Czernin from and to Chudenitz

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Family coat of arms of the Czernin von Chudenitz

Czernin von und zu Chudenitz (Czech Černín z Chudenic ) is the name of an old Bohemian and Austrian noble family .


Old Chudenitz Castle , Bohemia

The original aristocratic family comes from the village of Chudenitz near Klattau and there is evidence that they lived there from 1193 until they were partially expelled and expropriated after the Second World War .

The first written mention of Chudenice was in 1291 as the property of Drslav Czernin von Chudenice. The Czernin von Chudenitz family acquired numerous other goods in West and Central Bohemia and in the 15th and 16th centuries divided into the Chudenitz, Radnitzer , Taschlowitzer and Nedrahowitzer lines, which branched out further over time and their ancestral seat Chudenice without interruption held for 1945. After 1678, the Chudenice estate fell to the Neuhauser branch of the Czernin von Chudenitz family, who in 1693 inherited the extinct family of Slavata von Chlum and Koschumberg . The Counts of Czernin von und zu Chudenitz expanded the estate through acquisitions in the 17th and 18th centuries to form an extensive rule.

On 18 May 1607 a family of Emperor was Rudolf II. In the realm baron charged with the title Baron and Chudenitz . On March 15, 1623, Emperor Ferdinand II was raised to the hereditary imperial and old count status with the title of Imperial Count Czernin von und zu Chudenitz .

In 1716 Franz Josef Count Czernin von und zu Chudenitz received from Emperor Karl VI. the authorization to name himself and his first-born descendants rulers of the house of Neuhaus and Chudenitz .

The members of the Czernin von Chudenitz family now live in Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic.


As the progenitor of the Czernin, Heinrich III. von Znaim , younger brother of Duke Konrad von Znaim , son of Duke Heinrich II. von Znaim, died 1150, and Agnes, Duchess of Carinthia, cousin of King Premysl Ottokars I , King of Bohemia. He was the first to bear the name Czernin , or Cyrnin (Czech: černý = the black). It is believed that he got this name because of his dark hair color. In any case, the name Czernin was originally a first name and only became established as the family name of the sex over the course of time. The first mention of the name on a document was in 1193, which the Břevnov monastery still keeps. He was exiled in 1212 and was only able to return to Bohemia in 1231 after the king's death. He built a castle in Chudenice , which was later converted into a chateau and was owned by the family without interruption until the Czernin family was expelled in 1945.


In Bohemia there is a legend about the origin of the name of the Czernin family. It is reported that about 1000 years ago the king was at a dispute with a Bohemian nobleman. The king was so angry with him that he sent his troops to his castle to kill all family members. But the nanny hid the youngest in a kettle in the kitchen. When the soldiers left, the residents heard the child crying in the cauldron. They found it and praised God for his goodness. They called the young man Czernin (the black man) because the kettle had rubbed off on him. They raised him to be a good aristocrat. When the king found out about everything, he was so touched by the loyalty of the citizens to their master that he forgave the young Czernin and confirmed his name.

Possessions and buildings

In addition to the headquarters in Chudenitz, the Czernin Fideikommiss included numerous other goods:

Petrohrad Palace (Petersburg)

In 1620 Hermann Czernin von Chudenitz , from 1623 imperial baron and from 1627 imperial count, acquired the palace and lordship of Petrohrad (Petersburg) in the Rakonitzer Bergland, which his descendants also kept until 1945. The castle was rebuilt between 1697 and 1703 by Giovanni Battista Alliprandi . In 1621 Hermann also acquired some goods from other noble families that had been confiscated in the course of the Prague coup, including the Gießhübel rule with Buchau , Schönau , Castel Sant'Angelo and Hartenštejn Castle (Gießhübel was sold again by Franz Joseph Czernin in 1731). Over the years, Count Hermann acquired a total of 99 properties, in 1639 he founded the family entails commission , which included the rule of Petersburg (until 1945) with Pladen , Neudek (until 1810) and Scheles from 1646 also Mělník Castle (until 1753), from 1649 Schönhof Castle (until 1945) and from 1650 Kosmonosy Castle (until 1738) as well as Kost Castle (until 1798) and Schmiedeberg in the Giant Mountains from the end of the 17th century .

Czernin Palace in Prague

Hermann's nephew, Count Humprecht Johann Czernin von Chudenitz (1628–1682), made a name for himself among contemporaries as an art and architecture connoisseur. He worked as a builder on his estates in Kosmonosy and Mělník Castle , built the Humprecht Castle near Sobotka as a hunting and pleasure palace and began building the Czernin Palace on Prague's Hradcany in 1669 . The palace is one of the largest baroque buildings in the city. However, it was not completed during the Count's lifetime and almost drove him to ruin. The palace was originally intended to house the Count's collection of paintings, which he set up in Venice and has continuously expanded since then. When Humprecht died, the collection comprised around 750 paintings and by 1733 had grown to over 1,100 works. Humprecht's heirs gradually sold them and dissolved them completely around 1778. Today the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic is located in Palais Czernin .

