|Lambach Benedictine Abbey
Abbatia Beata Mariae Assumptae et SS Chiliani et Sociorum
|Lies in the diocese||Linz|
|Coordinates:||48 ° 5 '27.1 " N , 13 ° 52' 36.5" E|
|Patronage||St. Kilian ; Assumption Day|
|founding year||1056 by Benedictines|
|Congregation||Austrian Benedictine Congregation|
The Lambach is at the Traun lying convent of Benedictine (OSB) in Lambach in Upper Austria . It belongs to the Austrian Benedictine Congregation .
The monastery was founded around 1046 as a secular canon by Count Arnold II von Wels-Lambach . After his death, his son, Bishop Adalbero von Würzburg , converted the monastery into a Benedictine monastery (OSB) in 1056 and sent the Blessed Abbot Egbert and monks of Schwarzach, today Münsterschwarzach , to do so . When Bavaria invaded in 1233 - Duke Otto II of Bavaria broke into the territory of the Austrian Babenbergs - the monastery and the church were largely destroyed. The existing complex was mainly built by the abbots Placidus Hieber von Greifenfels (1640–1678), Severin Blaß (1678–1705) and Maximilian Pagl (1705–1725), to whom many extensions (north wing with ambulatory and summer refectory) go back .
The two organists, choir masters and composers Benjamin Ludwig Ramhaufski (around 1631–1694) and Joseph Balthasar Hochreither (1669–1731) worked at the Lambach Abbey for decades .
Joseph II saved the pen in 1784. After a few years, Abbot Amandus Schickmayr managed to restore monastic life. The Second World War marked another turning point, because from 1941 a National Socialist educational institution ( NAPOLA ) was housed in the complex. After the war, the convent returned.
From 1972 to 1982 and from 1992 to 1994 the architects Hans Puchhammer and Gunther Wawrik built the extension buildings below the monastery, which were highly praised by architectural critics.
The monastery and the collegiate church were founded in 1056 by St. Adalbero, Count of Wels and Lambach, Bishop of Würzburg. The collegiate church was repaired after being destroyed in 1233 and rebuilt as a two-aisled hall church from 1422 to 1436. The still preserved, extremely important frescoes in the former bell house of the westwork testify to the early Romanesque furnishings. The church building as it is today goes back to the building activities of Abbots Placidus Hieber (1640–1678), Severin Blaß (1678–1705) and Maximilian Pagl (1705–1725) and is an expression of the Austrian monastery architecture of the 17th century. During this time, the church was refurbished from 1652 to 1656 according to a design by Filiberto Lucchese as a single-nave complex with a three-bay and two-bay, just closed choir. The stucco decoration from 1655 is attributed to the plasterer Thomas Zaisel from Linz. The life-size niche figures between the double pilasters were created a year later by Christoph Abraham Walther from Regensburg. The Munich court painter Melchior Steidl completed the frescoes in 1698 with scenes of the life of Mary in the large fields and with attributes of Mary and Mary's precursors in the smaller fields. Angels with instruments and liturgical devices are depicted above the organ loft, the stitch caps and in the side altar niches. The high altar, probably based on a design by Antonio Beduzzi, 1716–1717 (model Mariazell by Johann B. Fischer von Erlach), is made of Salzburg marble. The altar painting by Joachim Sandrat from 1655 was taken over from the old altar. Further work on the altar was carried out by Lorenzo Mattielli (larger-than-life marble statues of St. Kilian and St. Maximilian, St. Catherine and St. Barbara), Paolo d'Allio and Diego Francesco Carlone (Trinity group and angels from the application in the essay) and Paolo d'Allio and Niclas Wendlinger (at the tabernacle). Joachim Sandrat also painted the side altar paintings from 1656 to 1661. In 1657 the organ case was built by Christoph Egedacher the Elder. Ä. , was expanded in 1668 and added to the Rückpositiv around 1780 . The wrought-iron grille under the organ gallery from 1662, the tapestry from 1712 (possibly from Antwerp), the cover plate of the donor's grave from 1659 and the pulpit from 1756 belong to the further interior fittings.
Between Easter Sunday and October 31st, guided tours of the monastery are offered daily at 2 p.m. Among other things, the Romanesque frescoes, the monastery library, the baroque monastery theater and the monastery church are visited .
