Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet
|Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet|
CRJ200 from Tyrolean Airways
|Type:||twin-engine regional airliner|
May 10, 1991
1991–2020 in series production
|Number of pieces:||
The Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet (CRJ), originally called the Canadair CL-600 Regional Jet , is a twin- engine regional airliner produced by the Canadian aircraft manufacturer Bombardier . The name still suggests the original developer Canadair . In addition to the initially only fifty-seated variants of the low-wing aircraft , extended variants have been released over the years, most recently the CRJ1000 for up to 104 passengers.
The CRJ was the first western series of aircraft in the small regional jet market and is being built at the Bombardier plant at Montreal-Mirabel Airport, northwest of Montreal . Its main competitors on the world market are the Embraer EMB-145 and the Embraer E-Jets , other comparable models are the Suchoi Superjet and the Mitsubishi SpaceJet . The entire aircraft program will be taken over by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and will be discontinued as it is in very poor condition.
As early as 1981 Canadair - at the time not yet part of the Bombardier Group - checked whether the Challenger 600 business jet could form the basis for a 24-seat passenger aircraft with a 2 + 2 seat arrangement. Because of the large cross-section of the fuselage of the Challenger, an extension could be carried out without great difficulty. However, the plan for this aircraft type, baptized Challenger 610E, failed due to a lack of interest from the airlines and was abandoned in the same year. In 1987 the plans were taken up again at the express request of the later first customer Lufthansa . The concept based on the Challenger 601 now envisaged a much larger aircraft for around 50 passengers. The program started on March 31, 1989. The first flight of the prototype took place on May 10, 1991, the approval followed on July 31, 1992 and the first delivery finally in October of the same year.
Until Embraer brought out a similar but much cheaper type of aircraft with the Embraer ERJ-145 family , Bombardier had a de facto monopoly with the CRJ. Another competing product is the Suchoi Superjet 100 , which has been mass-produced since 2010 . On June 5, 2019, Bombardier announced that it would be in negotiations with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries to sell the CRJ program, which has been in loss for a long time. At the end of June 2019 it was announced that the negotiations had been successful and that Mitsubishi would not continue production itself after the sale, but would only have the remaining 51 ordered CRJ 900s manufactured by Bombardier. The purchase price for the program was $ 550 million, but there are also $ 200 million in liabilities .
After the CSeries and the DHC-8 program are no longer manufactured by Bombardier, the only thing left to the group is the business jet division with the Bombardier Global family and the Challenger jets.
Differences to the Bombardier Challenger 600
The main differences to the Challenger business jet are an elongated fuselage, newly developed wings that have been adapted to the conditions of scheduled flights by airlines, a higher take-off weight, an EFIS cockpit, a new landing gear, a higher tank capacity and more powerful General Electric CF-34 engines .
The two-man cockpit is equipped with the "Pro Line 4" avionics package from Rockwell Collins , which includes six screens for EFIS / EICAS , one or two FMS4200 flight management systems , a redundant inertial navigation system ( dual attitude heading reference systems AHRS or two Inertial Reference Systems IRS ), a collision warning system TCAS and a digital weather radar. A Head-Up Guidance System, also manufactured by Rockwell Collins, is optionally available, with which bad weather approaches up to operating level CAT IIIa can be carried out.
The first aircraft type of the CRJ series was the CRJ100, with which up to 50 passengers could be transported over a maximum of 980 NM (1815 km). The two General Electric - CF 34-3A1 -Triebwerke have a maximum take-off thrust of 38.83 kN (8729 lbs ) of up to a maximum ambient temperature of 30 ° C ( flat rated can be given load limit). The engines allow a maximum cruising speed of Mach 0.81 (860 km / h).
The first customer was Lufthansa CityLine . A total of 226 orders have been received for the CRJ100. With the appearance of the CRJ200 the production was stopped.
Sample designation of the CRJ100 according to the EASA identification sheet (TCDS) is CL-600-2B19.
