List of island celtic myths and legends
Myths and legends from the entire once Celtic area have only been handed down from the island celts , i.e. the inhabitants of the British Isles . Since the early Middle Ages they have been recorded in this area mostly by monks, partly in Gaelic ( Ireland ) or Cymrian ( Wales ), partly in Latin . The Scottish GaelicLegends are sung ballads that could be heard well into the 20th century; with the decline of the Scottish Gaelic language in Europe, they have all but disappeared. The origins of all myths and legends have been passed down locally in oral form, although some of them have their (changing) locations in several regions of the British Isles . The regional allocation of the myths is to be seen from the point of view that a clean separation based on the modern individual states England , Scotland and Wales as well as Northern Ireland and the Republic of Irelandcannot correspond to the historical regions. So on the one hand Ireland, on the other hand Wales and Britain are combined, where Britain stands for the part of the British Isles that roughly corresponds to today's England. These myths were often summarized in compilations, the name of which is sometimes derived from the material and color of the cover.
The works that have been handed down in Latin are only noted here if they fit thematically to Celtic mythology (therefore, for example, there are no saints ' lives here, apart from those handed down in Gaelic or Cymrian).
"We know (at least in part) the religion of the mainland Celts, but no mythology, whereas the island Celts literarily formed the mythology at a time when the underlying religion no longer existed."
Myths and legends from Ireland
Categories of the sagas
In most Irish sagas, the very first word of the title tells the reader what category the story should be placed in. These are often:
- aided [ 'aðʴeð ] - violent death of humans or animals
- aisling [ 'aʃlʴiŋʴ ] - vision in a dream, dream face
- aithed [ 'aθʴeð ] - escape of a girl or woman with her lover
- baile [ 'balʴe ], also buile - vision, prophecy in ecstasy or madness
- cath [ kaθ ] - fight or battle
- compert [ 'kombʴeRt ] - conception and / or birth
- Echtrae [ 'extre ] - adventurous journey, adventure in mythical regions
- immram [ 'imrav ] - "rowing", seafaring, sea voyage to mythical islands, etc.
- macgnímartha / macgnímrada [ 'makɣʼnʼiːvraða ] - boys / youth deeds of heroes
- orgain [ 'orginʴ ] - murder of people or devastation of places
- scéla [ 'ʃkʴeːla ] - history, narrative (see also Remscéla )
- táin [ taːnʴ ] - driving away cattle
- tochmarc [ 'toxmark ] - courtship , bridal trip
- togail [ 'toɣalʴ ] - siege or destroy a fortress
However, there are also legends that form a single category, such as acallam ([ 'agaLav ] - conversation, conversation). It is unclear whether there are also several legends here, but these are lost. Well-known legends are listed below.
|Acallam na Senórach||The conversation of the ancients||Encounter between mythical heroes and Saint Patrick of Ireland|
|Aided Cheit maic Mágach||The death of Cet mac Mágach||Fight Conall Cernach with Cet mac Mágach and Bélchús betrayal and death|
|Aided Cheltchair maic Uthechair||The death of Celtchar, son of Uthechar||Celtchar mac Uthechair's atonement for the killing of Blaí|
|Aided Chlainne Tuirenn||The death of the children of Tuirenn||Lugs revenge on the sons of Tuirenn for the murder of his father Cian|
|Aided Chonchobuir||the death of Conchobor||Conchobor's death at the hands of Cet mac Mágach|
|Aided Chon Culainn||The death of Cú Chulainn||Assassination of Cú Chulainn and Conall Cernach's revenge on the perpetrators|
|Aided Loegairi Buadaig||The death of Loegaire the Victorious||Loegaire Buadach dies while trying to save Aed mac Ainninne|
|Aided Muirchertaig meic Erca||The death of Muirchertach, Erc's son||Muirchertach mac Ercas punishment for his adultery with Sín|
|Aided Oenfir Aífe||The death of Aífe's only son||Cú Chulainn's duel with his son Connla and his death|
|Airne Fingein||Fingein's night watch||a fairy prophesies Fingein mac Luchta|
|Aislings Meic Chon Glinne||The Mac Con Glinne's dream||Parody of monastery life and visions of the afterlife|
|Aislings Oenguso||Oengus' dream face||Remscéla der Táin Bó Cuailnge about Oengus ' search for his dream wife|
|Amra Choluim Chille||Praise Colum Cilles||Poem to the founder of the monastery, Columban by Iona (Colum Cille)|
|Baile Binnbérlach mac Buain||Baile with the beautiful voice, the son of Buan||unrequited love between Baile and Ailinn|
