Ulrich von Jungingen

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ulrich von Jungingen; Illustration from Christophorus Hartknoch : Old and New Prussia or Preussischer Historien two parts ... , around 1674

Ulrich von Jungingen (* around 1360 presumably at Hohenfels Castle , today district of Konstanz ; † July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg ) came from the Swabian nobility and was Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1407 to 1410 . As supreme authority of the Teutonic Order , he declared war on the Kingdom of Poland, which was in personal union with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , in 1409 and subsequently led the order's army to their defeat in the Battle of Tannenberg .

His death on the battlefield and the heavy personnel losses of the order, in connection with blatant financial burdens due to the later peace agreement , mark a decisive turning point in the history of the order state . Ulrich von Jungingen's tactical mistakes in battle shape his image to the present day.


Rise in the order hierarchy

Heraldic shield of the Teutonic Order

The noble Jungingen family was in the service of the southern German aristocracy, namely the Habsburg and Württemberg houses, from the 14th century . Ulrich, who was born around 1360 as the younger descendant of a by name unknown Mr. von Jungingen, was not entitled to inheritance and therefore followed the example of his older brother Konrad, who was also not entitled to inherit : Ulrich became a knightly member of the clerical corporation of the Teutonic Order. It can no longer be determined whether his profession was already made in the Empire or at a later point in time in the Order's land . The time of his arrival in the country of the Order, the later Prussia, is also unknown . Here he is mentioned for the first time in 1383 as the so-called fish master at Drausen and later in his office as the caretaker of Morteg.

What is certain is that Ulrich enjoyed the protection of his older brother Konrad in Prussia, who already held positions of responsibility in the order's hierarchy. In the years 1391 to 1392, Ulrich took over the post of compan for Grand Master Konrad von Wallenrode . He established himself early on at Marienburg , the center of power in the religious state. The important function of a high master's compan predestined Ulrich for further influential offices. In particular, the election of his brother Konrad as the 25th Grand Master in 1393 had a positive effect on Ulrich's chances of promotion.

In 1396 Ulrich became Komtur von Balga , one of the most important comers in the state. This office was considered in the order as the basis for higher orders. In the years after 1398 Ulrich von Jungingen conducted the complicated diplomatic negotiations with the Danish Queen Margarethe I about the possession of Gotland in this capacity . He also took part in diplomatic missions in Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

From the end of 1404, after Werner von Tettlingen was recalled due to illness, he led the order as Marshal and Commander of Königsberg . Ulrich was thus one of the five major jurisdictions and held one of the highest offices within the order. The order marshal led in 1405 mobilizations to suppress local uprisings in Žemaitien . The population there rebelled against the collection of church tithes and other taxes. With the Treaty of Sallinwerder of 1398, Žemaitien was transferred to the order by the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas . Ulrich was characterized by pragmatic action, which contradicts the widespread view of later chroniclers that Ulrich was uncontrolled and arrogant. In Žemaitien, von Jungingen pursued the concept that had been tried and tested in the fight against the Prussians for centuries : targeted German settlement in connection with the acquisition or corruption of the local nobility. The Order Marshal ruthlessly stifled local resistance. However, this concept subsequently turned out to be unsuitable due to the low influx of people willing to settle.

After the unexpected death of his brother, Grand Master Konrad von Jungingen, on March 30, 1407, a new Grand Master had to be appointed. Because of the growing tensions with the Kingdom of Poland as a result of the acquisition of Neumark in 1402, this had to be done quickly. It was the acting governor of the Grand Master and at the same time the electoral commander Werner von Tettlingen, who was confirmed by the chapter of the order , who proposed the order marshal Ulrich von Jungingen as his successor. On June 26, 1407, the Chapter of the Order elected Ulrich von Jungingen unanimously as the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. The latter is said to have defended himself against the election that had already taken place with the argument that he was not worthy of the high office. His behavior is considered to be unusual, since the religious chapter in the medieval-religious zeitgeist viewed the election as a "heavenly" revelation. In the election, there were no representatives from the Reich, such as the German master Konrad von Egloffstein , as well as some representatives of the Livonian order branch due to armed conflicts with the Russian aristocratic republic of Pskow .

