Countries of the Hungarian crown

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Middle coat of arms of the countries of St. Stephen's Crown: in the middle the Hungarian coat of arms; outside (clockwise) the coats of arms of Croatia, Transylvania, Fiume, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slavonia and Dalmatia (1915).
Countries of the Hungarian crown within Austria-Hungary

The countries of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen ( Hungarian Szent István Koronájának Országai, A Magyar Szent Korona Országai , Croatian Zemlje Krune Svetog Stjepana , Slovak Krajiny Svätoštefanskej koruny ), the Kingdom of Hungary with his side countries were after 1867 in the newly established dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary unofficially Hungarian half of the empire , also called Transleithanien ( Latin “Land beyond the Leitha ”) by officials and lawyers (from an Austrian point of view) . These countries formed the southeastern part of the Habsburg Monarchy and had Budapest as their royal capital.

Until 1849 there had been the lands of St. Stephen's Crown . These were the countries that had belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages . In the course of history, these countries included present-day Hungary , present-day Slovakia , Carpathian Ukraine , Banat , present-day Serbian Vojvodina and present-day Austrian Burgenland , as well as Transylvania (in the northwestern part of present-day Romania ), tiny parts of present-day Poland , the former Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Fiume , today's Croatian Rijeka . In contrast to most other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, these countries were all outside the Holy Roman Empire, which existed until 1806 .


As Holy Crown was Stephen's crown called the old Staatsinsignie king of Budapest , on the later canonized King Stephen I decline. To this day it stands as a state symbol for the eventful history of Hungary.

The area of ​​the Hungarian Plain was conquered by the Magyars from around 900 ; Grand Prince Árpád founded the dynasty of Árpád . The Árpáde Stephan, the saint, established a Hungarian kingdom and converted to Christianity. The Hungarian state parliament consisted largely of Magyar nobles and had the right to elect the king. A united Diet of the Kingdom of Slavonia and the Kingdom of Croatia also had this right, regardless of Hungary's choice.

In 1102 a personal union was established between Hungary and the Kingdom of Croatia. The Mongol invasion followed in the middle of the 13th century , then a personal union with Poland under the Angevin and Jagiellonian houses , rule of the Luxembourgers , Jagiellonian personal union with Bohemia , and conquest by the Ottomans ( Turkish wars ) . Here Ludwig II (Lajos II) fell, and in 1526 the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was crowned king in Hungary, but most of the Hungarian nobility had appointed Johann Zápolya to be king. A civil war was followed by 150 years of the tripartite division of the Hungarian lands into the Habsburg Kingdom, a province of Hungary of the Ottoman Empire and Transylvania as a vassal state of the Ottomans.

In 1687, during the Great Turkish War , the Hungarian state parliament declared the St. Stephen's crown to be hereditary. In return, the Habsburgs had to make considerable concessions to the Hungarian nobility: the state parliament had to be convened regularly, Hungary was allowed to govern itself in part and the nobility were exempt from tax liability. This gave Hungary a special rank within the Habsburg Monarchy, which it was mostly able to maintain until 1867. After the Kuruc uprising 1703–1711, the Habsburg inheritance claim to Hungary was finally recognized with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, albeit with a formal election and own coronation with the St. Stephen's Crown.

By the end of the Turkish wars in the Peace of Belgrade in 1739, the historic Hungarian kingdom was fully recaptured and the military border was set up in the south to permanently protect the country (this was not finally dissolved until 1881 and partly integrated into Hungary, partly Croatia-Slavonia). In 1745 the Triune Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia - parts of Croatia had never been conquered by the Ottomans - was rebuilt, but in 1777 it was spun off from the countries of the Hungarian Crown as an independent kingdom of Illyria .

With the partitions of Poland in 1772 and 1795, Galicia in the northeast came to Habsburg, but was not assigned to the Hungarian part of the empire, as was Bukovina , which was taken from the Ottomans in 1774 . From the time of Maria Theresa through the proclamation of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and the Napoleonic Wars , the state definition of Hungary remained almost unchanged; During this time there was a largely calm relationship between Vienna and the Magyar nobility. In 1818 Illyria was dissolved again and the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia was reassigned as crown land to the countries of the Hungarian crown. In 1849 the crown land of Serbian Vojvodina was divided between Hungary and Croatia-Slavonia.

