Friedrich Hund

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Friedrich Hund, Göttingen 1920s

Friedrich Hermann Hund (born February 4, 1896 in Karlsruhe , † March 31, 1997 in Göttingen ) was a German physicist . He made significant contributions to the development of atomic physics . According to him, are Hund's rules named.


Chicago 1929: Robert Mulliken and Friedrich Hund
A well-known method of molecular physics was named after the two, s. u.

Friedrich Hund was the son of the hardware and household goods dealer Friedrich Hund, who had lived on Friedenstrasse in Karlsruhe . He went to school in Karlsruhe , Erfurt and Naumburg an der Saale , where he graduated from high school in 1915. He broke his foot shortly before the outbreak of the First World War and was the only one in his class not to have to go straight to war. He helped his teacher Professor Paul Schoenhals with teaching the younger students. After that, Hund was deployed for two years in the Navy's weather service. His parents could not finance his studies, which is why his teacher gave him a small scholarship, which he improved with tutoring.

Education and apprenticeship years

He studied mathematics , physics and geography in Marburg and Göttingen and passed his teaching exams in 1921/22. In Göttingen he heard with James Franck , David Hilbert , Richard Courant , Carl Runge, among others . In 1922 he received his doctorate in Göttingen with Max Born with a thesis on the Ramsauer effect , while he was doing his legal clerkship at a Göttingen grammar school. He was Born's scheduled assistant from 1922 to 1927, as did Werner Heisenberg and Pascual Jordan (both unscheduled). After his habilitation in 1925 he was a private lecturer in theoretical physics in Göttingen. In 1926/27 he spent a few months with Niels Bohr in Copenhagen . In 1927 he became an associate professor, and in 1928 a full professor of theoretical physics in Rostock . After a visiting professorship at Harvard University in 1929, he went to Leipzig . In America he also taught at the University of Chicago and a few other universities.

Leipzig (1929 to 1946)

Dog in London in 1934

In 1929 he was appointed professor of mathematical physics (successor to Gregor Wentzel ) at the University of Leipzig, where Heisenberg also worked, with whom he led a seminar on the structure of matter for many years , and which became a center for theoretical physics from the late 1920s was. Hund was friends with Heisenberg and defended him - like other leading German physicists - against the threatening campaign sparked by Johannes Stark (with an article in the SS Black Corps ), which was also directed against all of "modern theoretical physics". Hund wrote letters of protest to Paul Koebe , the dean of the mathematics and natural sciences faculty at the University of Leipzig, and the Reich Minister for Education, Bernhard Rust, and suggested that Peter Debye make a statement. In contrast to Heisenberg, he was not involved in the uranium project during World War II. When Heisenberg went to Berlin in 1942, Hund took over the directorate at the Leipzig Physics Institute. In 1943, like Pascual Jordan shortly before, he received the Max Planck Medal , the highest award for theoretical physics of the German Physical Society , which had not been awarded since 1939.

After the war he became Pro-Rector in Leipzig in 1945. When the US Army withdrew at the end of June 1945, he went into hiding so as not to be transported to a camp in the west. The reason was not his house, but he did not want to be dragged off to the West as spoils of war (“slave”).

Jena (1946 to 1951)

In 1946 he moved to the University of Jena as a professor , where he became rector in 1948. According to his own statements, the workload in Leipzig, where he also had to give lectures on experimental physics, was too great for him to rebuild the physical institutes. The main reason for the change, however, was: The institutes in Leipzig had been destroyed, hardly any in Jena; In Leipzig there were few colleagues, in contrast to Jena. However, an apartment suitable for seven people was a prerequisite, which is why the move almost failed.

In Jena there were conflicts with the Soviet occupation agencies, with whom he was otherwise highly regarded. In 1949 he received the GDR National Prize . Hund decreed that children of university teachers could also study, which General Kolesnitschenko repealed in line with the ideological views of the time. Hund tried to clarify the responsibilities between Jena University, the Thuringian Ministry and the occupying power. In Berlin he had managed to get 25 talented applicants to study physics in Jena. Later it was possible for applicants to study medicine or theology who were not workers 'or farmers' children to be admitted. The lack of doctors was one of the reasons.

