Letter forms and greetings in the Spanish language

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The greeting , Spanish fórmula de saludo , is a written form of address , salutación , which is common as a greeting , fórmula de salutación at the beginning of the letter and as a closing formula , fórmula de despedida at the end of the letter. They often appear as codified or standardized politeness formulas in the various forms of correspondence .

A letter in the classic sense is a letter with a message recorded on paper , which is usually delivered by a messenger ( postal history of Spain ) and contains a personal message intended for the recipient. The choice of linguistic means depends on the type of text . Depending on the type of text, the rules for drafting are also available in the form of sets of rules. This is the case with the letter, carta, which represents a letter and contains a message that is often recorded on paper. But even when writing an e-mail , correo electrónico - it stands for "electronic mail" or "E-mail" on the one hand a system for computerized management of letter-like messages and their transmission over computer networks , in particular via the Internet set before - place a formulaic, ritualized or conventionalized greeting , saludo .

As Ars dictandi ( Latin ars dictandi "Art of Writing" ), were referred to in the Middle Ages, the ability of a writer, letters and certificates ( Litterae ) prepare. The art of writing also had a long tradition in Spain, so Juan Gil de Zámora represents one of its representatives with his work “Ars dictandi ,ertrado retórico”.

Last letter from the Chilean general and Latin American national hero José Miguel Carrera to his wife Mercedes Fontecilla Valdivieso (1799–1853) before he was shot .


A letter, carta, can be seen in the ' sender-receiver model ' according to Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver as the channel or means of communication in interpersonal communication. The letter is a cultural product that has the overcoming of illiteracy as a prerequisite and that takes the development of the written language as a basis and requires specific logistics . Its use as a communicative medium requires writing and reading skills (for example as writing , at least glyphs in a visual-graphic perception in the sense of writing , reading or the use of writing materials and writing media ( history of writing media )). A letter must also be distinguished from an epistle , a document and a general letter.

' Transmitter-receiver model ' according to Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver with seven communication elements. The letter , carta ( means of communication ) or the channel (“green dot”) are used for the written language in the communication process. fuente de información source of information ; transmisor transmitter ; señal signal ; señal recibida received signal; receptor receiver; destinatario addressee ; fuente de ruido source of interference

In order to reach the recipient and to locate him / her in the communication process, the place and day or year ( date ) of the writing of the letter, a salutation , the actual text and a closing formula to define the end of the communication process are usually given . The envelope usually contains information about the sender, the recipient's address and, if sent, a postage paid .

Generally speaking, letters represent a certain type of text, i.e. a group (see genre ) of texts that are written, but also verbally, characterized by a certain number of characteristics. With "text type" a central concept of text linguistics is recorded and scientifically investigated.

Form of address

Salutation in social interaction

The contemporary general form of address for a woman is Señora, abbreviated “Sra”, the plural is Señoras “Sras.”, For the man Señor is abbreviated to Sr. , the plural Señores , abbreviated to Sres. One speaks the woman with Señora plus first surname , the man likewise, i.e. Señor plus first surname . It should be explained that a Spanish personal name consists of one or more first names , nombre or nombre de pila and usually two surnames , apellidos . The Spanish surname , el apellido , is made up of two parts, which are combined without a hyphen but (occasionally) with the conjunction y (“and”). Especially in the nobility , a y is placed between the first and second part of the surname , for example "Jaime de Marichalar y Sáenz de Tejada" is the son of Mr. de Marichalar y Bruguera and Mrs. Sáenz de Tejada y Fernández de Bobadilla.

The first surname, apellido primero is that of the father and the second surname, apellido segundo is that of the maternal family side . - example:

  • Juana Inés Sánchez y González is the female name, the salutation is Sr. a Sánchez
  • Silvio Antonio José Báez y Ortega is the male name, the salutation is Sr. Báez

If Sr. a Sánchez now marries "Silvio Antonio José Báez y Ortega", Ms. Sánchez can register as Juana Inés Báez y Sánchez in the registry office , registro civil . She is named “Sr. a de Báez ”or“ Sr. a Báez Sánchez ”.