The CRJ200 series is a further development of the CRJ100. The capacity of 50 passengers remained the same. Main difference from the CRJ100 are the General Electric - CF 34-3B1 -Triebwerke. Compared to the previous turbine, they have better internal cooling and allow longer ranges.
The CRJ200 is available in two versions: the CRJ200ER ( Extended Range ) has a range of 1345 NM (2491 km), the long-range version CRJ200LR ( Long Range ) even 1700 NM (3148 km). There is now a transport version of the CRJ200 designed for long distances and low freight capacity, the CRJ200PF ( Package Freighter ). This type of aircraft competes with the Boeing 737F .
On October 30, 2005, Bombardier announced that it would - at least temporarily - cease production of the CRJ200 from mid-January 2006. According to Bombardier, airlines are now leaning towards larger aircraft due to rising passenger numbers and lower revenues. So far, 709 CRJ200 machines have been manufactured. (As of June 2018)
Sample designation of the CRJ200 according to the EASA data sheet (TCDS) is CL-600-2B19. CRJ 100 is a CL-600-2B19 with CF34-3A1 engines, CRJ 200 is a CL-600-2B19 with CF34-3B1 engines.
The CRJ440 is a version of the CRJ200 with a reduced take-off weight for 40 to 44 passengers. The aircraft was built with 86 copies only for Northwest Airlines .
Sample designation of the CRJ440 according to the EASA data sheet (TCDS) is CL-600-2B19.
The CRJ700 (also known as the CRJ701 or CRJ700 Series 701 since the introduction of the CRJ705) can carry up to 75 passengers over a distance of up to 3763 km. Two General Electric CF-34-8C1 are used as drive . The first flight of the CRJ700 took place on May 27, 1999, and it entered service in 2001.
A large number of design changes had to be made for the CRJ700, such as the shape of the winglets and the height of the landing gear. The cabin floor has been lowered slightly to increase the standing height to 1.89 m. The cabin was stretched and the wing enlarged accordingly. Slats were attached to the leading edges of the wings to improve aerodynamic performance in slow flight.
Sample designation of the CRJ700 according to the EASA data sheet (TCDS) is CL-600-2C10.
On February 6, 2019, Bombardier announced the development of the CRJ550 with 50 seats based on the CRJ700. The customer is United Airlines with 50 aircraft on order. The aim is to circumvent the scope clauses widespread on the North American market . With these scope clauses, major US airlines have committed themselves to the pilot unions to outsource only a limited number of aircraft (for example) in the range of 50 to 75 seats to subcontractors. The CRJ550 will have 10 seats in 1st class, 20 seats in Economy Plus and only 20 seats in Economy. The lower income from the reduced number of seats is to be offset by the increased number of 1st class seats. After the sale of the CRJ program to Mitsubishi, the Japanese company does not want to continue manufacturing the version.
The CRJ900 version can transport up to 90 passengers over a distance of up to 3660 km. Two General Electric CF34-8C51 are used as the drive . The CRJ900 had its maiden flight on February 21, 2001. In addition to the basic version of this machine, variants with increased range (CRJ900ER and CRJ900LR) and a version for Europe with reduced take-off mass are also available. After the type's initial difficulties in selling, the model is now very popular following a large order from Lufthansa , as its operating costs are lower than those of the competing Embraer 190 . In mid-2008 there were over 215 orders and over 100 aircraft were already in service.
In May 2007, Bombardier announced the "NextGen" version of the CRJ900. The first machine was delivered in June 2007. Among other things, this will have a new interior with larger windows, LED lighting and larger luggage racks. Maintenance costs are lower and fuel consumption is reduced by 4%. The improvements of the CRJ900 NextGen were then also adopted in the CRJ700 (from 2008) and CRJ1000 (from 2009) series.
Sample designation of the CRJ900 according to the EASA data sheet (TCDS) is CL-600-2D24.