An anonymous complaint from the university administration accusing Hund of a lack of political activity reached the ministry in September 1948. Minister Torhorst asked the rector to come to the ministry for an interview. When Hund realized that she had the order to fire him, but no real reasons, he stepped back on his own initiative. His term of office as rector thus lasted from February to October 1948. At the end of April 1949 he received a purchase slip for a pair of shoes from Thuringian Prime Minister Werner Eggerath .

At the end of July 1951, after he had returned to Jena from a guest lecture in Frankfurt / Main, he left the GDR and went to the West via Berlin with his family. He had to leave almost all of his possessions behind, but the Russian authorities later sent him his furniture and other items.

Change to Frankfurt am Main

The two most important reasons for moving from Jena to Frankfurt were: the future of his children and the political situation. He had hoped a democracy would work better.

Hund became a professor in Frankfurt am Main in 1951, succeeding Erwin Madelung . There he found his former colleague Bernhard Mrowka , with whom he had written important papers on the physics of electrons in diamonds in 1935.

In Frankfurt he wrote a. a. an extensive book “Matter as Field”, with which he - as stated in the foreword - “wants to help remove the contrast between thinking and experimenting physicists” (meaning the attempt to remedy the difference between theoretical and experimental physics).

Back in Göttingen (40 years to go)

May 1994: Friedrich Hund (right) discusses with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker , who did his doctorate with him in Leipzig.
February 1966: Three great physicists among themselves: Friedrich Hund, Werner Heisenberg and Max Born on the occasion of Hund's 70th birthday in Göttingen

After a guest professorship at the University of Maryland in 1956 , he returned to Göttingen as a professor of theoretical physics in 1957, as the successor to Richard Becker .

In 1964 Friedrich Hund retired . However, he remained active in academic research and teaching, not only in Göttingen, where he lectured until 1990, but also as a visiting professor in Cologne in 1968 , in Heidelberg in 1969 , in Frankfurt am Main in 1970 and later in Wuppertal. His particular expertise was in the history of modern physics, which he personally experienced and shaped.

He was blind for the last years of his life, but that did not prevent him from giving lectures and discussing.

His doctoral students include Harry Lehmann (Jena 1950), Hans Euler (with Heisenberg), Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (in Leipzig) and - again in Göttingen - Jürgen Schnakenberg and Gert Eilenberger and in Frankfurt Heinz Bilz . Siegfried Flügge was his assistant in Leipzig and Edward Teller was his assistant.


Hund published more than 250 essays and papers.

Even before quantum mechanics emerged , Hund interpreted the complex spectra of the elements from scandium to nickel. On the basis of quantum mechanics, he then contributed significantly to the theory of molecular spectra and to the elucidation of the relationship between term structure and symmetry of quantum mechanical systems.

In 1925 he set up Hund's rule , which was initially a purely empirical rule in atomic physics, was only established later and expanded to three rules. In 1926/27 he discovered and described what was later known as the tunnel effect (the discovery of which is mostly attributed to George Gamow ) first in optically isomeric molecules.

In molecular physics and spectroscopy , Hund's distinction is made between the so-called Hund's coupling cases (a) to (e), depending on the way in which the various quantum mechanical angular momenta (electron spin, orbital angular momentum, rotation) couple to form the total angular momentum (vector addition). Also known in molecular physics is the Hund-Mulliken method (today mostly called the molecular orbital theory ), which must be distinguished from the Heitler-London method and which also plays a major role in theoretical chemistry. In formulating it, he worked with Robert S. Mulliken , whom he had known in Göttingen since 1925 and with whom he worked in Göttingen in 1927, in Chicago in 1929 and in Leipzig in 1930 and 1933.

The Heisenberg with dog seminar achieved international recognition and attracted students from many countries. In Leipzig Hund broadened his field of work and also turned to nuclear physics. Independently of Eugene Wigner , in 1937 he was the first to investigate an approximate SU (4) symmetry in the nuclear spectra (which results from spin and isospin variance of the nuclear forces). In 1936 he also investigated the behavior of matter under very high pressure with applications in astrophysics, as well as systematic problems of theoretical solid-state physics (electron wave functions in crystal lattices, especially under the influence of magnetic fields, especially in diamond lattices).