The prefix Don or Doña represents an expression of respect . "Don" and "usted" are used together with the first name. This usage is considered more respectful and polite than "Señor plus first surname". For the use of "Don or Doña" it is difficult to give precise rules for use. The salutation Señorita is generally considered antiquated, comparable to the German Fräulein . The male form "Señorito" shows even more derogatory connotations , it stands for a young man from a privileged environment or family.


A postal address , dirección de correo o postal, identifies the destination in the form of an address to which a mail item , envío postal (letter, carta , postcard , tarjeta postal etc.) is sent. This can either be a PO box , apartado de correos o postal or a physical address, dirección with a mailbox , buzón de correo .

Standard address format in Spain:

  • Sr.ª Juana Limpeza y Tetino Name of the recipient, company or person
  • Av. Galileo de locura 99 street, place and house number,
  • Colonia Espinoso city, or neighborhood to a village, settlement,
  • CP 13400 Bolivia, DF postcode, código postal and country

Some abbreviations:

  • apdo. or aptdo. apartado de correos mailbox
  • Av. or Avda. avenida avenue
  • c / calle street
  • crta. carretera country road
  • P / or P o paseo avenue
  • Pl. Or Pza. plaza square
  • Rbla. rambla
  • s / n o sin numero without a number.

Subject line , asunto o referencia , begins with the word "asunto"; it can be written in bold .

  • Asunto : petición de catálogo, precios y condiciones.

- example:

                           Juan de Zapallo y Tacaño
                           C/Av. de Carlos Haya 12, (1º dcha.)
                           29002 Málaga, Málaga
Anschriftsdaten des Absenders, remitente, oben rechts im Brief
                           San Antonio, 1 de mayo de 2011
darunter rechtsseitig das Datum
Sr. Alfonso Alarcon
Terra Diseño y Construcción de Exteriores y Jardines
C/Hospicio 37, Centro.
San Miguel Allende, Guanajuato.
37700 Mexico
Empfängeranschrift, destinatario  

Asunto: Solicitud de oferta
Estimados señores:
Grußformel, fórmula de salutación mit Doppelpunkt
Brieftext mit großem Buchstaben beginnen
Esperando su respuesta se despide atentamente,
Juan de Zapallo y Tacaño
Unterschrift, firma

Lettering design

In a Spanish (letter) letter is the date , fecha listed on the right side at a sufficient distance to the noted on the left side address of the person or company to which the letter is addressed. Above the date, also on the right-hand side, i.e. first and foremost, there is the sender ( letterhead ). The numbers are never given a point . The names of the months written out are in lower case. For abbreviations, abreviatura of the month names, however, they are capitalized.

The correct spelling is:

  • 23 de mayo de 1912
  • Verdún, 27 de Nov. de 1916

The business letters, cartas formales mostly have a similar structure:

  • Place and date, lugar y fecha they show where and when the person writing is
  • Name of the recipient, nombre del destinatario
  • Subject line, asunto
  • Greeting, saludo
  • Letter body or text, cuerpo de la carta
  • Closing formula , despedida
  • Signature, company

Common abbreviations etc.

The reference number line, línea de referencia, is intended to provide orientation for the recipient of the letter in the business letter; it contains important information and details relating to the current and therefore chronological correspondence, such as reference numbers, file numbers, dates, the name of the clerk or telephone numbers, etc. The following entries are made in the top left under the letterhead in the letter:

  • s / ref. su referencia your reference or your symbol
  • n / ref. nuestra referencia our reference or our mark

With s / ref. the reference number of the recipient is picked up, so that the author of the letter now includes in his reply if the letter action was based on this. The n / ref. consists of the initials / abbreviations of the author or the letter writer and a cipher , file number or gives departments, process numbers , número de registro to which are important for the internal data storage and file history.

Below the reference line is the subject, asunto of the letter. It is written on the left under the reference symbol line.

