DB class 422
|DB class 422/432|
422 double traction in use on the S 6 near Langenfeld
|Numbering:||422 001 - 084 (end car 1)
432 001 - 084 (middle car 1)
432 501 - 584 (middle car 2)
422 501 - 584 (end car 2)
|Manufacturer:||Bombardier , Alstom|
|Year of construction (s):||2007-2010|
|Axis formula :||Bo '(Bo') (2 ') (Bo') Bo '
( Jakobs bogies in brackets)
|Gauge :||1435 mm ( standard gauge )|
|Length over coupling:||69,430 mm|
|Trunnion Distance:||15,140 mm (end DG)
15,460 mm (Jakobs DG)
|Bogie axle base:||2,200 mm (end DG)
2,700 mm (Jakobs DG)
|Smallest bef. Radius:||100 m|
|Empty mass:||112 t|
|Top speed:||140 km / h|
|Continuous output :||1600 kW (max. 2350 kW)|
|Starting tractive effort:||145 kN|
|Acceleration:||1.0 m / s²|
|Impeller diameter:||850/780 mm|
|Wheel diameter:||850/780 mm|
|Motor type:||Three-phase asynchronous (water-cooled)|
|Power system :||15 kV 16.7 Hz ~|
|Power transmission:||Overhead line|
|Number of traction motors:||8 × 200 kW (max. 294 kW)|
|Brake:||Electric , pneumatic disc brake , magnetic rail brake|
|Train control :||PZB , SiFa|
|Coupling type:||Scharfenberg type 10|
|Seats:||192 (16 in 1st class)|
|Floor height:||1,025 mm|
|Classes :||1 and 2.|
As a class 422 while the two driven end cars are called, while also driven intermediate cars as series 432 are classified.
DB Regio NRW procured a single series with 84 multiple units for operation on the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn in the area of the Rhine-Ruhr transport association . In other German S-Bahn networks, the successor series 430 is used instead .
As part of the transport contract with the transport authority Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (VRR) for the operating period from 2003 to 2018, DB Regio NRW committed itself to modernizing the vehicle fleet.
The 84 units were delivered from November 2008 to October 2010 at a price of almost 400 million euros.
Since January 2008, the first test drives and type tests of the trains have been carried out on public routes. The approval by the Federal Railway Authority (EBA), the subsequent vehicle handed over to DB Regio NRW and commissioning for passenger service were initially planned for the early summer of 2008, but had to be postponed several times, and in November of 2008.
Originally, the VRR planned to place a follow-up order for at least another 32 multiple units of the 422 series, in order to be able to use only new types of vehicles in S-Bahn operations in the Ruhr area from the end of 2012. In December 2009 the VRR announced that at least 32 class 430 multiple units should be delivered instead. In the end, vehicles of the Alstom Coradia Continental type were actually ordered and delivered .
Externally, the main change consists of the new vehicle head with a crumple zone in accordance with DIN EN 15227 for improved protection of passengers and the driver in the event of collisions, which leads to a total length of two meters greater than that of the 420 and 423 series . Energy consumption modules with integrated anti-climbing protection are located behind the cladding at the ends of the vehicle .
Further innovations are the MITRAC vehicle control system (Bombardier), the EP-Compact brake control system and compressed air supply system ( Knorr-Bremse ), the EBI Cab 500 PZB train control system (Bombardier), video monitoring of the passenger compartment ( Verint ), and light grids for protection ex works over the door height the change of passengers and a new floor structure.
After practical experience with insufficient braking power in certain situations, especially in autumn, in the 423 series, the bogie was equipped with wheel brake discs and an additional magnetic rail brake.
At the Hennigsdorf location , consortium leader Bombardier carried out the final assembly of at least 27 trains, while Alstom LHB assembled at least 51 trains in Salzgitter . The car bodies and head bogies were built at Alstom in Salzgitter . The electrical equipment came from Bombardier in Mannheim , the Jakobs bogies from Siegen .
Failure of the PZB
At the beginning of April 2011, software problems with the installed Bombardier EBI Cab 500 punctual train control system became known. There were two signal overruns, during which the EBI Cab system did not react to safety. The Federal Railway Authority then limited the maximum speed of all vehicles in the 422 series to 100 km / h. In addition, the trains were manned by an additional train attendant. In order to be able to maintain the traffic, trains with locomotives of the class 143 and four x-wagons were on the move again, especially on the S 1 line.
The software error was fixed in mid-June 2011 and updates were installed. Vehicles with updated software did not require an attendant to be present and the maximum speed could be fully extended again. From June 18, 2011, the first vehicles with updated software were put back into their old circulation .
- on September 16, 2016 on the S 6 line shortly after leaving the Essen Hbf station
- on November 18, 2016 on line S 3 between the stations Essen Hbf and Essen West
The lightweight construction of the vehicle roofs made of composite materials enabled the fire to spread and smoke gases to be released into the passenger compartment, which put passengers at risk. As a result, from November 23, 2016, trains in this series were no longer allowed to travel on routes containing longer tunnel sections in passenger service.