|Baile in Scáil||The prophecy of the phantom||Conn Cétchathach's look into the future of his family|
|Bóruma or Bórama||The tribute||Battle for the tribute of the province of Leinster to the Ui Néill|
|Buile Suibne||Suibne's madness||Suibne's madness in battle and his death in the monastery|
|Caithréim Cellaig||Cellach's career||Cellach's path from the monk to the throne of Connacht to the bishop|
|Cath Etair||The battle of Étar||Siege of Etar, death of Mes Gegras by Conall Cernach|
|Cath Finntrágha||The Battle of Ventry||Defense of Ireland by Fionn mac Cumhaill and his Fianna against the "King of the World"|
|Cath Maige Mucrama||The battle of Mag Mucrama||Lugaid mac Cons struggle for the throne of Ireland and his assassination by Ailill Aulom|
|Cath Maige Rátha||The Battle of Mag Ráth||War Congal Claens against the Hochkönig Domnall mac Aeda|
|Cath Maige Tuired||The Battle of Mag Tuired||Wars of the Túatha Dé Danann against Firbolg and Fomori|
|Compert Conchobuir||Conchobar's conception||Cathbad's fight for Asa (Ni-Asa) and the conception of Conchobar mac Nessa|
|Compert Con Chulainn||Cú Chulainn's conception||Conchobar mac Nessa's daughter is pregnant and Setanta / Cú Chulainn is born|
|Compert Mongáin ocus serc Duibe Lacha do Mongán||Mongán's conception and Mongán's love for Dub Lacha||Conception of Mongán, Manannan's son and his marriage to Dub Lacha|
|De chophur in da muccida||About the transformation (?) Of the two swineherd||Remscéla of the Táin Bó Cuailnge on the transformation of the two shepherds into the bulls Donn Cuailnge and Findbennach|
|Duanaire Finn||Finn's songbook||Poems and ballads from the Finn cycle|
|Eachtra to Mhadra Mhaoil||The adventures of the dog with the clipped ears||Pursuit of an Evil Knight by Balbhuaidh ( Gawain )|
|Eachtra Mhacaoimhan-iolair||The adventures of the eagle boy||Search of the eagle boy for his origin|
|Echtra Cormaic i Tír Tairngire||Cormac's journey to the land of hope / promise||Cormac mac Airt's journey to the fairies|
|Eachtra Thaidhg Mhic Céin||The adventure of Tadhg mac Céin||The broken word of Tadhg mac Céin's son|
|Echtra Fergusa maic Léte||Fergus mac Léites adventure||Fergus mac Léites battle with a sea monster|
|Echtrae Chonnlai||Connla's adventure||Conn Cétchathach's son Connla and his love for a fairy|
|Echtrae Nerai||Nera's adventure||Remscéla der Táin Bó Cuailnge about Nera's warning to the residents of Cruachan|
|Esnada Tige Buchet||The song of the house of Buchet||The fate of the hospitable beech of Leinster|
|Fingal Rónáin||Rónán's killing of relatives||Rónán's mistaken murder of his son|
|Fled Bricrenn||Bricrius festival||Dispute over the place of honor at the festival between Ulster's heroes|
|Fled Dúin na nGéd||The festival of Dún na nGéd||Dispute between Domnall mac Aeda and Congal Claen|
|Fotha Catha Cnucha||The cause of the Battle of Cnucha||Death of Cumhall mac Basna and conception of Fionn mac Cumhaill|
|Geneamuin Cormaic Ua Chuind||The birth of Cormac mac Airt||Cormac mac Airt's entire life to death|
|Immacallam in dá Thuarad||The conversation of the two wise men||Dispute between Néde and Ferchertne over the title of Ireland's chief poet|
|Immram Brain||Bran's seafaring||Bran mac Febail's mythical journey to the island of women|
|Immram Curaig Maíle Dúin||The boat ride from Máel Dúin||Mael Dúins journey to some mythical islands|
|Lebor Gabála Érenn||The Book of the Capture of Ireland||mythical waves of immigration and power struggles over Ireland|
|Longas mac nUislenn||The exile of the sons of Uisliu||Remscéla der Táin Bó Cuailnge on the history of Deirdre|
|Macgnímartha Finn||Fionn's youth deeds||Tales of Fionn mac Cumhaill's youth, s. a. Aillén|
|Macgnímrada Con Culainn||Cú Chulainn's youthful deeds||Story about Cú Chulainn's youth in the Táin Bó Cuailnge|
|Mesca Ulad||Ulster warriorsThe drunkenness of the||Cú Roís deceit against Conchobar mac Nessa|
|Navigatio Sancti Brendani||Saint Brendan's Sea Voyage (Latin)||Brendan's trip to the mythical islands|
|Noínden Ulad , also Ces Ulad||ulterThe weakness of the||Failure of Ulter against Macha and establishment of Emain Macha|
|Oidheadh Chlainne Lir||The story of the children of Lir||Lir's children are turned into swans|
|Orgain Denna Ríg||The murder of Dinn Ríg||Labraid Moens fight for his father's throne|
|Scéla Cano meic Gartnáin||The story of Cano, Gartnan's son||Cano mac Gartnáin's adventures and unhappy love in Ireland|
|Scéla Eogain agus Cormaic||The story of Eogan and Cormac||Childhood and adolescence Cormac mac Airts until he came to power|