Start of the letter, beginnings of the letter

A greeting fórmula de salutación (en una comunicación escrita) is an often fixed phrase that is placed at the beginning of the letter or e-mail. The perception of the social context also leads to the selection of the linguistic means used; to select the linguistic context . The written salutation, salutación, is followed by a colon , dos puntos so that the following letter text begins with a capital letter . Written salutations are written in lower case and abbreviated ones in upper case. When addressing the letter personally, the title is omitted from the name in Spanish . This is because in Spain academic titles , título académico, are not part of the family name , as in Germany . On the other hand, are in the Spanish-speaking regions regiones hispanohablantes Latin America , the University title as licenciado, -a so Magister , Diploma , diplomado, -a or Doctor , doctor, -a rather used, but mostly in the abbreviated notation.

Familiar, familiar setting

Informal greetings, saludos informales :

  • ¡Hola (nombre) !: Hello (name)
  • Mi querida Juana ...: My dear Juana
  • Queridísimo, -a (Juan / Juana) ...: Beloved, -e (Juan / Juana)
  • Mi querido, -a (Juan / Juana) ...: My beloved, -a
  • Estimada amiga: Dear friend (a little more formal)
  • Estimado amigo ...: Dear friend (somewhat more formal)
  • Muy estimada señora ...: My esteemed wife
  • Muy distinguida Sr.ª y amiga ...:
  • Querida Juana:
  • Querido amigo mío ...:
  • Mi más querido amigo ...:
  • Mi estimado amigo ...:

Often used formal greetings in e-mails, correos electrónicos : Informal greetings, saludos informales :

  • Hola

Formal setting

Formal greetings, saludos formales :

  • Señor, -es ...: salutation for a man, abbreviated Sr. or superscript S r .; in the plural: Señores, abbreviated Sres., form of address for a woman, abbreviated Sra. or superscript Sr.ª, plural: Señoras, abbreviated as Sras.
  • Distinguido / -s // - a / -as señor / señores // señora / señoras ...: Dear Sir, Madam
  • Muy señora mía ...: My (dear) wife,
  • Muy señor mío ...: My (dear) Lord,
  • Muy señor nuestro y amigo ...: Dear Sir and Friend
  • Me dirijo ...: I turn to you
  • Señor Presidente, me dirijo a usted Mr President, I am addressing you
  • Estimado señor Alejandro de Humboldt: Dear Mr. Alexander von Humboldt,
  • Estimados señores y señoras: Dear Sir or Madam,
  • Notable señor / a, Notables Señores / as ...:
  • Apreciado Sr. Pérez y Robles: Dear Mr. Pérez y Robles,
  • Buenos días (nombre) Good afternoon Mr / Ms (name)

Frequently used formal greetings in emails, correos electrónicos : Formal greetings, saludos formales :

  • Estimado Sr. o Sra .:
  • Estimado Señor o Señora:

Addressing social elites

When elites is from a sociological perspective to groups (actual or alleged) above average qualified persons, such as functional elites , power elites or ruling or influential circles, so-called power elites or economic elites in a society . If it is about the nobility , who stand for a “socially exclusive group with social priority”, exercise political rule and this is usually handed down within the family, traditionally appropriate forms of address are chosen, tattamientos protocolarios de la monarquía y la nobleza .

  • Vuestra Majestad Your Majesty
  • Su Alteza Real Her Royal Highness (Prince)
  • Excelentísimo Señor o Su Excelencia His Excellency or Your Excellency
  • Su Alteza Serenísima Her Royal Highness (Princess)
  • Ilustrísimo Señor o Su Ilustrísima Distinguished Lord or Lady
  • Vuestra Merced Your Grace

In the Roman Catholic and Protestant context:

  • Su Santidad His Holiness, salutation for the Pope
  • Al Santo Padre o Al Santísimo Padre your Holy Father, salutation for the Pope
  • Eminentísimo y Reverendísimo Salutation for cardinals
  • Excelentísimo y Reverendísimo Salutation for archbishops
  • Reverendo Padre Your Honor, Salutation Dept.
  • Reverenda Madre your venerable, abbess
  • Reverendo pastor
  • Reverenda Mrs. Pastor
  • Diácono deacon
  • Hermana religious sister

End of letter, letter closings

The choice of letter-circuit, fórmula de despedida depends on how close to the addressees, that is how confidential the handling , modal is another. It applies, especially in formal letters, for example in business letters , carta formal that the more extensive and longer the sentence constructions, the more politely you look at them. There is the closing formula of the letter from a complete set , it ends with a point . However, if the end only consists of a formulation that does not represent a whole sentence, the closing formula ends with a comma .

