Jeotgalicoccus halophilus

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Jeotgalicoccus halophilus
Department : Firmicutes
Class : Bacilli
Order : Bacillales
Family : Staphylococcaceae
Genre : Jeotgalicoccus
Type : Jeotgalicoccus halophilus
Scientific name
Jeotgalicoccus halophilus
Liu et al. 2011

Jeotgalicoccus halophilus is a type of bacteria . It belongs to the Firmicutes department , so the Gram test is positive. The GC content of this type is 41.0 to 41.2 mol percent. In 2011, two bacterial strains were discovered in the sediment of two salt lakes in Xinjiang (China) and assigned to the new species Jeotgalicoccus halophilus . The species name refers to the halophilia of the bacteria.



The cells of Jeotgalicoccus halophilus are cocci-shaped . The diameter is 0.5–0.8 µm. Endospores are not formed. The species cannot move on its own, so it is not motile .

On a solid nutrient medium (e.g. Gibbson's medium) the cells grow into smooth, pale yellow colonies , the diameter of which is 1-2 mm after incubation for three days. When viewed from above, the colonies are round in shape with a clearly defined border, when viewed from the side they appear slightly raised. If the incubation period is extended, a light pink pigment is formed from the colonies which diffuses into the nutrient medium .

Growth and metabolism

Jeotgalicoccus halophilus is heterotrophic , it does not photosynthesize . The species also shows growth under anaerobic conditions - i.e. with the exclusion of oxygen - the species is facultatively anaerobic. Growth takes place at pH values of 5.5–10, optimal growth at pH 7.5. Tolerated temperatures are between 4–40 ° C, optimal growth takes place at 30–35 ° C. The species is halotolerant , it grows with a content of 0.1 to 16% sodium chloride (NaCl) in the nutrient medium , optimal values ​​are 2-3% NaCl. Gibbson's medium is suitable for isolation and cultivation ; it contains tryptone , casein and yeast extract as well as mineral salts such as sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate .

Biochemical characteristics, such as the enzymes present and the resulting metabolic properties, can be used in a colorful series to identify J. halophilus . The enzyme catalase is present and the oxidase test is positive. The enzyme urease is present, so J. halophilus is able to break down urea . It also produces the enzyme phenylalanine deaminase and can break down the amino acid tyrosine through hydrolysis . However, it does not have arginine dihydrolase (ADH). It is able to hydrolyze starch and casein . Nitrate is not reduced to nitrite . Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is not formed, nor are acetoin (negative Voges-Proskauer test ) or indole (negative indole test ). The methyl red sample is also negative. The positive results for the urease test and for the starch and casein hydrolysis contradict the description of the genus Jeotgalicoccus by Jung-Hoon Yoon (see overview ).

In the context of chemoorgano-heterotrophic metabolism may J. halophilus use more organic compounds as a carbon source and fermentation exploited in acid formation, including the carbohydrates D - fructose , D - glucose , and sucrose and the sugar alcohol D - mannitol , the latter will only from the type strain utilized . Also maltose can be recycled, but no acid formation is hereby determine. Carbohydrates that cannot be used are, for example, the monosaccharides L - arabinose , D - galactose , D - mannose and D - xylose and the disaccharides D - cellobiose , lactose and D - trehalose , as well as the polysaccharide glycogen .

Chemotaxonomic Features

The menaquinones used for breathing are MK-7 (83.2%) and MK-6 (16.8%). The murein layer in the cell wall contains the diamino acid L - lysine as a diagnostically important amino acid in position 3 of the peptide bridge. The peptidoglycan type is A3α, in addition to lysine, the amino acids glycine and L - alanine are also present. The fatty acids found in the membrane lipids are mainly molecules with an odd number of carbon atoms (C 15 ) and no double bonds ( saturated fatty acids ). These are the branched-chain fatty acids with the abbreviations antiso -C15: 0 ( anteiso - pentadecanoic acid ) and iso -C15: 0 ( iso- pentadecanoic acid), their proportion is 52.3 and 26.1%, respectively. There is also an unsaturated , odd-numbered, branched fatty acid with the abbreviation iso -C17: 1 ω10c, whose systematic name is 15-methyl- ( Z ) -9-hexadecenoic acid. It occurs in 7.3%. The salary information relates to the type trunk.

The GC content in the DNA of Jeotgalicoccus halophilus is 41.0 to 41.2 mol percent. The genome has not yet been fully sequenced (as of 2014) . However, the nucleotides of the 16S rRNA, a typical representative of ribosomal RNA for prokaryotes , were determined for phylogenetic studies .


So far (as of 2014) is no assignment of jeotgalicoccus halophilus by the Biological Agents Ordinance in connection with the TRBA ( Technical Rules for Biological Agents) 466 to a risk group takes place. In TRBA 466 as of April 25, 2012, only the related species Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans , J. pinnipedialis and J. psychrophilus are listed; they are assigned to risk group 1 and are therefore considered to be bacteria "which are unlikely to cause a disease in humans ”( § 3 Biological Agents Ordinance).


Based on its ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA analyzes), the species belongs to the genus Jeotgalicoccus . It belongs to the Staphylococcaceae family . This family belongs to the Firmicutes department. Jeotgalicoccus halophilus was founded in 2011 by Wen-Yan Liu et al. a. first described . They discovered the bacterial strains J. halophilus C1-52 and YD-9 in the sediment of two salt lakes in Xinjiang (China). The strain J. halophilus C1-52 is the type strain of the newly described species. It was deposited in the collections of microorganisms in China (as CGMCC 1.8911) and Japan (as NBRC 105788).


The genus name Jeotgalicoccus is derived from the neo-Latin word Jeotgalum and refers to the location of the first described species. It was isolated from Korean fermented seafood Jeotgal . The species name J. halophilus is derived from the ancient Greek words hals ("salt") and philos ("friend", "loving") and refers to the halophilia of the species. The species name J. halotolerans describes a related species.


Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j Wen-Yan Liu, Lin-Lin Jiang, Chun-Jing Guo and Su Sheng Yang: Jeotgalicoccus halophilus sp. nov., isolated from salt lakes In: International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology. Volume 61, No. 7, July 2011, pp. 1720-1724, ISSN  1466-5034 . doi : 10.1099 / ijs.0.022251-0 . PMID 20802063 .
  2. Jung-Hoon Yoon, Keun-Chul Lee et al. a .: Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. and Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus sp. nov., isolated from the traditional Korean fermented seafood jeotgal. In: International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology. Volume 53, No. 2, March 2003, pp. 595-602, doi : 10.1099 / ijs.0.02132-0 . ISSN  1466-5026 . PMID 12710632 .
  3. Jeotgalicoccus halophilus strain C1-52 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. In: Nucleotide website of Jeotgalicoccus halophilus of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) . Retrieved April 3, 2014 .
  4. TRBA (Technical Rules for Biological Agents) 466: Classification of prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) into risk groups. In: Website of the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). April 25, 2012, p. 108 , accessed April 1, 2014 .
  5. ^ A b c Jean Euzéby, Aidan C. Parte: Genus Jeotgalicoccus. In: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature ( LPSN ). Retrieved March 21, 2014 .