In his later years, Hund mainly dealt with the history of physics, especially the quantum theory, the change of which he himself helped to shape in the twenties. In addition to the more specific literature mentioned below, he wrote a widespread systematic series of textbooks on theoretical physics, some of which have been translated into other languages. He wrote in 1978: I am delighted that my colleague K. Yamazaki has taken the trouble to translate my history of quantum theory into Japanese .

Hund kept a scientific diary since 1912, which - in addition to the other documents mentioned below - is kept in the Lower Saxony State and University Library in Göttingen.


Ingeborg Seynsche, 1930

Friedrich Hund and the mathematician Ingeborg Seynsche (1905–1994) married on March 17, 1931.

His future wife received her doctorate in philosophy at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen in 1930 with the dissertation: On the theory of almost periodic number sequences with Richard Courant . It was a mathematics topic at the suggestion of Harald Bohr and Alwin Walther . Later she dealt with the two-sided surface ornaments, among other things.

Jena 1950: Friedrich Hund with his wife Ingeborg and their five children

The family had six children: Gerhard (* 1932), Dietrich (1933–1939), Irmgard (* 1934), Martin (1937–2018), Andreas (* 1940) and Erwin (* 1941).

His final resting place is in Munich, where his wife Ingeborg, his sister Gertrud and son-in-law Dieter Pfirsch are also buried.


Hund had been a member of the Saxon Academy of Sciences since 1933, of the Leopoldina since 1944 , of the German Academy of Sciences in the GDR since 1949 (and of its successor, the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, of which he was an honorary member since 1994) and since 1958 of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences , of which he was an honorary member since 1991. He was an honorary member of the German Physical Society .

"Friedrich-Hund-Platz" on the north campus of the University of Göttingen


  • Attempt to interpret the high permeability of some noble gases for very slow electrons , dissertation, University of Göttingen 1923
  • Line spectra and periodic system of the elements , Habil. Schrift, University of Göttingen, Springer 1927
  • General quantum mechanics of atomic and molecular structure , in Handbuch der Physik, Volume 24/1, 2nd edition, pp. 561–694 (1933)
  • Matter as field , Berlin, Springer 1954
  • Introduction to Theoretical Physics , 5 volumes 1944–1951, Meyers Kleine Hand Bücher, Leipzig, Bibliographisches Institut, 1945, 1950/1951 (Volume 1: Mechanics, Volume 2: Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, Volume 3: Optics, Volume 4: Theory of Heat, Volume 5: Atomic and Quantum Theory)
  • Theoretical Physics , 3 volumes, Stuttgart Teubner, first 1956–1957, Volume 1: Mechanics, 5th Edition 1962, Volume 2: Theory of Electricity and Light, Theory of Relativity, 4th Edition 1963, Volume 3: Thermal theory and quantum theory, 3rd edition. Edition 1966
  • Theory of the structure of matter , Stuttgart, Teubner 1961
  • Basic concepts of physics , Mannheim, BI 1969, 2nd edition 1979
  • History of Quantum Theory , 1967, 2nd edition, Mannheim, BI 1975, 3rd edition 1984
  • Quantum Mechanics of Atoms , in Handbuch der Physik / Encyclopedia of Physics, Volume XXXVI, Berlin, Springer 1956
  • The history of Göttingen physics , Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht 1987 (Göttingen University Speeches)
  • History of physical terms , 1968, 2nd edition (2 volumes), Mannheim, BI 1978 (volume 1: The emergence of the mechanical image of nature, volume 2: The paths to today's image of nature), Spektrum Verlag 1996
  • Göttingen, Copenhagen, Leipzig in retrospect , in Fritz Bopp (Ed.) Werner Heisenberg and the physics of our time , Braunschweig 1961
  • Max Born, Göttingen and quantum mechanics , Physikalische Blätter, Volume 38, 1982, pp. 349-351. doi : 10.1002 / phbl.19820381107
  • The Correspondence Principle as a Guide to Quantum Mechanics from 1925 , Physikalische Blätter, Volume 32, 1976, pp. 71-77. doi : 10.1002 / phbl.19760320203
  • Could the history of quantum theory have turned out differently? , Physikalische Blätter, Volume 31, 1975, pp. 29-35. doi : 10.1002 / phbl.19750310107
  • Highlights of Göttingen Physics , Part 1, Physikalische Blätter, Volume 25, 1969, pp. 145–153. doi : 10.1002 / phbl.19690250401 , part 2, pp. 210-215. doi : 10.1002 / phbl.19690250503
  • See also the list of writings by Friedrich Hund (1896–1997) with around 300 items