Familiar handling

Informal letter formulas, despedidas informales
  • Abrazos. hug
  • Un fuerte abrazo. A big hug
  • Un abrazo muy fuerte, a very strong hug
  • Un atento saludo ..., A polite greeting ...
  • Cariñosos saludos Kind regards
Familial closing messages, despedidas familiares
  • Besos. Kisses
  • Un beso. A kiss
  • Muchos besos. Many kisses
  • Besos y abrazos kisses and hugs
  • Un abrazo muy fuerte. A big hug
  • Con un abrazo fuerte. With a big hug
  • ¡Escríbeme pronto de nuevo! Write to me again soon!
  • ¡Hasta pronto! See you soon!
  • ¡Que vaya bien! May you be well!
  • Saludos muy cordiales,
  • Muchos recuerdos a todos. Many greetings to all.
  • Saludos afectuosos. Best Regards.
  • Te recuerda siempre:
  • Un abrazo
  • Mis mejores deseos
  • Te echo de menos
  • Affectuosamente Sincerely
  • Con todo mi cariño With all my love
  • Con todo mi afecto With all my cordiality

Formal handling

Formal closing formula , despedidas formal
  • Breaths,
  • Cordialmente,
  • Cordial saludo señor ..
  • Sinceramente suyo Sincerely, Yours
  • Saludos cordiales de ...,
  • ... con los mejores saludos
  • ... con gracias anticipadas les saluda atentamente
  • ... con un atento saludo
  • Les saluda atentamente,
  • Atentamente les saluda,
  • Con cariño de ...
  • Reiteramos nuestros más cordiales saludos ... We reaffirm our warmest greetings ...
  • Aprovechamos este motivo para saludarle muy atentamente ... We take this opportunity to greet you sincerely ...
  • Respetuosamente, Respectfully,
  • Atentaments, attentive in the sense of: With best regards
  • Un (cordial) saludo
  • Se despide atentamente
  • Agradeciendo de antemano su atención
  • Sin otro particular
  • Quedo a la espera de sus noticias.
  • Quedo a la espera de tu / su respuesta.
Very formal, sometimes antiquated letters, despedidas formales anticuadas
  • Suyo af mo qbsm (que besa su mano)
  • Suyo af mo qbsp (que besa su pies)
  • Soy siempre de Vd. af mo sss (su seguro servidor) I am always the most devoted of you, your humble servant
  • Quedo sssqbsm Esteban Gordillo y Sánchez. I remain respectfully kisses your hands Esteban Gordillo y Sánchez.
  • Sss qbsm Josefina Vázquez y Mota Your humble servant respectfully kisses her hands Josefina Vázquez y Mota
  • ss seguro servidor your sure servant
  • qDg que Dios guarde may God protect
  • blm besa la mano it kisses her hand
  • blp besa los pies it kisses her feet
  • cmb cuya mano beso he kisses her hand
  • qesm que estrecha su mano who reaches out to you
  • Criado de Vuestra Excelencia Servant of Your Excellency
  • ¡Muy amado Señor tio! (...) humildísimo y obligadísimo servidor y sobrino QSMB

- example:

Querido amigo Alvaro:
Tenga Vd. la amabilidad de venir a vernos pasado mañana por la tarde.
Ruego a Vd. que dé nuestras mas afectuosas expresiones a sus hermanas.
Su afma. am ga. q.e.s.m.
su afectísima amiga que besa su mano
Joselita Gómez y Ortega
On behalf

If the abbreviations PP por orden or PA por autorización appear in front of a signature, firma , this indicates that the signatory is authorized to sign the textually reproduced matter on behalf of someone else.