This led to significant restrictions in the S-Bahn service for over a year. The S 1 line was broken: the 422s ran between Solingen Hauptbahnhof and Bochum Hauptbahnhof as usual, in the section between Essen-Steele Ost and Dortmund , which includes the Dortmund university tunnel, other vehicles (420 or 143 series with x-wagons) were used . Line S 4 could only be used between Unna and Dortmund-Somborn ; the multiple units drove from Somborn without passengers to the actual terminus in the Dortmund-Lütgendortmund tunnel . At the western end of the S 6 line, the amplifier trips through the Chorweiler tunnel between Cologne-Nippes and Cologne-Worringen were no longer necessary .
In order to prevent further fires, Deutsche Bahn refurbished the vehicles in the roof area by applying steel plates and electrically insulating cables.
As of August 21, 2017, half of the vehicles had been refurbished and the S 4 line could again be operated continuously over its full length. The same applied to line S 1 from August 28, 2017. On November 6, 2017, two thirds of all multiple units were available in a refurbished state, so the S 6 line was able to run through the Chorweiler tunnel again. At the beginning of January 2018 there were not enough vehicles to offer full space on the S 1.
On October 27, 2019, parts of the roof paneling in the passenger compartment burned on multiple unit 422 077 on line S 1 in Essen Hbf after an overhead line damage.
S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr from 2008 to 2009
The vehicles were approved by the Federal Railway Authority on November 11, 2008, so that on November 18, 2008, four multiple units were used for the first time as scheduled on the then S 7 ( Solingen - Düsseldorf Airport Terminal ). Operation on the S 2 line began in the same year.
In the 2009 annual timetable, the four lines S 9, S 1, S 3 and finally S 4 were gradually converted to the 422 series. At times, the 422 series was also used on the S 6 amplifier circuits ( Ratingen - Langenfeld ). On lines S 2, S 3 and S 9, which were previously equipped with three x-wagons per train, the number of seats was reduced from 222 to 192 thanks to the use of the multiple units, which regularly run individually.
S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr from 2009
For the timetable change in December 2009, the VRR developed a significantly changed concept for the S-Bahn lines in the Düsseldorf area . The S 7 (Solingen - Düsseldorf Hbf - Düsseldorf Airport Terminal) was discontinued on December 13, 2009 and replaced by an extension of the S 1 (Dortmund - Düsseldorf Hbf - Solingen) and S 11 ( Bergisch Gladbach - Düsseldorf Hbf - Düsseldorf Airport Terminal) . The new line S 68 ( Wuppertal-Vohwinkel - Düsseldorf Hbf - Langenfeld) replaced the amplifier traffic of the S 6 (Ratingen - Langenfeld) in 2010.
The previously planned procurement of class 430 trains was dispensed with. Instead, the S-Bahn lines S 5 and S 8 were equipped with new vehicles from the 1440 series as part of a separate tender . This freed class 422 multiple units there, which replaced the locomotive-hauled trains on line S 6 in December 2014.
S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr from 2019
In anticipation of a comprehensive change in frequency and service on the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn in December 2019, the VRR association, in-house operation of vehicles and infrastructure, bought 48 vehicles of the 422 series from Deutsche Bahn. The VRR awarded the contract for the maintenance of these vehicles to DB Regio NRW for the contract period 2019 to 2034.
Operation on the S 1 and S 4 lines was awarded in 2016 to the Keolis company, which operates under the brand name Eurobahn , for a period of twelve years . In September 2019, twelve weeks before the planned start of operations, the VRR terminated the transport contract with Keolis in coordination with the NWL Zweckverband . As part of an emergency award, both lines will remain with the operator DB Regio NRW for two years, i.e. until 2021. The following new tender showed that DB Regio NRW will continue to provide transport services from December 2021 to 2031.
The lines S 2, S 3 and S 9, along with other regional train lines, became part of the network operated by Abellio for 15 years with vehicles of the Stadler Flirt 3 XL type . In order to ensure the contractual services, Abellio commissioned DB Regio to continue on line S 3 from the timetable change on December 15, 2019 to March 1, 2020 with its own staff and the 422 series vehicles.
From autumn 2017, the 48 VRR vehicles at DB Fahrzeuginstandhaltung Krefeld-Oppum received a redesign that includes new seat cushions in six different colors and improved passenger information. The light gray paintwork is provided with stylized images of landmarks of the Ruhr area. The door surfaces, the roof edge and the side front sections are set off in the green shade of the VRR design. The first modernized multiple unit was presented on September 13, 2017, the 422 010/510. It took around six weeks to convert each vehicle; work was carried out on three vehicles in parallel.
Lines S 6, S 68 and possibly lines of the Cologne S-Bahn are suitable as areas of application for the 36 vehicles of the 422 series that remain at DB Regio until at least 2023 . The next tender for the operation of the Cologne S-Bahn and the procurement and maintenance of the corresponding vehicles will take place under the direction of the NVR jointly with the VRR, with a planned start of operations in the years 2023 to 2024, possibly later.