  • Werner Heisenberg , Dieter Pfirsch and others: Dedicated to Professors Friedrich Hund and M. Czerny on their 60th birthday . Springer-Verlag Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg 1956, Journal of Physics, Volume 144
  • Max Born : Friedrich Hund 70 years . Physikalische Blätter, Volume 22, 1966, p. 79
  • Heinz Gerischer : F. Hund on his 75th birthday - The Bunsen Society congratulates its honorary member . Reports of the Bunsen Society for Physical Chemistry 1971, Volume 75/2, p. 97. doi : 10.1002 / bbpc.19710750202
  • Joachim Poppei: The life and work of Friedrich Hund: with special consideration of the time in Leipzig and Jena . Physics Section of the Karl Marx University Leipzig, December 1, 1983, 26 pages. Friedrich Hund's estate at the Göttingen State and University Library
  • J. Hajdu: Friedrich Hund for the 90th Physikalische Blätter, Volume 42, 1986, p. 1
  • An interview on the occasion of Friedrich Hund's 90th birthday . Bild der Wissenschaft, 2/1986, pp. 63–66
  • Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker : Friedrich Hund on his 95th birthday . Physikalische Blätter, Volume 47, 1991, p. 61
  • Banger; Canel; Czjzek; Eilenberger; Fisherman; Frobose; Gerlach; Hajdu; Hofacker; Keiter; Labusch; Long leg; Schnackenberg; Teichler: Friedrich Hund on his 95th birthday . Göttingen 1991, 269 pp.
  • Michael Schaaf: On the 100th birthday of Prof. Dr. Friedrich Hund . CENSIS-REPORT-20-96, Hamburg, February 1996
  • Michael Schaaf: Heisenberg, Hitler and the bomb. Conversations with contemporary witnesses GNT-Verlag, Diepholz 2018, ISBN 978-3-86225-115-5 (in it: "Theoretical Physics was defamed" a conversation with Friedrich Hund)
  • Werner Kutzelnigg: Friedrich Hund and chemistry . Angewandte Chemie, Volume 108, 1996, pp. 629-643
  • Hubert Laitko : Looking at the history of physics from the inside - Friedrich Hund as a historian in his field . News from the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, 1996
  • Manfred Schroeder (Ed.): Hundred years of Friedrich Hund: A look back at the work of an important physicist . News from the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, 1996 (contributions by G. Eilenberger, K. Hentschel, G. Herzberg, D. Langbein, H. Rechenberg, I. Supek, HG Walther, CF v. Weizsäcker).
  • Siegfried Flügge (Ed.): Friedrich Hund on his 70th birthday . Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, 1966
  • J. Hajdu: Friedrich Hund: way and work . Zeitschrift für Physik D, Volume 36, 1996, pp. 191-195
  • Friedrich Hund on his 100th birthday . Interview with Klaus Hentschel , Renate Tobies . NTM (International Journal for the History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine), Volume 4, 1996, pp. 1-18. doi : 10.1007 / BF02913775
  • Interview with Michael Schaaf from March 12, 1994 Someone who dared to do something went to Göttingen , Phys. Leaves, June 1997. doi : 10.1002 / phbl.19970530613
  • Bernhard Kockel Friedrich Hund 80 years , Physical sheets, Volume 32, 1976, p. 78/79. doi : 10.1002 / phbl.19760320204
  • Helmut Rechenberg : Friedrich Hund 100 years: pioneer and teacher of physics, contemporary witness of the century . Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1996, Akademie-Journal 1/96, pp. 44-49
  • Peyerimhoff ; Herzberg; Canel; Hajdu and others: Professor Friedrich Hund on his 100th birthday . Springer-Verlag 1996, Zeitschrift für Physik D, Volume 36, Issue 3/4
  • Riffert; Mothers; Herald; Ruder: Matter at High Densities in Astrophysics - Compact Stars and the Equation of State - In Honor of Friedrich Hund's 100th Birthday . Springer Tracts in Modern Physics 133, Berlin 1996, 274 pp. ISBN 3-540-60605-X
  • Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker , Edward Teller , Hendrik BG Casimir , Aage Bohr , Ulrich Schröder , Eleonore Trefftz : Friedrich Hund on his 100th birthday - greetings and congratulations from all over the world . VCH Weinheim 1996, Physikalische Blätter 52, Heft 2, pp 114-115
  • Helmut Reeh: Obituary in Spektrum (information organ of the University of Göttingen), 1997, issue 2
  • Helmut Rechenberg, Gerald Wiemers: Friedrich Hund (1896–1997) . Saxon Life Pictures, 2004
  • Smrdu, Andrej: Hundovo pravilo - Hund's rule . Kemija, Snov in Spremembe 1, pp. 75-78, Ljubljana 2006, ISBN 961-6433-66-0
  • Helmut G. Walther : The first post-war rectors Friedrich Zucker and Friedrich Hund . Reprint from University in Socialism . Studies on the history of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (1945–1990), Volume 2, pp. 1911–1928. Böhlau Verlag Cologne Weimar Vienna 2007.
  • Ronald Beyer, Constanze Mann: The honorary citizens of the city of Jena . Volume 17 of the series Documentations of the Jena Municipal Museums, 2007, ISBN 978-3-930128-84-6 .
  • Uwe Hoßfeld , Tobias Kaiser, Heinz Mestrup: University in Socialism: Studies on the History of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (1945–1990) . Böhlau Verlag Cologne Weimar, 2007–2334 pages. Friedrich Hund (digitized version)
  • Short biography for:  Hund, Friedrich . In: Who was who in the GDR? 5th edition. Volume 1. Ch. Links, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86153-561-4 .