Messages transmitted electronically

The e-mails , correos electrónicos are realized via network services , servicios de red . Commonly used formal closing formulas in emails are:

  • Atentaments:
  • Le saluda cordialmente:
  • Respetuosamente:
  • Saludos:

Formula starts and ends of letters

Beginnings of letters

Although the beginnings of letters ( prescript vs. postscript ) are not greetings in the strict sense, the beginnings of letters often contain stereotypical phrases and thus take on the character of a subsequent "greeting".

  • Con relación a ... Referring to ...
  • En referencia a ... In relation to (reference) to ...
  • Le escribimos en referencia a ... we write to you in relation to ...
  • Le escribo en nombre de ... I am writing to you on behalf of ...
  • Nos dirigimos a usted en referencia a ... We address you with reference to ...
  • Déle mis saludos a ... Give my regards ...
  • Con la mayor brevedad posible nos envía ... Send us as soon as possible ...
  • Esperando su respuesta ... waiting for your answer ...
  • Con las muestras más sinceras de consideración y respeto, me despido de usted, atentamente ... With the most sincere proof of esteem and respect, I bid you farewell, respectfully ...
  • Me suscribo de usted con consideración y respeto ... I sign with you with respect and respect ...

Closing formulas

  • Le agradecemos de antemano ... Thank you in advance ...
  • Dispongan Vds. en cuanto gusten de sss (su seguro servidor) ... dispose of your humble servant as you please
  • Con el mayor afecto,
  • Con mis mejores deseos, se despide atentamente,
  • Con nuestros mejores deseos, tanto en el terreno personal como en el profesional se despide atentamente,
  • Con un cordial saludo,
  • En espera de sus gratas noticias, reciba un cordial saludo,
  • En espera de su respuesta, les saluda atentamente,
  • Les saluda atentamente,
  • Muy afectuosamente,
  • Muy atentamente,
  • Reciba un atento saludo,
  • Reciba un cordial saludo,
  • Quedando a su entera disposición,
  • Saludos afectuosos,
  • Sin otro particular, se despide atentamente,
  • En atención o en respuesta a su nota, le informo que ...
  • Me complace informarle que ... I am pleased to inform you that ...
  • Agradeceré su apoyo. I thank you for your help . Thanks for your support.
  • Te deseo un lindo día
  • Espero todo se haya entendido
  • Gracias por la generosidad de sus respuestas. Thank you for the generosity of your answers.


Pet names , motes o nombres cariñosos are mostly used among people who are in a closer relationship (such as lovers , married couples or parents , friends and children ) in order to express a special appreciation for the relationships. They are also used as components of greeting formulas.

  • mi amor my love
  • amorcito sweetheart
  • mi corazón my heart
  • cariño lover, darling
  • tesoro sweetheart
  • mi cielo my heaven

Application letter, cover letter

With an application , solicitud is mostly meant a textual offer of a job seeker to an employer in the economy , public service or to a private person to establish a future employment or training relationship , whereby the power relationships are presented in this interaction insofar as it is This is a multi-sided (exchange) relationship in which the employer exercises the stronger starting or negotiating position (e.g. through the available possibility of influencing through reward , preference or ultimately remuneration ) and which is accepted by the other side. In Spain , applications consist of two parts: the cover letter and a résumé.

Cover letter

The cover letter, carta de candidatura or carta de presentación o carta de solicitud, should in particular contain information on motivation or make this clear and brief. It is not customary to enclose job or internship references. References, réferencias and certificates, certificados should only be enclosed if these are explicitly required in the job advertisement or if you are asked by the employer as an applicant because you are in a further selection process. So not in the usual cover letter. References can be important . Multiple interviews are common in Spain.

For the cover letter, select the text briefly, what is important is the communication of the applicant's knowledge and skills as well as his motivation for the application and his professional goal.

The person addressed can, which is often the case, be addressed personally or written off. The correct salutation is then, for example:

  • Estimado Sr. Ramón Vázquez Rosas
  • Estimada Sra. María Auxiliadora Delgado

A title is not used in the salutation.

If the name of the contact person is unknown, write on:

  • Estimados señores y señoras

Letter closing formulas or greetings are mandatory in a Spanish application letter.

  • Un cordinal saludo de looks familiar and familiar
  • Les saluda atentamente y espera sus prontas noticias emphasizes expectation and impatience
  • Reciba un cordial saludo has a neutral effect

There is the closing formula of a whole sentence, it is to point ended. If it only consists of a phrase that does not represent a whole sentence, the closing phrase ends with a comma . The application letter is handwritten by the sender. It is important that the sender address is placed at the end of the letter, more precisely between the greeting and the signature.

You always write the date on the right side with sufficient space to the address of the sender. Numbers are never given a point. If you write out the name of the month , it is written in lower case, but if you shorten the name of the month, it is written in upper case.

Correct spelling is something like:

  • 9 de julio de 2016
  • Buenos Aires, 27 de Nov. de 1806


The curriculum vitae , currículo u hoja de vida or in handwritten form, currículo escrito a mano should be structured in tabular form and, like the cover letter, kept brief. The curriculum vitae is usually structured chronologically when applying in Spain. It is crucial that the résumé contains all of the following data: A Spanish résumé is roughly divided into:

  • Personal data, Datos personales . These are: first name, nombre de pila , name, apellido address, dirección, telephone number, número de teléfono , email address, dirección electrónica , date of birth, fecha de nacimiento , place of birth, lugar de nacimiento . Marital status , estado civil and number of children.
  • Identity card number of the Documento Nacional de Identidad electrónico (DNIe) and tax number, Número de identificación fiscal
  • Professional goals, objetivos profesionales
  • Previous professional experience, experienca exact times as possible, the names of the workplaces, the functions performed and the area of ​​responsibility;
  • Training, previous knowledge, estudios o formación
  • Practical experience, activities, experiencia laboral
  • Language skills, idiomas
  • Others, such as computer skills, conocimientos informáticos

At the end of the résumé you will find the date and signature.

Appendix, attachments, postscript

If the author of the letter, autor de la carta, would like to refer to the attached annexes or appendixes to anexos , he places them with a blank line spacing from the typewritten repetition of the name of the person signing at the bottom left of the letter under the heading:

  • Anexos:
  • Anexo № 1: detailed plan of construction
  • Anexo № 2: notas legal

Another, marked as such text attachment is the postscript , la posdata and the Nota bene , la nota bene . While the postscript is generally an appendix to a text, it differs from the appendix in that it usually has a more detailed text or sentence . The opposite term the prescript , it stands for a formulaic phrase as an introduction at the beginning of a letter, i.e. before the actual content.

  • PD posdata also PS post scriptum

It is used more often in personal than business correspondence. It is used to add a text message that has been omitted from the letter text or has been detached from the letter content.

  • NB nota bene

With the nota bene, the letter writer intends to emphasize the content already mentioned in the text.

Special letter forms

Doctor's letter

The doctor's letter , carta médica o carta del médico or correctly informe de alta médica also epicrisis , epicrisis is a transfer document for the postal communication between the doctors treated. The doctor's letter is created for the individual treatment case , curso de la enfermedad in the treating facility and begins with the admission, admisión clínica to the facility and ends with the discharge of the patient, carta de alta médica from the clinical-therapeutic facility. First, the identity of the person treated is given, the current reason for the consultation, motivo de consulta médica recorded, the most important results (examinations, diagnoses) about a patient are summarized in order to inform the doctor who is also treating or further treating the measures taken, the previous course and the recommended to communicate further procedures. A doctor's letter can be structured according to a 'funnel principle', principio del embudo, or according to the 'pyramid principle', principio de la pirámide . In contrast to the listing of findings etc., in the second case the most important information is at the beginning and the detailed explanatory findings can be found in the letter below. Concise doctor's letters are particularly important when transmitting data via the Internet ( e-mail ).

The doctor's letter is regulated by law in Spain, in accordance with the “SPAIN statement pursuant to Article 9 of Regulation (EU) No. 883/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of April 29, 2004 on the coordination of social security systems” in the “Law No. 41/2002 of November 14th laying down basic rules of patient autonomy and rights and obligations in relation to medical information and documentation ”, Ley 41/2002, de 14 de noviembre, básica reguladora de la autonomía del paciente y de derechos y obligaciones en materia de información y documentación clínica .

Business letter

Like every letter, based on a given situation, with a written version of the writing intentions ( intentions ) of the author, the intentions in the corresponding special letter forms are more targeted and delimited. A business letter , carta comercial, establishes the postal communication about an economic transaction or a business, transacción financiera . In this written form of communication between business partners, socio de negocios in a business relationship , relación de negocios or between companies and private individuals , transactions and legal content in particular are expressed in writing. For this purpose, business lawyers are also involved , for example for commercial contracts, contrato de agencia , contrato de distribución In a business letter, the sender's letterhead is usually located at the top in the middle of the letter, for example in the case of preprinted letterheads, or it is added to the top left of the letter.

Lawyer letter

The notification by a lawyer, notificación de un abogado, constitutes a legal act by which a court decision is communicated to a person concerned so that he can be empowered to act in court proceedings and can claim the legal means provided by the law.

Telegraphy, telegram

The form of a telegram, telegrama as it was received by the recipient, 1954

A telegram , telegrama is a message transmitted by telegraph , telegrafía , in reduced text form, which is transmitted to a recipient as a printout in paper form by means of acoustic , optical or electrical devices. Telegrams were mostly transmitted by telex .


  • Vera Eck, Carol Vilella: Langenscheidt office correspondence Spanish: sample letters and text modules. Langenscheidt, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-468-29931-1 .
  • Enrique Pastor: PONS Office Communication Spanish: Sample letters, text modules and exercises for every business occasion. Pons, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-12-561879-7 .
  • M. Ramshorn: German-Spanish commercial letter holder. Langenscheidt, Munich oJ (around 1910), reprint: Books on Demand (BoD), Berlin 2013, ISBN 3-8460-2765-0 .
  • Rosa Reija: Langenscheidts sample letters, Spanish Querida Juana ... Muy senor mio ... Langenscheidt, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-468-41941-4 .
  • Werner Stangl: Between authenticity and fiction. The Private Correspondence of Spanish Emigrants from America, 1492–1824. Volume 41: Supplements to the Yearbook for the History of Latin America. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2012, ISBN 978-3-412-20887-5 ( PDF file ).
  • Emilio J. García Wiedemann, Juan Antonio Moya Corral: Las fórmulas de saludo en en E / LE. ASELE Acta IV, 1994 ( PDF file ).
  • Jenny Brumme: Spanish Language in the 19th Century. Linguistic knowledge, norm and language changes.