Grand Master

Grand Master's coat of arms of Ulrich von Jungingen

Domestic politics

Ulrich von Jungingen, like his predecessors, tried to ensure an orderly administration of his lands. Here he was able to fall back on proven administrative structures such as the commanderies, which were directly responsible to the Grand Master. But Ulrich also did not take any measures to overcome the basic contradiction that had been emerging for decades between authoritarian rule and the Prussian estates . The estates, representatives of the cities and the landed nobility, demanded a say in the administration, which the order strictly refused with reference to traditional legal interpretations. Merchants in the Hanseatic cities in particular , such as Danzig or Thorn , saw themselves at a disadvantage in the exercise of free trade by the order's own authorized agents , the Großschäffer . In view of the military power of the order, the representatives of the estates bowed to the claims of the knights. The estates, such as the citizens of Danzig, regularly presented their concerns or complaints to the Grand Master as the nominal sovereign. The request for charitable assistance by, the Order very distant opposite, Hanseatic City of Danzig confirmed yet recognizing the sovereignty of the Order.

The Grand Master as well as the large area overlooked the nascent antagonism. There are no sources that report approaches to the solution during Jungingen's tenure. An exception was the state order of the Grand Master from November 1408. It was based on demands made at the Standing Day in May of the same year. In the wording of the state regulations, however, the Grand Master limited himself to marginal points of conflict, such as the legal treatment of various claims for damages or even the criminal liability for kidnapping virgins . Basically, the state order of 1408 for the most part exclusively contained the resumption of older provisions. Ulrich, on the other hand, personally took care of reducing the damage caused by a devastating spring flood of the Vistula in 1408 in the area around Graudenz .

In the years 1407 to 1409, the Grand Master considerably intensified the armament efforts of the already militarily powerful order state. The trade for the manufacture of stone boxes , the formers of the stone balls and the powder mill on the Marienburg are said to have worked around the clock, with the exception of high church holidays. A dispensation from the Grand Master even allowed the employees there to circumvent the fasting requirement so as not to reduce their work performance. A number of permanent houses on the Lithuanian border were further fortified and partly equipped with a new type of artillery, the so-called stone rifles .


Teutonic Order in 1410

The assumption of power and the entire term of office of the new Grand Master were overshadowed by the growing tensions with the Kingdom of Poland and in particular the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Polish nobility has been pressing for generations to take military countermeasures because of the annexation of Pomeranians in 1308 and the acquisition of the Neumark. In addition, the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas supported independence efforts in Žemaitien, which was occupied by the order.

Jungingen and his advisors underestimated the warnings of fermenting dissatisfaction in his administrative area repeatedly sent by the Bailiff in Žemaitien, Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg . Since 1402 there has been a guerrilla war between the rebellious Žemaites and the armed forces of the order. Although Vytautas officially kept the obligations entered into in the Sallinwerder Treaty, he secretly supported the discontented nobility of Žemaitiens.

Jungingen had to take into account that massive intervention in Žemaitien entailed considerable risks: a campaign against the insurgents would provoke a conflict with Lithuania. A military confrontation with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania almost inevitably resulted in a war with Poland. Władysław II Jagiełło , a relative of the Grand Duke who married the Polish Queen Jadwiga, had been King of Poland since 1386 . However, a joint approach by both powers would have meant an extremely unfavorable constellation of forces for the religious state. The long borderline with both empires proved to be a strategic weak point. In addition, there was the immense personal potential of the opponents; Strategic disadvantages that exceeded the considerable military resources of the order state.

As early as 1403, there were contradicting views within the Order's leadership circle. Some dignitaries advocated a preventive war against Poland. Others spoke out against such aggressive measures. The late Grand Master Konrad was one of the latter and said around 1406: "A war will start soon, but will end with difficulty ...". Ulrich von Jungingen's role in these controversies is unknown. His actions as Grand Master, however, indicate that he tried to avoid a military conflict until the summer of 1409.