Baroque collegiate theater
The monastery's baroque abbey theater is the oldest playable theater space in Austria. The Benedictine theater tradition was revived under Abbot Amandus Schickmayr (1746–1794); in 1770, out of personal passion (“excessivus amator musicae”), he had the monastery theater updated. This year the theater was visited by Marie Antoinette , who spent the third night in the monastery on her bridal trip from Vienna to Versailles . After renovation work, the theater has been in operation again since 1983, in which the Lambach baroque theater now carries out 3–4 productions a year. Readings and concerts are also held.
The oldest Romanesque frescoes in the southern German-speaking area
After wall paintings had been discovered on the vaults as early as 1868, further Romanesque frescoes in the former west choir of the collegiate church were found in 1957 behind baroque reinforcing walls. The frescoes, dating from the third quarter of the 11th century, are among the oldest Romanesque wall paintings in Austria. It depicts scenes from the New Testament (Holy Three Kings, Jesus' childhood, public activity).
Soon after the monastery was founded, there was also a scriptorium in the house. The abbey library, which was baroque in 1699, comprises a total of around 60,000 historical volumes. In the archive 1000 slip volumes, 700 manuscripts and other archive material document the monastic life of bygone times. A monks' reading wheel from 1730 is still in the library today.
After the Second World War , a large number of fragments of medieval manuscripts from the monastery library were sold internationally. Most of them are now in the Beincke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut .
The monastery houses an extensive music archive, mainly from the 18th century. Notable Lambach Baroque composers are Beniamin Ludwig Ramhaufsky (around 1632–1694), his pupil Johann Beer (1655–1700), P. Romanus Weichlein (1652–1706) and Joseph Balthasar Hochreither (1669–1731). Their music is clearly in the tradition of the great contemporaries Schmelzer , Biber and Muffat . But there are also many composers from the Viennese classical music scene in the collection. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Michael Haydn had friendly relations with Lambach Monastery throughout their lives. One of the most important manuscripts in the archive is certainly WA Mozart's so-called Lambach Symphony (KV45a) . He probably composed it in The Hague and dedicated it to the Lambach abbot Amandus Schickmayr in a revised version in January 1769. On the title page you can find the inscription “Sinfonia… del Sig: re Wolfgango Mozart. Dono Authoris [as a gift from the author]. 4ta Jan: 769 ". Once there was also a rich inventory of musical instruments in the monastery, but only a few have survived.
The permanent exhibition of the monastery includes a large collection of historical and sacred objects, paintings, frescoes, manuscripts, sculptures and the famous Adalbero's goblet from around 1200, as well as a crook from 1480. Baroque sandstone dwarfs by Johann Baptist Wanscher (1711) are in the convent garden.
- Eccenbertus (Blessed Egbert von Münsterschwarzach ), 1056-1080, was appointed by Bishop Adalbero von Würzburg , 1080 resigned
- Beccemanus († 1100), 1080–1100
- Sigebaldus († March 20, 1116), 1100–1116
- Rapoto: Schism Rapoto and Bero
- Bero 1116–1120 (deposed), was previously abbot of Schlüchtern monastery from 1106–1116
- Helembert († February 6, 1128), 1124–1128
- Wigard († October 11, 1158), 1128–1158
- Bernhard († October 27, 1171), 1153–1171
- Babo († February 17, 1195), 1171–1190
- Schwarzmanus († April 28, 1194), 1190–1194
- Wesigrinus, 1194-1208
- Alramus († April 21, 1214), 1208–1214
- Otto († October 22, 1242), 1214–1242
- Bernhard II († October 1, 1264), 1242–1264
- Heinrich († March 16, 1286), 1264–1286
- Conrad († January 15, 1291), 1286–1291
- Christian († January 26, 1306), 1291–1306