In 1693 Hermann Jakob Czernin von Chudenitz , who was married to Maria Josefa Slawata , inherited the Jindřichův Hradec (Neuhaus) estate from his wife's family . The Jindřichův Hradec Castle is one of the largest castles in Bohemia , along with the Prague Castle and Český Krumlov Castle . However, since the family mostly lived in their palaces in Prague and Vienna, it was rarely used as a residence. There, however, the Czernin family archive was housed, which - combined with the archives of the Neuhaus and Slawata families - became the second largest aristocratic archive in Bohemia.

Under Count Franz Josef Czernin von und zu Chudenitz, who from 1710 to 1730 in addition to the rule Chudenitz the dominions and goods Schönhof , food , Welchau , Kosmanos , Schwihau , undergrowth , Austraschin , Petersburg , Neudek , Kamaik , Mallichau , Winor , cost sheet , Sedschitz , Miltschowes , Stepanow , Engelsburg , Gießhübl , Rabenstein an der Schnella and Schmiedeberg in the Giant Mountains as well as the crown rule Melnik as a pledge , the property of the Counts of Czernin reached its greatest extent. The Chocomyšl hunting lodge built during this period served as a summer residence . After the fire at the Chocomyšl hunting lodge, Eugen Karl Czernin von und zu Chudenitz had the Lázeň (St. Wolfgang) palace built as the new summer residence of the family in the years 1821–1824 instead of a bathhouse. In 1845 he bought the Libědice estate .

In 1649, after so many other possessions , Count Hermann also acquired Schönhof Palace . This was renewed from 1683 according to designs by Francesco Ceresolla and changed from 1720 to 1724 in the Baroque style by the architect František Maximilian Kaňka and extended by two side wings. The client was Count Fanz Josef, who used the castle as a hunting seat. From 1727 a formal baroque garden was added, for which the garden architects Matěj Ivan Ledsebe and Jakub Halířek changed the terrain. In 1735 a fig house and a riding arena were added and in 1736 three avenues were planted that lead from the castle into the landscape. 1783–93, Johann Rudolf Czernin had a 96 hectare landscape park laid out, the first English garden in Bohemia. In 1945 the property was expropriated.

At the end of the 18th century, Johann Adalbert Czernin von und zu Chudenitz had the Kozel hunting lodge near Pilsen built by important master builders .

By inheritance from the Morzin family, Vrchlabí Castle came to a branch of the Czernin family in 1646 , which bore the name Czernin-Morzin and remained in Vrchlabí until 1881.

In 1845, Count Eugen Karl acquired the Mašťov (Maschau) rule , which remained in the family until 1945.

In 1928 Carl Graf Czernin von Chudenitz acquired the Rain Castle Estate in Grafenstein (Carinthia) , which is still owned by his family today. Rosenhof Castle in Upper Austria's Mühlviertel came to Josef Czernin-Kinsky through Therese Kinsky in 1973 .

In 1994 the Czech state restituted the goods in Dymokury (Dimokur) in the Nimburg district in Northern Bohemia to Depolt Czernin; In 2006 Karl-Eugen Czernin succeeded in getting back part of a property in Štěpánovice u Českých Budějovic (Stepanowitz in the Budweis region) in southern Bohemia.

The Palais Czernin in Vienna was completed in 1839 on behalf of Count Eugen as the family's Fideikommisspalais . From 1845 to 1954, the year of his death , the Czernin'sche Gemäldegalerie , founded by his father Johann Rudolf around 1800 and last managed by Eugen Czernin – Chudenitz (1892–1955), was located here , with mainly Dutch, but also Italian, Spanish and French paintings Artists of the 17th century belonged to a total of around 300 paintings (including by Rubens , Anthony van Dyck , Ruisdael , Paulus Potter , Rembrandt , van Huysum and Jan Vermeer ). 1980–1991 the collection was bought by the Residenzgalerie Salzburg . A part of the family hoped for a further restitution regarding the painting Die Malkunst by Johannes Vermeer . Adolf Hitler bought the work he admired from Jaromir Czernin in 1940 for 1.65 million Reichsmarks. “The art of painting” was to become a major work in the “ Führermuseum ” planned for Linz . However, the Austrian Art Restitution Advisory Board decided in 2011 that Czernin had sold the painting voluntarily and therefore there was no case for the return.

coat of arms

The family coat of arms is split into red on the right and six times from blue over silver on the left (three silver bars in blue). On the crowned helmet with blue-silver (also with red-silver on the left) covers a flight marked like the left half of the shield.



Web links

Commons : Czernin von und zu Chudenitz  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Cf. Ignaz von Schönfeld : Adels-Schematismus Des Österreichischen Kaiserstaates. Volume 1 Vienna 1824, p. 172
  2. ^ Hitler's best art purchase . Frankfurter Rundschau of March 10, 2010, p. 219.