Leave of absence for Friedrich Hund, approved by the responsible State Secretary of the GDR for the 1951 summer semester

An extensive collection of documents from the estate of Friedrich Hund is in the Lower Saxony State and University Library in Göttingen , including the correspondence with the ministries of the GDR during the Jena period and a few years afterwards, in particular the leave of absence of Professor Dr. Friedrich Hund for the period from April 1st to July 31st , 1951 , granted by the State Secretary for Higher Education of the GDR, Prof. Dr. Harig, March 8, 1951.


The six pages of the manuscript
Page 1 of the manuscript
Page 2 of the manuscript
Page 3 of the manuscript
Page 4 of the manuscript
Page 5 of the manuscript
Page 6 of the manuscript

Manuscript for the withdrawal of the Americans from Leipzig in 1945

The pictures opposite show the six pages of a manuscript that Friedrich Hund produced between June 25 and July 3, 1945, when the Americans left Leipzig and transported many professors away in trucks. The original of the protocol is in the possession of his eldest son.

On page 2 Hund writes: “On the way to the tram we talked about compulsion, the sending into slavery, as what we had to look at” and on page 4: “It is unworthy of the university if its professors like Machine parts would be replaced. "

Other certificates (selection)

  1. ^ Letter from Werner Eggerath to Hund with a receipt for a pair of shoes because of his scientific achievements.
  2. ^ Document for the doctorate of Ingeborg Seynsche, issued by the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the award of the title of Doctor of Philosophy (February 28, 1930 in Göttingen).
  3. Certificate for the award of the Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen Medal to Friedrich Hund in honor of his scientific life achievement, issued by the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen on the occasion of its 250th anniversary (Göttingen, May 26, 1987).