Contract with the Teutonic Order about the return of Gotland

The extent to which this behavior is to be assessed against unconditional adherence to the existing status quo remains controversial. A princely convention in Kaunas on January 6, 1408 with the personal participation of the Grand Master as well as the Grand Duke and the King of Poland produced no result. Diplomatic activities of the order at the end of the first decade of the 15th century show intensive alliance talks with European princes, such as with the later Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg . Sigismund, the younger son of Emperor Charles IV , appeared to the order as a particularly important ally due to his coronation as King of Hungary in 1387 . This prince, too, traditionally tended to the order, his grandfather Johann von Luxemburg already stayed several times as a pagan driver against the then pagan Lithuania in the state of the Teutonic Order.

Already in the middle of 1408 the order had recruited mercenaries in the Reich, especially in Lübeck . This suggests that the leadership of the order wanted to prepare for a military conflict with the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The renouncement of Gotland on comparatively conciliatory terms in order to settle a simmering conflict in the West also speaks for it. In 1408 a settlement was finally reached with the Danish Queen Margaret I over the possession of the disputed Baltic Sea island.

A general uprising in Žemaitien that broke out in the spring of 1409 escalated the conflict. The leadership of the order suspected that Vytautas of Lithuania was the driving force of the rebellion. The Grand Duke left inquiries about this unanswered. The conflict with Poland also intensified. Władysław II Jagiełło, through his envoy, Archbishop Mikołaj I. Kurowski von Gnesen , informed the Grand Master that in the event of a war with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Kingdom of Poland would support its ally and the Polish armed forces would attack the Order State immediately. Ulrich von Jungingen regarded Žemaitien as belonging to the order state and thus the Lithuanian support for the rebels as an interference in internal affairs of his state. The Grand Master is said to have replied to the royal envoy:

"" So I would rather grasp the head than the limbs, prefer to visit an inhabited than a desolate and desolate land! ""

These words mark the end of all efforts to avoid the smoldering conflict or to resolve it by peaceful means. On August 6, 1409, Ulrich von Jungingen had the official herald of the master deliver his and the order's feud letter to the King of Poland . This measure marks the beginning of the Great Streythe , the so-called war against the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in order terminology.

War against Lithuania and Poland

The overall political situation from the summer of 1409 onwards was extremely disadvantageous for the order. After the death of the German King Ruprecht on May 18, 1410, the power struggle for his successor escalated. The declared ally of the order, Sigismund von Luxemburg, also applied for the crown. His military intervention in favor of the order therefore became unlikely.

The outbreak of hostilities created a favorable strategic situation for Poland and Lithuania: the Order was left to its own devices. However, although the conflict had been looming for a long time, both the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were insufficiently prepared for a military conflict at this point in time.

After the feud was declared , Jungingen immediately took advantage of the temporarily advantageous strategic location. Contingents of the Order's army conquered the Dobriner Land in September , occupied Kuyavia and besieged Bromberg at the beginning of October . Despite these successes, Ulrich agreed to the mediation of the Bohemian King Wenceslaus IV on the issue of ownership of Žemaitiens, which was again disputed due to the uprising. A temporary armistice was agreed until St. John's Day (June 21, 1410). The king's arbitration award was made on the basis of the Sallinwerder Treaty and the ratification by the Polish crown in 1404 in favor of the order. But the judgment of Wenceslas was not accepted by Poland's Privy Council and the Lithuanian Grand Dukes as partisan but also because of the favorable overall foreign policy situation. Further mediation attempts ended unsuccessfully because the Polish embassy did not appear. On March 30, 1410, the Grand Master replaced the authorities of some important commanderies with proven knights. In the summer of 1410 a military campaign should decide.

After the armistice, Ulrich showed himself to be a strategist. He stayed at the Marienburg because he had no precise information about the locations of the opposing armies. The situation only became clear at the beginning of July with the receipt of the renunciation letters from formerly allied princes, written in the Władysław II Jagiełłos military camp in Bieżuń .