|Scéla mucce Meic Dathó||The story of Mac Dathó's pig||Dispute between the heroes of Ulster and Connacht over the hero bite|
|Scél Tuain meic Chairill||The story of Tuan, the son of Cairill||Transformations of Túan mac Cairills in the time of Lebor Gabála Érenn|
|Serglige Con Chulainn ocus oenét Emire||Cú Chulainn's sick bed and Emer's only jealousy||Cú Chulainn's love sickness and adultery with Fand|
|Táin Bó Cuailnge||CooleyThe driving away of the cattle from||Heroic deeds of Cú Chulainn in the war for the bull Donn Cuailnge|
|Táin Bó Flidhais||The driving away of the cattle from Flidais||Fergus mac Róich's fight for Flidais and her wonder cow|
|Táin Bó Froích||Driving away the Froech cattle||Remscéla from Táin Bó Cuailnge on Froech's experiences|
|Tochmarc Becfola||The campaign for Becfola||Advertising King Diarmait mac Aeda Slaines around the fairy Becfola|
|Tochmarc Emire||Courting Emer||Remscéla of Táin Bó Cuailnge about Cú Chulainn's advertisement for Emer|
|Tochmarc Étaíne||The courtship for Étaín||Fuamnach's revenge on her rival Étaín|
|Tochmarc Luaine acus aided Athirni||The advertisement of Luaines and the death of Athirne||Conchobar's advertisement for Luaine and Athirne's murder|
|Togail Bruidne Da Derga||The destruction of the Hall Da Dergas||Royal rule and fall of Conaire Mórs|
|Tóragheacht Dhiarmaida agus Ghráinne||The persecution of Diarmuid and Gráinne||Fionn mac Cumhaill's chase Diarmuids and Gráinnes|
Myths and legends from Wales and Britain
According to Bernhard Maier, there is a tendency in Welsh tradition to include almost all older stories and their protagonists in the Arthurian saga . A systematic categorization according to subject areas as in the Irish tradition cannot be determined in Cymric.
|Poor Prydein||The prophecy of Britain||political prophecies in the Llyfr Taliesin|
|Branwen ferch Llŷr||Branwen , Ll Lr's daughter||Branwen's Suffering in Ireland, second story in the Mabinogion|
|Breuddwyd Macsen||Macsen's dream||Emperor Macsen of Rome fights for the British princess Elen Luyddawg|
|Breuddwyd Rhonabwy||Rhonabwy's dream||In a dream Rhonabwy meets some Welsh legendary heroes|
|Cad Goddeu||The battle of Goddeu||Battle between Gwydyon and Amaethon , in the Llyfr Taliesin|
|Culhwch ac Olwen||Culhwch and Olwen||Culhwch advertising for Olwen , the daughter of Ysbaddaden|
|Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys||The story of Lludd and Llefelys||King Lludd of Britain with the help of his brother Llefelys frees his kingdom from three plagues (included in the Mabinogion )|
|Englynion United||The stanzas united||Songs united on the legendary heroes|
|Englynion y Beddeu||The stanzas of the graves||Poems about the graves of famous heroes|
|Englynion y Clyweid||The sayings of the wise||Poetry collection of sayings|
|Gelert||Gelert (dog name)||Wandering legend about the "loyal dog"|
|United fab heiress||United, the son of the heiress||Brautfahrt and discord Gereints with Enid at the court of King Arthur|
|Hanes Taliesin||The story of Taliesin||Youth (as Gwion Bach) and fame of the poet Taliesin|
|Iarlles y Ffynnawn||The mistress of the source||Battle of Owein fab Uriens with the Black Knight|
|Manawydan fab Llŷr||Manawydan, the son of Llŷr||Manawydan's struggle for Dyfed , third story in the Mabinogion|
|Math fab Mathonwy||Math, the son of Mathonwys||Math , Llew Llaw Gyffes and Blodeuwedd , fourth story in the Mabinogion|
|Melwas and Gwenhwyfar||↔ no kymrian title||two fragments of poetry, argument between Melwas , Kei and Gwenhwyfar|
|Pa ŵr yw'r porthor?||Who is the gatekeeper?||Dialogue between King Arthur and the gatekeeper Glewlwyd|
|Peredur fab Efrawg||Peredur, the son of Efrawg||Peredur's change from a simple-minded fool to a respected knight at the court of King Arthur|
|Preiddeu Annwfn||AnnwfnThe booty from||Arthur legend from the Llyfr Taliesin|
|Pwyll Pendefig Dyfed||Pwyll, Prince of Dyfed||Pwyll's Journey into the Otherworld and the Birth of Pryderi , first story in the Mabinogion|
|About Arthur's birth and how he became king||↔ no kymrian title||Prose fragment about King Arthur's youth|
|Ymddiddan Arthur a'r Eryr||Arthur's conversation with the eagle||Arthur's conversation with his eagle-turned nephew|
|Ystoria Drystan||A story by Drystan||Drystan fab Tallwch's encounter with Arthur and Gawain|
Sayings collections and glossaries
The legal texts etc. mentioned here are mostly the only tradition of some of the old Irish words or glosses that were already outdated and uncommon at the time of writing.