Web links

Commons : Friedrich Hund, medals and pictures from his estate  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Merchant Friedrich Hund in the 1896 address book of the city of Karlsruhe
  2. published in Zeitschrift für Physik, Volume 13, 1923, p. 241
  3. ^ Complaint against the President of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, Prof. Dr. Johannes Stark . ( Memento of February 8, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) written by Friedrich Hund on July 20, 1937
  4. ^ Cassidy Uncertainty , p. 382
  5. Hund in an interview with Schaaf
  6. See his handwritten notes (in the chapter Protocol on the withdrawal of the Americans from Leipzig in 1945 ), which have not yet been published.
  7. Interview with Schaaf
  8. There was also a dispute about this within the Soviet administration. Andrei Nikitin in Manfred Heinemann (ed.): University officers and the reconstruction of the higher education system in Germany 1945-1949. The Soviet Zone of Occupation , Akademie Verlag 2000, p. 4
  9. ^ Helmut G. Walther: The first post-war rectors Friedrich Zucker and Friedrich Hund . Reprint from University in Socialism . Studies on the history of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (1945–1990), Volume 2, p. 1921. Böhlau Verlag Cologne Weimar Vienna 2007.
  10. a b e.g .: F. Hund, B. Mrowka: About the states of electrons in a crystal lattice, especially in diamonds , Physikalische Zeitschrift 30 (1935) 888-891
  11. Friedrich Hund's biography
  12. Interview with Schaaf
  13. ^ Writings of Friedrich Hund
  14. Brockhaus Encyclopedia. FA Brockhaus Wiesbaden 1975, Volume 22, p. 666, ISBN 3-7653-0028-4
  15. Hund on the interpretation of complex spectra, especially the elements scandium to nickel , Zeitschrift für Physik, Volume 33, 1925, pp. 345–371
  16. ^ Hund: To the interpretation of the molecular spectra III , Zeitschrift für Physik, Volume 43, 1927, pp. 805-826. Dog used for molecules usually the label molecule . On Hund's discovery of the tunnel effect: Rechenberg, Mehra: The historical development of quantum theory , Volume 6, Part 1, p. 535
  17. ^ Mulliken Molecular Scientists and Molecular Science-some reminiscences , Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 43, 1965, S2-S11
  18. ^ Hund symmetry properties of the forces in atomic nuclei and consequences for their states, in particular of the nuclei up to sixteen particles , Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 105, 1937, p. 202. See also Pais Inward Bound , Oxford University Press 1986, p. 425
  19. Hund matter under very high pressures and temperatures , results of the exact natural sciences, Volume 15, 1936, pp. 189–228
  20. Dog estate, State and University Library Göttingen, PDF file
  21. Seynsche, I. On the theory of almost periodic number sequences. Disputes. Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 55, 1931, 27 pp.
  22. Short biography of Ingeborg Seynsche on the DMV website ( Memento from July 6, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  23. ^ Honors and diplomas Friedrich Hund
  24. Member of the Académie internationale de science moléculaire quantique


  1. Toronto, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , General Electric at Irving Langmuir . According to Helmut Rechenberg , Jagdish Mehra : The historical development of Quantum Theory , Volume 6, Part 1, p. 559. At Harvard, he gave lectures at the invitation of Edwin Kemble and [[Theodore Lyman (physicist) |]]
  2. ^ According to Hajdu: Friedrich Hund , Zeitschrift für Physik D, Volume 36, 1996, p. 191, the appeal was made at the instigation of Heisenberg
  3. , although relations with Heisenberg were not without tension. Hund was not satisfied with his role as the second man behind Heisenberg, which was expressed, among other things, in the fact that Heisenberg ordered him back from his trip to the USA in 1929 to be represented by Hund at the beginning of the semester, while he himself continued his world tour . Cassidy: Uncertainty - The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg , Freeman 1992, p. 271, where Cassidy refers to an interview with Hund 1981
  4. Also because he did not accept the Americans' invitation to the West
  5. Awarded to Friedrich Hund before the GDR was founded (children of national prize winners were allowed to start studying)
  6. Some of these applicants are still alive and serve as contemporary witnesses.
  7. This was the case, for example, for high school graduates in the classical language branch in 1950, many of whom were still able to celebrate their 60th Abitur.
  8. In this conversation with the minister, he said: “Would it be helpful for you if I step back?” At which she visibly breathed a sigh of relief. That's how he told his children.
  9. Although he had decided to go to the West, he was a bit sad because on the last evening in Jena he said to his daughter: “It will never be so nice again”.
  10. ↑ He was also under discussion as a successor to Sommerfeld, in 1946 Sommerfeld himself proposed him as a candidate for his successor alongside Heisenberg and von Weizsäcker.
  11. ^ Heisenberg with dog. Friedrich Hund in the lecture. Leipzig 1937. ( Memento from September 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) This is how the courses were officially announced, which was cause for jokes not only among students but also among physicists such as Walther Gerlach (dog, interview with Schaaf).
  12. Johann Jakob Burckhardt Symmetry of the Crystals , 1988, p. 150, cites a manuscript from 1963 sent to him by Ingeborg Hund with a particularly attractive depiction of these ornament groups according to Burckhardt