On July 2nd, 1410 Ulrich von Jungingen left Marienburg in full armor at the head of the racing banner , an elite unit of the Knighthood , with the alleged words:

"I greet you, dear festivals, as a winner, or never more!"

- Chronicle of Johann von Posilge

Presumably in consultation with the experienced order marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode as well as the other large territorial authorities, Jungingen left the war-tried Commander Heinrich von Plauen with some knights and around 2000 mercenaries to protect the Vistula crossing there and to support the order bailiff Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg in Schwetz . Sternberg administered Neumark, which was endangered by Polish patrols.

Death in the battle of Tannenberg

Main article: Battle of Tannenberg (1410)

Depiction of the Battle of Tannenberg in the Bern Chronicle by Diebold Schilling the Elder around 1483

Jungingen led the order's army and the Prussian estates as far as Kauernick, not far from Soldau , where the armed forces moved into a fortified camp on the banks of the Drewenz river . The Polish-Lithuanian army avoided a conflict that was already hinting at there by circumventing the advantageous position of the order's army along the course of the river in a north-easterly direction. After Gilgenburg had been stormed by Lithuanians and Tatars on July 13, Ulrich sought a direct confrontation. He immediately led the order's army to the northeast, where he had another camp site moved to Frögenau on the evening of July 14th . Scouts reported that evening that the entire Polish-Lithuanian army was encamped on the banks of the Marense River. Jungingen and his council of war decided to battle the Teutonic Order's army the following day on the largely unwooded heathland between the villages of Grünstelde and Tannenberg as well as Ludwigsdorf and Faulen .

The Army of the Order, which had been formed in battle order since the morning of July 15, was in a tactically unfavorable position, as it had to leave the initiative to the opponents who remained on the marshy banks of the Marense or in the forests east of the Tannenberger Heide. The summer heat at noon and the idle waiting became a great burden for the armed warriors. Especially with the with the chocolate coating, a so-called Ross coat, and the highest dignitaries with Ross armor equipped battle horses, the endurance proved bearable in the heat as no longer. The highest dignitaries agreed to challenge the Polish king and the Lithuanian grand duke to an immediate fight by delivering two bare swords. The following message was ascribed to Ulrich von Jungingen:

"It is the custom of warlike fighters when one army is waiting for the other to fight, so it sends two swords to the other, in order to demand it for a fair fight on the battlefield. Look, we are now handing you two swords, one for you, the king, the other for you, Duke Witold (common German name for Vytautas), in the name of the master, the marshal and the knights of the order, on that you choose the battlefield where you want it. Use them to help you, these swords, to start the quarrel. But do not hesitate and do not miss the time. Why do you stay in the woods and hide yourself in order to escape the struggle that you can no longer avoid? "

- Jan Długosz , Polish chronicler

This procedure corresponded to the German chivalrous tradition, by the opponents, however, this was understood as an insult and evidence of the arrogance of the Grand Master. This view of Ulrich von Jungingen has been maintained by the authoritative historical work of the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz to the present day.

Shortly after the swords were handed over , the battle began with the attack of Lithuanian banners under Grand Duke Vytautas on the right wing of the united army. Ulrich von Jungingen initially directed the deployment of his banners behind the battle lines from a hill near Grünstelde. So he ordered the initially successful counterattack against the Lithuanian army ban under the order marshal, who subsequently got bogged down in persecution battles. A little later, the Grand Master observed a fight on the right wing under Grand Commander Kuno von Lichtenstein against the Polish armed forces, which was also initially successful for the army of the order. The elite of the Polish nobility fought there under the so-called Cracow banner . After the Polish king's banner fell into the hands of the order as a result of fortunate circumstances, Ulrich himself, now certain of victory, is said to have started the order of victory: Christ is risen . The army gradually joined in the laudation.

With the deployment of Polish reserves, however, the situation changed: the right wing was visibly in distress after the loss of the banner that had been captured shortly before.