The CRJ705 (also referred to as CRJ700 Series 705) is a variant of the CRJ900 with space for only 75 passengers in order to enable multi-class seating and to comply with the Scope Clauses common in the USA . There is a variant of the CRJ705 with an increased range (705ER). The first customer Air Canada Jazz started regular operations with the aircraft in May 2005. 16 aircraft had been ordered and delivered by June 2018.
Sample designation of the CRJ705 according to the EASA data sheet (TCDS) is CL-600-2D15.
In the second quarter of 2006, Bombardier published plans for a further extension (central fuselage extended by 2.95 meters) of the original CRJ100 cell under the temporary designation CRJ900X, as the Bombardier CSeries concept intended for this market segment initially did not have the expected market success and was scaled back. On February 19, 2007 it was officially announced that the project would be built as the CRJ1000; At this time, according to Bombardier, there were 38 firm orders and 23 options for the new CRJ variant. The firm orders included 15 converted CRJ900 orders from the Italian myair . The CRJ1000, with list prices starting at approximately US $ 46 million, has a maximum capacity of 104 passengers.
The first flight, which lasted more than three hours, took place on September 3, 2008 from the Bombardier factory airport in Mirabel (Quebec) ; the first deliveries were initially planned for the fourth quarter of 2009. In order to counteract the “tube feeling” often criticized in the CRJ900 in the now almost 24 m long cabin, the windows were enlarged by 5 cm. In the cockpit improved are avionics components installed (for example ProLine 21). In addition, compared to the CRJ900, this variant has a reinforced main landing gear with carbon brake discs, more luggage space, improved air conditioning with more even temperature distribution, rudders that can be controlled by fly-by-wire and reinforced and enlarged wings (+7.5% wing area). LED lighting, larger storage compartments and indentations in the side paneling on the windows should improve passenger comfort. In addition to the standard variant and the extended range version (ER), a EuroLite version (EL) with a lower take-off mass and range (which is supposed to save landing fees) and a CRJ1025 with a higher operating mass are also available.
Due to software problems in controlling the rudder with the fly-by-wire system supplied by Liebherr- Aerospace Lindenberg GmbH, EASA approval was delayed to November 10, 2010. On December 15, 2010 the first two units were delivered to Brit Air and Air Nostrum at Montreal-Mirabel Airport .
Sample designation of the CRJ1000 according to the EASA data sheet (TCDS) is CL-600-2E25.
The Challenger 800 series includes the CRJ200, 700 and 900 business jet variants, the Challenger 850 (CRJ200), 870 (CRJ700) and 890 (CRJ900). It is not yet known whether a version of the CRJ1000 will be offered as such.
The Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet was the first aircraft of its kind. As a "trendsetter" and initially the only aircraft in this segment in the West, the 50-seat variants were able to achieve great sales successes. 77% of all CRJs went to airlines from the United States, 17% to European airlines. Delta Air Lines operates the largest fleets of the CRJ100 / 200/440 with 142 aircraft; SkyWest has the largest CRJ700 / 900 fleet with 72 aircraft. Lufthansa was the first customer of the CRJ program . By December 2016, 1902 Bombardier Canadair Regional Jets had been ordered and delivered in 1850.
Up to and including May 2020 there were 23 total losses with Bombardier Regional Jets. 167 people were killed in 10 of them. Examples:
- On July 26, 1993, a CRJ100 ( aircraft registration number C-FCRJ ) had an accident on a Bombardier test flight that had taken off from Wichita Airport . During a side glide flight , the crew lost control of the machine. The plane crashed at Byers , killing all three occupants (see also Bombardier Aerospace Flight 388 ) .
- On June 22, 2003, a Bombardier CRJ100 of Brit Air (F-GRJS) operated on behalf of Air France and coming from Nantes crashed while approaching the Aéroport Brest-Bretagne too low . The machine crashed into a field 2.3 kilometers from the runway and caught fire. The captain of the machine was killed and the 23 other people on board were rescued (see also Air France flight 5672 ) .