- Sigmar († July 5, 1325), 1306–1325
- Griffto († September 20, 1335), 1325–1335
- Johannes († May 16, 1346), 1335–1346
- Conrad II († August 5, 1354), 1346–1354
- Ulrich († October 18, 1360), 1354–1360
- John II († January 5, 1367), 1360–1367
- Ulrich II. († June 27, 1396), 1367–1396
- Simon Thalheimer († September 27, 1407), 1396–1407
- Erasmus († May 17, 1413), 1407–1413
- Jacob († June 25, 1423), 1413–1423
- Johann III, Edler von Dachsberg († March 22, 1436), 1422–1436
- Thomas Messerer von Retz († January 3, 1474), 1436–1474
- Johannes IV. Swerzwadel (or Schuertzvädl) († May 24, 1504), 1474–1504
- Wolfgang des Horeo († December 24, 1507), 1504–1507
- Paul von Reckendorff († May 6, 1514 or February 6, 1514), 1507–1514
- Michael Leroch († November 28, 1534), 1514–1534
- Ludwig Goldkofer († March 28, 1554), 1534–1554
- Johannes V. Sprangler († 1556), 1554–1556
- John VI Peugholzer (or Piechholfer), 1556–1560
- John VII (or Hieronymus) Zagler 1560–1568
- Erhard Voit († 1588 in Linz), 1568–1571, from 1571 abbot of Kremsmünster
- Wolfgang II. Chamber clerk († January 25, 1585), 1571–1585
- Burkard Furtenbacher († August 19, 1599), 1585–1599
- John VIII. Bimmel († January 25, 1638), 1600–1634, 1634 resigned
- Philipp Nagl († March 15, 1640), 1634–1640
- Placidus Hieber († September 12, 1678), 1640–1678
- Severin Blaß († January 2, 1705), 1678–1705
- Maximilian Pagl († February 23, 1725), 1705–1725
- Gotthard (Johann) Haslinger († July 31, 1735), 1725–1735
- John IX Seiz, 1735-1739
- Florentin Müller, 1739-1746
- Amandus Schickmayr († February 23, 1794), 1746–1794
- Julian Rizzi (Ricci) († June 16, 1812), 1794–1812
- Maurus Stützinger († August 7, 1842), 1812–1823, deposed in 1820, forced administration 1820–1823
- Administration 1824-1859
- Theoderich Hagn († August 29, 1872), 1858–1872
- Johann Lasser von Zollheim († December 25, 1889), 1873–1889
Cölestin Baumgartner († April 30, 1934), 1890–1929
- Jakob Reimer († October 7, 1958), professed from Seitenstetten , 1929–1932 coadjutor
- Lambert Zauner († August 3, 1950), professor from Kremsmünster , 1932–1934 coadjutor
- 1941–1945 pen repealed
- Lambert Zauner from Kremsmünster († August 3, 1950), 1934–1946
- Jakob Reimer (Salzburg) († October 7, 1958), 1946/47 administrator
- Petrus Trefflinger († February 7, 1966), 1947–1952
Benedikt Oberndorfer , 1956–1964 (1952–1956 as administrator)
- Wilhelm Zedinek ( Göttweig ) as Abbot Administrator († November 23, 1971), 1964–1968
- 57. Albert Siebenhüter from Schweiklberg († December 28, 1995), 1972–1986 (1968–1972 as administrator)
- 58. Gotthard Schafelner , 1986–2008
- 59. Maximilian Neulinger , since 2008
- Romanus Weichlein - composer
- Maurus Lindemayr - dialect poet
- Koloman Fellner - engraver and lithographer
- Realgymnasium of the school association at the Lambach Benedictine Abbey
- Lambach Commercial Academy of the School Association at the Lambach Benedictine Abbey
Other special features
- Main portal designed by Jakob Auer (Landeck / Tirol) in 1692 as a magnificent or honorary gate
- Baroque summer refectory by master builder Carlo Antonio Carlone (1706–1708), various frescoes later (around 1740) by Wolfgang Andreas Heindl (Wels); today a ballroom for concerts and conferences, today partly serves its original purpose.
- Magnificent outpatient clinic by Diego Francesco Carlone
- extensive graphic collection
- Former monastery tavern on the market square (now a pharmacy) with a beautiful baroque facade
- From 2007 to 2016, Ludwig van Beethoven's complete works were performed at Lambach Abbey ( ProDiagonal )
World Church Conference
Every year, the two-day World Church conference takes place in Lambach Abbey . The organizers are the Association of Austrian Women's Orders , the Superior Conference of Male Religious Orders in Austria , MIVA and the coordination office of the Austrian Bishops' Conference for International Development and Mission (KOO).