Banner of the Kulmer Land , which Nicolaus von Renys lowered to cause the withdrawal of parts of the Lizard League

For Ulrich, who had been acting deliberately until then, the following alternative arose: On the one hand, according to chivalrous tradition, to lead his reserve of 15 banners, including the racing banner , to the attack, on the other hand, to let the riders ride the decisive attack under a subordinate commander to keep the tactical leadership of the army in hand.

The aspect that under the reserve was the particularly strong banner of the Kulmer Land seems to have played a certain role in the Grand Master's decision-making . The majority of the members of the Lizard League served under the Kulm flag . These country nobles, some of whom had lived for generations in the areas near the border with the Kingdom of Poland, tended to favor the kingdom due to family and economic ties. Ulrich was therefore not sure of the loyalty of the knights of the secular aristocratic association of the "Eydechsen" to the Teutonic Order.

In the early afternoon, the Grand Master decided without detailed consultation with one of the order's major officers: an immediate attack under his leadership on the right wing of the Polish army, which was still exposed by the Lithuanian allies. Under Jungingen's leadership, the banners made a wide arc to the northeast in order to fall into the flank of the advancing Polish army after a long run-up.

Even during the start there were several irregularities. So some knights of the order of the racing banner , including Leopold von Kötteritz , mentioned by name by the chronicler Jan Długosz , fell to the left to attack a Polish banner that was standing apart from the battle. Immediately afterwards, the leader of the Kulmer Banner and spokesman for the Lizard League, Nicolaus von Renys, lowered the flag. This act was a prearranged sign to leave the battlefield. Parts of the federal government swayed. Which of these actions the Grand Master, with his words recorded by the chronicler, sought to prevent by ordering:

"Around! Around!"

- Jan Długosz , Polish chronicler
Last phase of the meeting in the late afternoon; The previous flank attack under Ulrich von Jungingen is shown in light gray

remains unexplained. Immediately afterwards Ulrich von Jungingen, riding at the head of the formation, faced a defensive front of the Polish cavalry under the knight Dobiesław von Oleśnica . Jungingen was killed in this fight. It cannot be clarified to what extent immediately after the massive attack by the Grand Master's 15 banners, infantry, alerted to the death of the Grand Master, were involved.

Without a guide, the battle of Tannenberg became a disaster for the army of the order.

According to Stephen Turnbull, it is undisputed that Jungingen did not meet the requirements of a prudent general near Tannenberg . Due to the personal participation in the attack of the racing banner without a clear handover of leadership competencies to a deputy, the army lost its unified leadership. The result was a widespread splitting of forces and consequent defeat. A timely and orderly withdrawal of forces would, according to valid doctrine, have at least partially preserved the combat strength of the order's army. At the moment when Ulrich placed himself at the head of the last reserves, the Grand Master gave up all tactical initiative, the army would have been leaderless even without his death.

The Polish King Władysław II. Jagiełło had Ulrich von Jungingen's corpse worthily transferred to the Marienburg before he began the siege of the Marienburg . Jungingen was buried in the traditional crypt of the Grand Master under the Sankt-Annen-Kapelle of the Ordensburg.


Historical evaluation

An assessment of the Grand Master was mostly only made from the point of view of his death on the battlefield and his defeat at Tannenberg. Descriptions of the personality basically go back to chroniclers of the Battle of Tannenberg such as Jan Długosz as well as to the history of Johann von Posilge . However, Długosz's Chronicle Banderia Prutenorum was not written until thirty years later based on reports from participants in the Battle of Tannenberg. In these historical works, under the aspect of defeat, the fallen Grand Master is assigned characteristics that he demonstrably did not have: Jan Długosz describes Ulrich as young and hot-blooded. It is precisely this fact that has been taken up again and again by posterity, both by historians and in fiction . At the time of his death, however, Jungingen was already fifty years old, according to contemporary understanding, therefore, quite old.

On the other hand, Ulrich von Jungingen is described as virtuous and capable, a classic knight of the Middle Ages . One of the arguments used is his behavior immediately before Tannenberg. He did without the element of surprise and failed to attack the encamped enemies before they could form for battle. Instead, he had two heralds bring a sword to the opposing generals, which was traditionally seen as an invitation to battle among knights. This representation of his alleged chivalry is no longer tenable in view of the circumstances and the course of the meeting at Tannenberg. Like all knight armies of its time, the order's army, which was characterized by heavy cavalry, was unable to fight in the forest or undergrowth due to its tactical principles of an orderly cavalry attack. That was the only reason to expect the opponent on the open field.