- On 14 October 2004, there was the flight of the US-based Northwest Airlines as a Northwest Airlink operated CRJ200 of Pinnacle Airlines (N8396A) of Little Rock, Arkansas, to Minneapolis, Minnesota to a flameout in both engines. When the machine crashed, the captain and the copilot were killed. According to the results of the NTSB investigation, the main reason for this was the lack of professionalism on the part of the crew, who were responsible for the explosion themselves and who only declared an air emergency 16 minutes after the incident (see also Pinnacle Airlines flight 3701 ) .
- On November 21, 2004, shortly after taking off from Baotou ( Inner Mongolia ), a China Eastern aircraft of the type CRJ200ER (Reg. B-3072, serial number 7697) crashed on a frozen lake on the way to Shanghai . Just before the impact, the jet rammed another small building. All 53 inmates and two people on the ground were killed. Despite the formation of ice on the wings, the machine was not de-iced before take-off and so after take-off it fell through a stall from the sky.
- On August 27, 2006, a CRJ100 from the US Comair in Lexington (Kentucky) collided with obstacles behind the end of the runway while taking off. The machine was used for Delta Connection, a brand of Delta Air Lines . 49 people were killed; one inmate survived. The accident happened because the pilots were using the wrong runway due to construction work on a taxiway, which was only half as long as the runway cleared by the tower (see also Comair flight 5191 ) .
- On February 14, 2008, a CRJ100 operated by Belavia Belarusian Airlines (EW-101PJ) overturned while taking off from Yerevan Airport in the Armenian capital. All 18 passengers and 3 crew members on board survived, but some were seriously injured. The cause of the accident was loss of lift due to the wings contaminated with frost. In addition, the pilots failed to switch on the de-icing system for the wings , which might have prevented the accident.
- On November 12, 2009 the crew of a CRJ100 of the Rwandan RwandAir (5Y-JLD) reported technical problems after taking off from Kigali airport in the direction of Entebbe and asked to return to the airport. The aircraft landed safely and reached its assigned parking position. The master reported that the power of the engines could not be throttled and that they continued to operate at full power, whereupon the engine started moving again, accelerated, broke through some fences and a little later collided with a building. Of the ten passengers and three crew members, one passenger did not survive the accident. The aircraft suffered severe structural damage and had to be written off (see also RwandAir flight 205 ) .
- On April 4, 2011, a Georgian Airways (4L-GAE) CRJ100 , which was traveling on behalf of the United Nations , crashed while approaching Ndjili Airport in Kinshasa , killing 32 of the 33 people on board. The plane took off from the eastern Congolese city of Kisangani .
- On the night of July 17, 2012, the Bombardier CRJ200 was N865AS the US SkyWest Airlines at airport St. George ( Utah stolen, USA). The plane collided with the airport terminal and the thief subsequently shot himself. The aircraft was so badly damaged in the collision that it was written off.
- On January 29, 2013, a CRJ200 belonging to the Kazakh company SCAT crashed for unknown reasons while approaching Almaty Airport . All 21 occupants (16 passengers and 5 crew members) were killed (see also SCAT flight 760 ) .
- On January 8, 2016, a West Air Sweden (SE-DUX) CRJ200-PF crashed near Ritsem in northern Sweden . The two pilots of the mail machine were killed in the accident. During the evaluation of the data recorder, several implausible parameters were identified, attributable to a malfunction of one of the redundant inertial measuring devices and the lack of regulations for such a case for the crews (see also West Air Sweden flight 294 ) .
All CRJ have the same fuselage cross-section, offering a maximum fuselage diameter of 2.69 m, a maximum cabin width of 2.57 m (2.13 m at floor level) and a maximum cabin height of 1.89 m.
