Salzstadel is in Southern Germany , Austria , the Switzerland and earlier in Bohemia common name for a municipal or stately building for temporary storage in the trading of rock salt , the gold of the Middle Ages , from that time to preserve food and salt herring needed salt can be obtained .
The establishment of the salt barn is related to the Central European salt trade , which experienced a great boom in the late Middle Ages and early modern times ; therefore most of the surviving warehouse buildings for the Hall (the old German name) date from this period. Due to the great value that salt possessed at that time, the trade in the "white gold" was subject to strict regulations. The prerequisite for the sale was the award of the so-called salt shelf by the emperor , which was commonly given to individual towns or noble lords. The buildings intended for central storage and sale were in a convenient location, for example near navigable rivers or main roads through which the salt mined in the Alpine region was delivered. The salt stalls (also in smaller places) along the former salt roads are particularly common . Corresponding buildings were also built in northern Germany, for example the salt storage facility in Lübeck .
The inner-city salt stalls were usually generously dimensioned, multi-storey buildings with a high pitched roof . Since these were purely functional buildings, they had - apart from the occasional barbed or stepped gables - hardly any architectural or other decoration. The massive stone construction, which is often found, with sometimes extremely powerful walls, which only had small, often loopholes-like windows, prevented moisture from penetrating and protected against break-ins. In the country, less often in the cities, salt stores partially or entirely in half-timbered construction were also widespread.
After the end of the monopoly and the liberalization of the salt trade, the existing barns were demolished, used as storage facilities for other goods or converted for other uses, such as residential buildings or barracks . Today many buildings are used for cultural purposes, as museums, exhibition and event rooms or libraries.
List of former salt stalls with the time of construction
- Augsburg , canceled in 1876
- Amberg , 1487, today a student residence.
- Bad Reichenhall
- Biberach an der Riss , 1510/13
- Burghausen , 1600, demolished in 1863.
- Eichstätt , now a residential building.
- Friedrichshafen (Buchhorn), built in 1759/60, destroyed in the Second World War
- Ingolstadt , built in 1392, salt warehouse since 1395, destroyed in 1945.
- Inning am Ammersee , 1767.
- Kaufbeuren , at its core probably 15th century, today Stadttheater Kaufbeuren .
- Kempten (Allgäu) , Salzstadel first mentioned in 1392, today Kempten City Theater .
- Landsberg am Lech , Mühlbachstadel built in 1354 (rebuilt and expanded in the 18th century), Herzogstadel 1537 and large Lechstadel 1631.
- Landshut (Herzogskasten), first mentioned in 1549.
- Lauingen (hall building), in the core probably 15th century.
- Memmingen (Großer Salzstadel), 1470–74, see Großer Salzstadel .
- Salzstadel (Munich) ,
- Regensburg , built 1485 - 1492 during the time Regensburg was taken over by the Bavarian Duke Albrecht IV ; expanded after the Bavarian takeover of the city of Regensburg in 1557; " Amberger Salzstadel "; south of the Danube, west of the Stone Bridge
- Regensburg, built in 1597 " Andreasstadel, Bavarian Salzstadel "; north of the Danube in the Stadtamhof district today used as the Andreasstadel artists' house
- Regensburg, built 1616–20 by the imperial city of Regensburg; " Regensburger Salzstadel ", south of the Danube, east of the Stone Bridge
- Regensburg, built in 1672 as a warehouse ("brown brewery"); Purchased by the city in 1776 and converted into a salt barn; At the end of the 19th century it was used as a warehouse for the Donau-Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft (hence the current name: Österreicher Stadel). Used in modern times as a depot for the Historical Museum Regensburg , since 2018 as a depot for the Museum of Bavarian History
- Rosenheim , 1559.
- Schwandorf , 2nd half of the 15th century, used as a mulz for the brewery after the Thirty Years War , demolished in 1922.
- Straubing , documented since 1568, today the city library.
- Tacherting , built in 1843, is a listed building
- Traunstein , canceled in 1568, 1859.
- Ulm, 1592, today the Museum of Bread Culture .
- Wohmbrechts near Hergatz , first mentioned in 1618, rebuilt in 1784.
- Bregenz , 1768, canceled in 1888.
- Feldkirch , 1511, canceled in 1905.
- Krems , 1579.
- Lermoos , mentioned in 1318 as the “new salt cave”, rebuilt in 1678, relocated to the Ehrenberger Klause near Reutte in 2010.
- Linz , Salzstadel Linz
- Reutte (Unterer Salzstadel), 1471, rebuilt in 1712, now a residential building.
- Weißenkirchen in the Wachau , 17th century now wine and ceramics sales and holiday apartments
- České Budějovice , 1531
- Český Krumlov , first mentioned in 1511, a salt deposit since 1723.
- Hranice , from the 16th century; today Protestant church
- Jean-Claude Hocquet: White Gold. Salt and power in Europe from 800 to 1800 . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-608-91365-3 .
- List of cultural monuments in Biberach an der Riss , Marktplatz 40
- cf. Max Messerschmid: 200 years of Salzstadel in Friedrichshafen , in: Writings of the Association for the History of Lake Constance and its Surroundings , 79th year 1961, pp. 52–106 ( digitized version )