Ulrich's spontaneous rushing ahead at the top of his banners in the most critical phase of the battle represents, depending on the perspective, a supposedly clear proof of his courage or fatal lack of control. The chroniclers agree that the Grand Master fell as a brave knight in an "honest fight" be.

Artist's impression

Depiction of the death of Ulrich von Jungingen in the Battle of Tannenberg, historical painting by Jan Matejko , National Museum Warsaw

An outstanding example of Jungingen's representation in the fine arts is a painting by the Polish history painter Jan Matejko . He summarized various scenes of the battle on this monumental representation of the Battle of Tannenberg measuring 4.26 × 9.87 meters. Arranged in the center, the artist depicts Grand Master Ulrich's death in battle by poorly armored foot mercenaries. The painting was honored in the post-war period in particular. The myth that the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order was slain by simple Polish farmers was a kind of outlet for hurt national feelings and frustration with the reality in communist Poland.

On the Prussian-German side, a revision of the history of the Battle of Tannenberg took place in the 19th century from a relatively neutral assessment to the representation of a tragic defeat and thus the view of the Grand Master. These aspects are impressively reflected in the novel Heinrich von Plauen by Ernst Wichert . Here the heroically beautiful Ulrich von Jungingen is portrayed as the antagonist of his crafty, ugly opponent Władysław II Jagiełło. Wichert also assumes that Jungingen was younger than his protagonist Heinrich von Plauen , which is not tenable.

The well-known historical novel Krzyżacy (in German translation Die Kreuzritter ) by the later Nobel Prize winner Henryk Sienkiewicz describes Ulrich von Jungingen as impulsive and bellicose. In the 1960 film adaptation of the novel, directed by Aleksander Ford , the Grand Master portrayed by Stanisław Jasiukiewicz is portrayed in his role as general at Tannenberg with negative, so-called Prussian characteristics such as militarism, excessiveness and overestimation of himself. Ford also portrays Jungingen as insidious and inconsiderate.

Contemporary and modern reminiscences

The Jungingenstein on a postcard before 1945

In the years after the battle, on the instructions of the new Grand Master Heinrich von Plauen, a chapel was built at the alleged place of death of Ulrich, which was supposed to honor the fallen soldiers of the Great Streythes , but especially the knightly fallen Ulrich. Only the foundation walls of this sacred building are preserved today.

With the establishment of the Jungingen Stone in 1901, Ulrich von Jungingen was erected a memorial in the form of a boulder with an inscription near the place of death believed to have occurred in modern times . The inscription, in keeping with the nationalistic zeitgeist of that time, read: “In the struggle for German essence, German law, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen died a heroic death here on July 15, 1410” . The stone is still there today, but it was overturned after 1945, so the German inscription is no longer legible. A stone with a neutralized inscription, on which only the name Jungingen can be read, is located on the area of ​​today's Tannenberg memorial. Whether these are the remains of the Jungingen stone is disputed.

In their Swabian homeland, the community of Jungingen , the two grand masters Konrad and Ulrich are remembered, among other things, by naming a local main street in Hochmeisterstraße .


Contemporary chronicles

Source editions

  • Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order ; Volume 3–5, Leipzig 1861–1874.