Postage stamp for a cruiser from the first Austrian stamp series from 1850–1858

In the revolutionary years of 1848/1849 a considerable part of the Hungarian nobility wanted to break out of Habsburg rule, which the Habsburgs prevented with Russian help. This was followed by years of passive resistance in Hungary, until the Emperor of Austria , weakened by his conflict with Prussia and Italy in 1866, was forced to make essential concessions to Hungary in the Austro-Hungarian compromise in 1867 : the transformation of the unified Austrian Empire into the dual monarchy of Austria -Hungary . With this, Hungary achieved full internal independence as a state from 1867 to 1918.

Since then people have spoken of the two parts of the dual monarchy, which in Austria were now called halves of the empire; In Hungary, terms beginning with Reich were avoided whenever possible. Officials and lawyers coined (from an Austrian point of view) the terms Cisleithanien and Transleithanien . The territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina , which was occupied in 1878 and annexed in 1908 , did not belong to either state. After the formal unification of Transylvania with Hungary in 1867 - it had already been proclaimed once in 1848/1849 - the countries of the Hungarian crown included the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and the Free City of Fiume.

On October 28, 1918, the Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed in Prague , which laid claim to the Slovakian-settled " Upper Hungary ". On October 29, 1918, the Croatian parliament announced the end of the union with Hungary and declared Croatia part of the new state of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ). Transylvania joined Romania. On October 31, Hungary broke the last constitutional ties to Austria, which meant that Austria-Hungary ceased to exist.



location country Capital ethnicities religion Remarks coat of arms
Hungary Donaumonarchie.png Kingdom of Hungary Pressburg
Buda (German then: oven , from 1784)
Hungarians , Slovaks , Serbs , Germans , Ruthenians , Romanians Roman Catholic , Greek Catholic , Calvinist 1526–1541 divided between Ferdinand I and Johann Zápolya . 1541–1699 partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire .
Coat of arms of Hungary.png
Slavonia Donaumonarchie.png Kingdom of Slavonia Osijek Croats , Serbs Roman Catholic , Greek Orthodox 1526–1699 largely occupied by the Ottoman Empire, united with Croatia in 1849 to form the crown land of Croatia and Slavonia .
Coa Slavonia Country History (Habsburg Monarchy) .svg
Croatia Donaumonarchie.png Kingdom of Croatia Agram Croats , Serbs Roman Catholic , Greek Orthodox 1097-1918 mostly personal union , and since 1867 Real Union with the Kingdom of Hungary , 1849 Slavonia to crown land Croatia and Slavonia united.
Coa Croatia Country History (Fojnica Armorial) .svg
Croatia and Slavonia Donaumonarchie.png Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia Agram Croats , Serbs Roman Catholic , Greek Orthodox Created in 1849 through the unification of the Kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia.
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.svg
Fiume Donaumonarchie.png City of Fiume with area
( Rijeka )
Fiume Italians , Croatians , Hungarians Bought by the Habsburg Monarchy in 1465, transferred to the Hungarian lands in 1526, administered for a long time from Graz ( Inner Austria ), 1779 corpus separatum , 1809–1815 with the French Kingdom of Italy, 1815 with Austria, 1867 free city of the Hungarian crown, later a county
Coat of arms Fiume.png
Siebenbuergen Donaumonarchie.png (Greater) Principality of Transylvania (Transylvania) Kolozsvár (Cluj -Napoca ) , Nagy-Szeben (Sibiu) Romanians , Szeklers (Magyars), Transylvanian Saxons (Germans) Romanian Orthodox , Romanian Greek Catholic , Lutheran , Calvinist , Roman Catholic Conquered in 1687. Until 1711 under his own prince. Elevated to the Grand Duchy in 1765, part of Hungary in 1867.
Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Transylvania.png
Banat Temesvar Romanians , Hungarians , Germans , Serbs Roman Catholic , Serbian Orthodox , Romanian Greek Catholic Occupied by the Ottoman Empire from 1526–1718. 1718 own crown land , 1779 part of Hungary.
Voivodina Donaumonarchie.png Voivodeship of Serbia and the Temesian Banat Serbs , Romanians , Germans , Hungarians Serbian Orthodox , Romanian Greek Catholic Vojvodina and Banat , 1849 by separation from Hungary and areas of the Serbian military border, 1849 own crown land, 1860 divided between Hungary and Croatia-Slavonia.
Coat of arms of Serbian Vojvodina.svg

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Serbian Voivodeship a. Temesian Banat . In: Heinrich August Pierer , Julius Löbe (Hrsg.): Universal Lexicon of the Present and the Past . 4th edition. tape 15 . Altenburg 1862, p. 883 ( ).