Establishments of the monastery
- Forest: The forestry of the monastery covers an area of approx. 580 hectares in the communities around Lambach. Wood chips from the forest for the biomass local heating system and stove wood are produced here. Since 1985 the monastery has endeavored to establish stable mixed forests rich in hardwood. For the exemplary management of this forest, the forest enterprise was awarded the Austrian State Prize for exemplary forest management 2005 .
- Fishing & water management: The Benedictine monks of Lambach have been cultivating around 24 km of the Traun , Alm and Ager rivers for around 1000 years . Also works canals, several streams, bypass channels and pond systems. A small fish farm is operated in the baroque, listed Fischkalter.
- Gastronomy (Stiftskeller)
- Further ancillary businesses in the monastery to maintain the monastery and the main businesses
- Roland Anzengruber: Lambach. In: Germania Benedictina Volume III / 2: The Benedictine monasteries and nuns in Austria and South Tyrol. Edited by Ulrich Faust and Waltraud Krassnig. St. Ottilien 2000, pp. 253-317 (with a detailed bibliography).
- Roland Anzengruber: Contributions to the history of the Benedictine monastery Lambach in the 17th century. Dissertation, University of Salzburg, 1983.
- Bernhard Graf: Discordia inter regnum et sacerdotium - Gregorian artistic desire in the investiture dispute with special consideration of the Lambach frescoes. Dissertation, University of Munich 1995.
- Johann Großruck: Lambach Benedictine Abbey in the Third Reich 1938–1945: A monastery in the focus of Hitler's myth and swastika legend. Linz 2011, ISBN 3-902330-62-7 . Also published in: Ordensnachrichten. 51, 2012, pp. 66-77.
- Franz Korger: Lambacher frescoes. Hofstetter-Dia publishing house, Ried / Innkreis 1979 (German, English, French).
- Erich Trinks: The founding documents and beginnings of the Lambach Benedictine monastery. In: Yearbook of the Upper Austrian Museum Association. Volume 83, Linz 1930, pp. 75–152 ( PDF on ZOBODAT ).
- Erich Trinks: Contributions to the history of the Benedictine monastery Lambach. In: Yearbook of the Upper Austrian Museum Association. Year 81, Linz 1926, pp. 85–152 ( PDF on ZOBODAT ).
- Johann Georg Adam Freiherr von Hoheneck: The laudable gentlemen gentlemen stalls deß Ertz-Hertzogthumb Austria on the Ennß . tape 1 . Gabriel Mangold, Hoch-Fürstliche Hof-Buchdruckerei, Passau 1727.
- Lambach Abbey
- Symposium on the World Church in Lambach Abbey
- Theater association of the Baroque theater Stift Lambach
- ↑ a b c Roland Anzengruber: Adalbero - Count of Wels-Lambach. A saint from Upper Austria. In: Upper Austrian homeland sheets. Year 40, Linz 1986, issue 2, p. 112 (full article, p. 107–117, online (PDF) in the forum OoeGeschichte.at).
- ↑ Bundesdenkmalamt (Ed.): Dehio-Handbuch. The art monuments of Austria. Upper Austria. 5th edition, Verlag Anton Schroll & Co, Vienna 1971, p. 148 f.
- ↑ Through Johann Freundt .
- ↑ Lambach Baroque Theater. The history of our theater. In: barocktheaterlambach.at. Retrieved April 12, 2020 .
- ↑ Magdalena Stütz: Discovery of the Romanesque frescoes in Lambach Abbey. archaeologie-ooe.info, February 23, 2010, archived from the original on October 29, 2013 ; accessed on January 14, 2018 .
- ^ Robert Gary Babcock: Reconstructing a medieval library: fragments from Lambach. Beincke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, New Haven 1993
- ^ Yale in the online database Illuminated Manuscripts from Austria .
- ↑ Matthias Nistahl: Studies in the History of the monastery Schlüchtern in the Middle Ages. Dissertation, Darmstadt and Marburg, 1986, pp. 189f.
- ^ Zauner, Lambert. In: orden-online.de. Retrieved November 20, 2016 .
- ↑ Reimer, Jakob. In: orden-online.de. Retrieved November 20, 2016 .
- ↑ Entry on Fellner, Koloman Josef in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )