinkiang (China): Prefecture Level, Cities & Counties - Population Statistics, Maps, Graphics, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved May 12, 2018 .
- Zhōngguó dìmínglù中国 地 名录 (Beijing, Zhōngguó dìtú chūbǎnshè中国 地图 出版社 1997); ISBN 7-5031-1718-4 .
- Hənzuqə-Uyƣurqə luƣət (sinaⱪ nus'hisi) . Xinjiang həlk̡ nəxriyati, Ürümqi 1974, pp. 1170-1172.
- Hambly, 1995, p. 223
- Hambly, 1995, p. 308
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Erg Vol. 19. 1881–1882, p. 76
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Erg Vol. 18. 1880–1881, pp. 570–571
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Erg Vol. 19. 1881-1882, pp. 562-564
- Hambly, 1995, p. 315
- Hambly, 1995, p. 318