|Bretha Crólige||Decisions regarding bloodshed||-||Penalty taxes for injuries, 3rd part of the Senchas Már|
|Bretha Nemed||Nemed decisions||7th century||Texts from the Nemed Law School|
|Cáin Adomnáin||Adomnáns Canon||7th century||Legal text for the protection of women, children and clergy|
|De duodecim abusivis saeculi||About the twelve grievances of the world (Latin)||7th century||Treatise on morality and law (also includes old Irish legal principles)|
|Senchas Mar.||Great lore||8th century||Collection of old Irish legal texts|
|Críth Gablach||The forked purchase||8th century||Collection of old Irish legal texts|
|Audacht Morainn||Morann's legacy||8th century||Collection of sayings of the judge Morann|
|Tecosca Cormaic||Cormac's teachings||8th century||Collection of doctrines from Cormac mac Airts|
|Gúbretha Caratniad||Caratnia's false judgments||9th century||Judgments deviating from normal Irish law|
|Sanas Cormaic||Cormac's whisper||10th century||Glossary of legal and poetic expressions, place names and personal names|
|Lebor na Cert||The Book of Rights||11th century||Enumeration of the rights and duties of the King of Cashel|
|Bansenchas||Lore from women||12th century||Directory of famous women from history to Lebor Gabála Érenn , Ulster Cycle and other Irish annals|
|Dindsenchas||Place name traditions||12th century||Etymology of place names|
|Cóir Anmann||The right thing by the name||14th century||Personal and tribal names|
|Auraicept na nÉces||Guide for the learned poet||14th century||History of the Irish language and script|
Collective works from Ireland
|Lebor Dromma Snechta||The book by Druim Snechta||8th century||lost, only cited in more recent works;
also under the title Cín Dromma Snechta ("Heft ...")
|Lebor na hUidre||The book of the dark cow||12th century||Táin Bó Cuailnge and others|
|Lebor Laignech||The book by Leinster||12th century||Lebor Gabála Érenn , Finn cycle|
|Annals of Tigernach||Annals of Tigernach||12th century||medieval chronicle of Ireland from 807 BC Chr. To 1178 AD|
|Leabhar Buidhe Lecain||The Yellow Book of Lecan||14th century||Collection of legends|
|Leabhar Mór Leacain||The great book of Lecan||14th century||Collection of several Irish manuscripts|
|Leabhar Bhaile to Mhóta||The Book of Ballymote||14th century||Collection of legends|
|Annala Uladh||Annals of Ulster||15th century||medieval chronicle of Ireland from 431 to 1541|
|Leabhar Mhic Carthaigh Riabhaigh||The book of Lismore||15th century||Collection of several Irish manuscripts|
|Foras feasa ar Éirinn||History of Ireland||17th century||Country history from the conquest of the land to the English conquest|
|Annála Ríoghdhachta Éireann||Annals of the Four Masters||17th century||medieval chronicle of Ireland|
Collected works from Wales and Britain
|Historia Brittonum||History of the British (Latin)||9th century||History of Britain and Ireland (Lebor Gabála Érenn)|
|Canu Heledd||Heledd's singing||10th century||Cycle of poems about the fate of Heledds|
|Pedeir Ceinc y Mabinogi||The four branches of the Mabinogi||11th century||the four original stories of the Mabinogion|
|Historia Regum Britanniae||The History of the Kings of Britain (Latin)||12th century||see Brut y Brenhinedd|
|Annales Cambriae||Welsh Annals (Latin)||12th century||Annals from the 5th to the 10th century|
|Y Tair Rhamant||The three romances||12th century||Iarlles y Ffynnawn, Peredur fab Efrawg, Gereint fab heiress|
|Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin||The Black Book of Carmarthen||13th century||Merlin tradition, Emperor Arthur|
|Y Gododdin||"The Gododdin" Aneirins||13th century||Battle of the North British against Saxons , Goidelen and Picts|
|Trioedd Ynys Prydein||The Triads of the Isle of Britain||13th century||included in some of the works cited|