  • Walter Markov and Heinz Helmert: Battles of world history ; Leipzig; Edition, 1983.
  • Erich Maschke : Domus Hospitalis Theutonicorum ; European lines of connection in the history of the Teutonic Order. Collected essays from the years 1931–1963. (Sources and studies on the history of the Teutonic Order, 10).
  • Erich Maschke: The German order state, figures of its great masters ; Berlin 1935
  • Alexander von Reitzenstein: knighthood and knighthood ; Munich 1972
  • Stephen Turnbull: Tannenberg 1410 , Osprey Publishing, Campaign 122, Oxford 2003, ISBN 1-84176-561-9
  • Wolfgang Sonthofen: The German Order ; Weltbild, Augsburg 1995, ISBN 3-89350-713-2
  • Dieter Zimmerling: The German Knight Order ; Econ, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-430-19959-X
  • Casimir Bumiller, Magdalene Wulfmeier: Konrad and Ulrich von Jungingen , contributions to the biography of the two German order high masters , Geiger-Verlag, Horb a. Neckar 1995


Web links

Commons : Ulrich von Jungingen  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Erich Maschke: The German order state, shaping its great masters. P. 98.
  2. a b c d e Erich Maschke: The German order state, shaping its great masters. P. 99
  3. Certificate from Grand Master Konrad von Jungingen on the passage of the Commander von Balga, Ulrich von Jungingen, to Lithuania
  4. Certificate from Grand Master Konrad von Jungingen from 1400 on the participation of Komtur von Balga in negotiations with the Polish king
  5. From 1330, the Order Marshal was also Commander of Königsberg.
  6. Ouch within desin zitin czoch the marshal of pruszin with a mighty here uf the Szamaythien ; from the chronicle of Johann von Polsilge in: Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 276.
  7. Document from 1406
  8. a b c d e f g Johannes Longinus (Jan Długosz): Banderia Prutenorum
  9. a b Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum ; The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 287.
  10. The chapter of the order appointed a college of 13 delegates who, under the chairmanship of the electoral commander who was entitled to vote, voted among the aspirants according to the principles of an absolute majority; After: Dieter Zimmerling: Der Deutsche Ritterorden , Econ, Munich 1998, p. 171
  11. a b Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, pp. 285-286.
  12. ^ Dieter Zimmerling: The German Knight Order ; Econ, Munich 1998, p. 171
  13. Request to the Council of Thorn to mark their ships (here, however, to be considered in the run-up to the dispute with the Kgr. Poland)
  14. These legal interpretations were based on the Imperial Golden Bull of Rimini of 1226 and the Papal Bull of Rieti in 1234
  15. ^ Wolfgang Sonthofen: The German Order ; Weltbild, Augsburg 1995, p. 148.
  16. Confirmation presented to the Grand Master for a foundation for the establishment of a brotherhood of more than 200 people for the care of sick Danzig shipmen in general and the wounded during the Gotland campaign of the order (against the Vitalien Brothers) in particular
  17. Hartmut Boockmann: Writings of the historical college; Colloquia 16 “The beginnings of the corporate representations in Prussia and its neighboring countries” p. 64.
  18. Commentary in: Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 294.
  19. “… you know, the wysel utbrach bienedien Grudenz. The homeister for the first time appears… ” in the chronicle of Johann von Polsilge ; Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 290.
  20. ^ Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 283.
  21. ^ Wolfgang Sonthofen: The German Order ; Weltbild, Augsburg 1995, p. 119.
  22. ^ Based on : Wolfgang Sonthofen: Der Deutsche Orden , Weltbild, Augsburg 1995, p. 136.
  23. “… Ouch so does the homeister keep your precious day czu Calwin (Kaunas) uff epyphanie domini with the king of Polan and syme rathe and duchess witowd and sine bayorin; unde something big do, and vil folker beydir syte, unde schogin big tastes, alleyne is little broken. " in Chronicle of Johann von Polsilge ; Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 289.
  24. Detmar's Lübische Chronik around 1400-1413
  25. Margaret of Denmark paid 9,000 Nobels , that is about 63 kilograms of gold; After: Wolfgang Sonthofen: Der Deutsche Orden , Weltbild, Augsburg 1995, p. 133
  26. ^ A b c Dieter Zimmerling: The German order of knights. Econ, Munich 1998, p. 245.
  27. ^ Wolfgang Sonthofen: The German Order ; Weltbild, Augsburg 1995, p. 136.