Web links

Wiktionary: Letter forms and greetings in the Spanish language  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. from Latin brevis libellus , or vulgar Latin breve scriptum (compare also the adjective brevis 'short')
  2. to English [ ˈiːmeɪl ], also with German pronunciation [ ˈiːmeːl ],
  3. ^ Katharina Götz: Securing evidence of communication: lost (papal) letters in late antiquity and Visigothic Spain. In: Thomas Deswarte, Klaus Herbers, Cornelia Scherer (eds.): Early medieval letters. Transmission and transmission (4th-11th centuries). Archive for cultural history, supplement 84, Cologne 2018, pp. 115–128
  4. ^ Karl-Ernst Sommerfeldt , Günter Starke, Dieter Nerius (eds.): Introduction to the grammar and orthography of contemporary German. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1981, p. 23 f.
  5. Gerhard Uhl, Elke Uhl-Vetter: Business etiquette in Europe: appear confident in style, master manners. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 3-658-01030-4 , pp. 143-145
  6. "pp" abbreviated por poder (German ppa per procura )
  7. Submission of a sample biref, Iniversidad del Sagrado Corazón, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
  8. Enrique Pastor: Under Control. Office communication Spanish. Ernst Klett, Stuttgart 2007, p. 18, ISBN 3-12-561164-4
  9. ^ Theodor Heinermann , Francisca Palau-Ribes Casamitjana: Spanish textbook on a scientific basis. 19th edition, Max Hueber, Munich 1952, pp. 352-361
  10. Monika Wienfort: The nobility in the modern age. UTB, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 3-8252-2857-6 , p. 8.
  11. Ira Knabbe: PONS Texts Writing Spanish: Essay, Text Analysis, Summary, Presentation for Upper School and Abitur PONS, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 3-12-517777-4 , p. 78
  12. Cartas de amor. Sample letters. tubreveespacio.com
  13. af mo afectísimo your devoted, respectfully
  14. ^ Theodor Heinermann, Francisca Palau-Ribes Casamitjana: Spanish textbook on a scientific basis. 19th edition, Max Hueber, Munich 1952, p. 111
  15. Nimia Herrera: Capítulo 5: Las fórmulas manoseadas. mailxmail.com
  16. Saez de la Huerta: Spanische Sprachlehre für Teutsche, according to the latest and best sources with the adoption of the orthography sanctioned by the Spanish Academy from 1835. Eduard Ludewig, Gratz 1837, p. 73
  17. Apply in Spain
  18. Dirk Neuhaus, Neuhaus Karsta: working and studying in Spain. ILT-Europa-Verlag, 2004, ISBN 978-3-930627-08-0 .
  19. Stefanie Claudia Müller: Spanish sample CV. karrierebibel.de
  20. Cómo hacer un Curriculum Vitae, Universidad de Alicante Fundación General, gipe.ua.es
  21. Markus Unnewehr, Bernhard Schaaf, Hendrik Friederichs: Doctor's letter: Optimizing communication. Dtsch Arztebl 2013; 110 (37): A-1672 / B-1478 / C-1454
  22. Bailleau N., Arislur G .: El certificado médico. Evid. actual. páct. outpatient 9 (3); 80-83. May-Jun. 2006
  23. Ejemplo de una carta del médico (carta escrita en el papel de membrete del doctor)
  24. D. Lorenz-Struve, Ch. Knopps, S. Schulze, A. Schütze: Medical Spanish. pocket. Börm Bruckmeier, Grünwald 2005, ISBN 978-3-89862-240-0
  25. Joanna Styka: Terminology management for the translation of medical texts using the example of the text type doctor's letter. Master thesis, BA, University of Vienna 2013 ( online at othes.univie.ac.at) here p. 60 f.
  26. Isabel Alarcón González: Manual de documentación clínica. 2002
  27. Thomas Carl Stiller: The doctor's letter connects the sectors. Niedersächsisches Ärzteblatt, 93rd year, April 2020, pp. 19–21
  28. Marcelo Miranda C., Enrique Jadresic M., May Chomali G., Eva Miranda C., Carolina Cáceres: El uso del correo electrónico en la comunicación médico-paciente. The use of e-mail in the communication between physicians and their patients. Rev. méd. Chile vol.141 no.6 Santiago jun. 2013
  29. Ley 41/2002, de 14 de noviembre, básica reguladora de la autonomía del paciente y de derechos y obligaciones en materia de información y documentación clínica
  30. ^ Vera Eck, Carol Vilella: Langenscheidt office correspondence, Spanish: sample letters and text modules. Langenscheidt, Berlin 2001, ISBN 978-3-46829-931-5
  31. Margarita Görrissen, Marianne Häuptle-Barceló: Spanish Occupation for Dummies. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim 2017, ISBN 978-3-527-81508-1 ( excerpt from application.wiley-vch.de)
  32. ^ Notificación. Juicios.cl. Consultado el 17 de octubre de 2014
  33. Notificación entre abogados o procuradores judiciales. Enciclopedia jurídica 2020