|Brut y Brenhinedd||Chronicle of the Kings||13th century||Cymric adaptation of the Historia Regum Britanniae by
Geoffrey of Monmouth
|Llyfr Taliesin||The book of Taliesins||14th century||Taliesin myth, Cad Goddeu , Preiddeu Annwfn|
|Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch||The White Book of Rhydderch||14th century||Mabinogion , Emperor Arthur|
|Llyfr Coch Hergest||Hergest's Red Book||15th century||extended content by Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch|
|Llyfr Gwyn Hergest||Hergest's White Book||15th century||Welsh prose and poetry|
|Llyfr Aneirin||The book of Aneirin||1265||Y Gododdin|
|Leabhar Deathan Lios Mòir||The Book of the Dean of Lismore||16th century||Scottish Gaelic ballads and poems|
Modern thematic cycles
These cycles were only created in modern times by Celtology as a summary of topics. The cycles are relatively clearly separated from each other. However, the historical cycle and the mythological cycle are an exception , where there are overlapping topics.
|Finn cycle||Ireland||Stories about Fionn mac Cumhaill and Cormac mac Airt|
|Historical cycle||Ireland||also King's cycle, historical / mythical stories about famous kings|
|Mythological cycle||Ireland||Tales of mythical beings (elves, fairies; sidhe )|
|Ulster cycle||Ireland||Stories about Cú Chulainn and Conchobar mac Nessa|
- Helmut Birkhan : Celts. Attempt at a complete representation of their culture. 2nd, corrected and enlarged edition. Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-7001-2609-3 .
- Helmut Birkhan: Post-ancient Celtic reception. Praesens Verlag, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-7069-0541-1 .
- Helmut Birkhan: Celtic stories from the emperor Arthur. Part 1, Lit-Verlag, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-8258-7562-8 .
- Helmut Birkhan: Celtic stories from the emperor Arthur. Part 2, Lit-Verlag, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-8258-7563-6 .
- Ingeborg Clarus : Celtic Myths. Man and his otherworld. Walter, Düsseldorf et al. 1991, ISBN 3-530-70014-2 , pp. 290 ff. (2nd edition. Patmos, Düsseldorf 2003, ISBN 3-491-69109-5 ).
- Barry Cunliffe : The Celts and Their History. 7th edition, Gustav Lübbe Verlag, Bergisch Gladbach 2000.
- Myles Dillon, Nora Kershaw Chadwick : The Celts. From the prehistory to the Norman invasion . Parkland-Verlag, Cologne 2004 (first 1966), ISBN 3-89340-058-3 (Kindlers Kulturgeschichte).
- Matthias Egeler: From the land of women and Celtic heroes. Irish tales from the islands of immortality: 'Bran's Sea Voyage', 'Connle's Voyage to the Other World' and 'Cú Chulainn's Sick Camp'. (= Praesens TextBibliothek 11), Vienna: Praesens 2016.
- Bernhard Maier : The religion of the Celts. Gods, myths, worldview . Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-48234-1 .
- Bernhard Maier: Lexicon of Celtic Religion and Culture (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 466). Kröner, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-520-46601-5 .
- Bernhard Maier: The legend book of the Welsh Celts. The four branches of the Mabinogi . Dtv Munich, April 1999, ISBN 3-423-12628-0 .
- Wolfgang Meid : Celtic religion in the testimony of language . Journal of Celtic Philology (ZcP), Vol. 53, No. April 1, 2003.
- Wolfgang Meid: The Celts. Reclams Universal Library , Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-15-017053-3 .
- Rudolf Thurneysen : The Irish hero and king saga up to the seventeenth century. Hall 1921.
- List of Celtic gods and legendary figures
- Celtic deities
- Celtic mythology
- Celtic religion
- Celtic cauldron cult
- Celtic women
- Helmut Birkhan: Celts. Attempt at a complete representation of their culture. P. 464 f.
- Bernhard Maier, Lexicon of Celtic Religion and Culture , Kröner, Stuttgart 1994, p. 112