  28. a b Wolfgang Sonthofen: The German Order. Weltbild, Augsburg 1995, p. 137.
  29. In the chronicle of Johann von Polsilge it says regarding the devastation of the Dobriner land by the order army : "... and even the land that is slowly coming ahead" ((the damage) is difficult to overcome); in: Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum vol. 3, p. 301.
  30. Slochov and Tuchel nzogin off the Coyow in: History of Johann von Posilge ; Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 287.
  31. Excerpts from: Sławomir Jóźwiak, Adam Szweda Before the “Great War”. The diplomatic dispute between Poland and the Teutonic Order in June-July 1409. 9. Post on a website of the University of Poznań ( Memento of the original from April 29, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.ptpn.poznan.pl
  32. In the chronicle of Johann von Polsilge : "Item the eighth day still easterly walked the homeister dese bitiger: Chrispurg, Thorun, Balge, Osterode, Engelsburg, Slochow and the voith us de Nuwen brand" ; in: Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 313. The recognition of the bravery of some of the commander in question during the battle by Jan Długosz in the Banderia Prutenorum , in correspondence with the cited Posilge Chronicle, suggests the appointment of particularly war-experienced knights.
  33. ^ Johann von Posilge : Chronicle of the Land of Prussia
  34. The Chronicle of Johann von Posilge describes terrible atrocities committed by the Tatars and Lithuanians against the population: … and czog against Gilgenburg and won dyr stad against obyrhoupt and burnante sy; and slug dead young and old; and committed such a great mort with the heyden, that it is unsegular ... in: Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3; Ernst Strehke: III. Franciscani Thorunensis Annales Prussici (941-1410). IV. Johanns von Posilge, Officials von Pomesanien, Chronik des Landes Prussen (from 1360 on, continued until 1419); P. 315
  35. Alexander von Reitzenstein: Rittertum und Ritterschaft , p. 204.
  36. The Chronicle of Johann von Posilge notes: And the Polan qwoman en zwu help, and it became en gosir stryt, and the master with his slugen drystut goes through with it, and the king gave way, so the dese sang: " Crist has risen ” . in: Theodor Hirsch, Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3, p. 316.
  37. ^ Dieter Zimmerling: Der Deutsche Ritterorden , p. 254.
  38. According to Jan Długosz, this group of riders included the Polish King Władysław II Jagiełło; How an attack by the Grand Master's entire banners would have affected the battle remains speculation
  39. The chronicle of Johann von Posilge describes the process as follows: “And a number of villains, knights, servants of the country Culmen undiructen dy Colmer banyr and ouch andire banyr, dy do volatile, as the ir yarn little dof qwam.” In: Theodor Hirsch , Max Toeppen, Ernst Strehlke: Scriptores rerum Prussicarum . The historical sources of the Prussian prehistoric times up to the fall of the order . Volume 3; Ernst Strehke: III. Franciscani Thorunensis Annales Prussici (941-1410). IV. Johanns von Posilge, Officials von Pomesanien, Chronik des Landes Prussen (from 1360 on, continued until 1419); P. 316
  40. a b Stephen Turnbull: Tannenberg 1410. p. 55.
  41. a b Stephen Turnbull: Tannenberg 1410. p. 56.
  42. Johann von Posilge did not complete his work himself, according to the Scriptores Rerum Prussicarum it was completed by unknown chroniclers after his death around 1405
  43. Walter Markov and Heinz Helmert: Battles of World History, p. 230
  44. ^ Henryk Sienkiewicz: Krzyżacy ; [Die Kreuzritter] as well as Ernst Wichert: Heinrich von Plauen
  45. Stephen Turnbull: Tannenberg 1410 , p. 49
  46. a b Current pictures; u. a. the ruins of the chapel from 1411 and the fragment of the alleged Jungingen stone
  47. Description of the flags and also of the war events of 1410/11, around 1448. A conditionally timely representation of the events; the record was not made until 38 years later after oral tradition from a participant in the battle. Despite various heraldic errors in the descriptions of the individual banners (flags) , it is precisely the merit of this work to have passed down a description of the banners used in battle in the form of images up to our time
predecessor Office successor
Konrad von Jungingen Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
Heinrich von Plauen
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on November 10, 2008 in this version .