|length||26.77 m||32.51 m||36.40 m||39.13 m|
|span||21.23 m||23.24 m||24.85 m||26.18 m|
|height||6.22 m||7.57 m||7.51 m||7.13 m|
|Empty mass||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.||21,432 kg||23,179 kg|
|Max. Takeoff mass||23,134 kg (ER)
24,041 kg (LR)
34,133 kg (ER)
37,421 kg (ER)
38,330 kg (LR)
|38,995 kg (EL)
41,640 kg (ER)
|Max. Seating capacity||50||70||90||104|
|Cruising speed||830 km / h||870 km / h||885 km / h||882 km / h||870 km / h|
(with max. Payload)
|1,850 km||2,491 km (ER)
3,148 km (LR)
2,553 km (ER)
3,635 km (ER)
3,702 km (LR)
2,439 km (ER)
2,876 km (LR)
|1,798 km (EL)
3,004 km (ER)
|Service ceiling||12,496 m|
|drive||two General Electric CF34-3A1s
each with 38.83 kN thrust
|two General Electric CF34-3B1
with 38.83 kN thrust each
|two General Electric CF34-8C1
with 56.4 kN thrust each
|two General Electric CF34-8C5
with 58.4 kN thrust each
|two General Electric CF34-8C51
with 58.4 kN thrust each
|two General Electric CF34-8C5A2
with 60.63 kN thrust each
- Commercial Aircraft Status Reports at www.bombardier.com , accessed April 12, 2017.
- Timo Nowack: Mitsubishi buries the Canadair Regional Jet. In: Aerotelegraph. June 25, 2019, accessed on June 27, 2019 : “Mitsubishi is only taking over“ maintenance, support, new equipment, marketing and sales ”from the CRJ program, as Bombardier reports. This includes plants in Montréal and Toronto as well as service centers in the US cities of Bridgeport and Tucson. "
- Timo Nowack: Will Mitsubishi buy the CRJ program from Bombardier? In: aeroTELEGRAPH. June 5, 2019, accessed June 6, 2019 .
- EASA: TCDS ( Memento of the original dated November 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 201 kB) As of November 9, 2013
- Bombardier Press Release, February 6, 2019: Bombardier Launches New Innovative 50-Seater Aircraft
- Aero Telegraph, February 6, 2019: Bombardier builds new regional aircraft
- Bombardier Press Release, February 6, 2019: Bombardier Launches New Innovative 50-Seater Aircraft
- Aero Telegraph, February 6, 2019: Bombardier builds new regional aircraft
- Adaptable, Modular Interior. Bombardier Commercial Aircraft, accessed July 18, 2014 .
- Aerospace Technology: CRJ900
- flightglobal: "Bombardier CRJ1000 takes first flight" (September 3, 2008)
- Flight International: "Bombardier launches CRJ900 stretch" (February 19, 2007)
- CRJ900X plans start to crystalize. Flight International, June 27, 2006, archived from the original on December 31, 2007 ; accessed on May 15, 2015 .
- FlugRevue November 2008, pp. 32–34, The little giant flies - Bombardier CRJ1000 in flight tests
- FlugRevue January 2011, p. 14, approval for CRJ1000
- Bombardier delivers the first CRJ1000. airliners.de, December 15, 2010, accessed February 7, 2011 .
- Accident statistics Bombardier CRJ , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on February 25, 2019.
- Accident report CRJ100, C-FCRJ Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on February 25, 2019.
- Accident report CRJ100, F-GRJS Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on February 25, 2019.
- accident report CRJ200 N8396A , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on 23 October of 2019.
- Accident report CRJ200 B-3072 , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on October 23, 2019.
- Accident report CRJ100 N431CA , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on August 9, 2020.
- accident report CRJ100 EW-101PJ , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on June 9 2020th
- All 21 passengers survive plane crash in Armenia. NZZ , February 14, 2008.
- Accident report CRJ100 5Y-JLD , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on October 23, 2019.
- Accident report CRJ100 4L-GAE , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on November 12, 2017.
- The Aviation Herald - Crash: Georgian Airways CRJ1 at Kinshasa on Apr 4th 2011, missed the runway and broke up , accessed on August 25, 2015
- accident report CRJ200, N865AS Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on 25 February of 2019.
- 21 people die in a plane crash in Kazakhstan. Retrieved January 30, 2013 .
- Accident report CRJ200 SE-DUX, Aviation Safety Network (English) , accessed on January 8, 2016.