Some neighboring cities of the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn have sponsored class 422 multiple units. On the end cars of the multiple units, lettering with the name of the city and the city's coat of arms was attached. During a ceremony, the trains were christened by the mayor of the respective city. In the meantime the following names were given:
(Tz xx = multiple unit number: 422 0xx / 432 0xx / 432 5xx / 422 5xx)
- Dietmar Brämert, Ulf Heitmann: New S-Bahn multiple unit of the class 422 presented. (No longer available online.) In: Lokrundschau. December 7, 2007, archived from the original on July 2, 2011 ; accessed on May 10, 2020 .
- Werner W. Klingberg: New generation of multiple units for NRW: Bahn orders 78 trains worth more than 300 million euros. (No longer available online.) In: Presse-Information 122/2005. Deutsche Bahn AG Kommunikation, Potsdamer Platz 2, 10785 Berlin, archived from the original on January 1, 2006 ; accessed on September 26, 2018 .
- ALSTOM: Deutsche Bahn orders 78 S-Bahn trains worth 343 million euros. Alstom Transport, December 28, 2005, archived from the original on September 26, 2018 ; accessed on September 26, 2018 .
- Bombardier Rail on Twitpic, October 22, 2010: We delivered the last train of the 422 series to Deutsche Bahn for North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- All class 422 S-Bahn trains for North Rhine-Westphalia have been delivered. In: bahnaktuell.net. October 22, 2010, archived from the original ; accessed on October 1, 2018 .
- Lothar Ebbers: When will the ET 422 come? (PDF) In: Fahrgastzeitung Ruhrschiene, issue 2008 # 4, page 3. Pro Bahn eV, Regionalverband Ruhr, accessed on October 1, 2018 .
- New S-Bahn concept on the Rhine and Ruhr. (No longer available online.) VRR, December 3, 2009, archived from the original on November 30, 2010 ; accessed on August 11, 2014 (press release).
- Alstom delivers 28 trains for the DB Regio in North Rhine-Westphalia. (No longer available online.) Alstom April 3, 2012, archived from the original on September 26, 2012 ; accessed on October 1, 2018 .
- Stephan Hermsen: Security problems slow down the S-Bahn. (No longer available online.) In: Der Westen. FUNKE MEDIEN NRW GmbH, Essen, April 8, 2011, archived from the original on October 1, 2018 ; accessed on October 1, 2018 .
- Frank Christiansen: S-Bahn has to run with a co-pilot. In: Westdeutsche Zeitung. Westdeutsche Zeitung GmbH & Co. KG, Wuppertal, April 18, 2011, archived from the original on October 1, 2018 ; accessed on October 1, 2018 .
- Philipp Wahl: S6: Platoon leader evacuates the burning S-Bahn in Essen. In: The West. FUNKE MEDIEN NRW GmbH, Essen, September 16, 2016, archived from the original on September 21, 2016 ; accessed on September 26, 2018 .
- Burning S-Bahn evacuated - high damage in Essen. In: The West. FUNKE MEDIEN NRW GmbH, Essen, November 18, 2016, archived from the original on November 19, 2016 ; accessed on September 26, 2018 .
- Restrictions in S-Bahn traffic from Wednesday: Effects of the S-Bahn fire. (No longer available online.) In: DB press office Düsseldorf. November 22, 2016, archived from the original on January 30, 2017 ; accessed on January 30, 2017 .
- S 6: S-Bahn series ET 422 will run back to Cologne-Worringen from Monday, November 6th. (No longer available online.) Deutsche Bahn AG, Berlin / Düsseldorf, January 27, 2017, archived from the original on September 26, 2018 ; accessed on September 26, 2018 .
- DB Regio NRW uses ET 422 again on complete S1 / S4 line routes. In: Bahnblogstelle. August 25, 2017, archived from the original on December 2, 2017 ; accessed on September 26, 2018 .
- RP ONLINE: Solingen: Bahn halves space in trains of the S1. Retrieved September 26, 2018 .
- Michael Dörr: Fire in the S-Bahn after overhead line damage. In: Presseportal.de news aktuell GmbH. Essen Fire Brigade Press Office, October 27, 2019, archived from the original on October 28, 2019 ; accessed on October 28, 2019 .
- The new S-Bahn trains ET 422. (No longer available online.) Deutsche Bahn AG, archived from the original on July 26, 2009 ; Retrieved July 26, 2009 .
- Keolis and Abellio will be using the Rhine S-Bahn from December 2019. In: VRR.de. Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr, Gelsenkirchen, July 7, 2016, accessed on October 6, 2018 .
- trains set the tone for the future of the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn. In: VRR.de. Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr, Düsseldorf, September 13, 2017, accessed on October 6, 2018 .
- VRR buys 48 S-Bahn trains from DB Regio AG for lines S 1 and S 4. (No longer available online.) Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr AöR, Gelsenkirchen, December 16, 2015, archived from the original on September 26, 2018 ; accessed on October 1, 2018 .
- VRR terminates S-Bahn contract with Keolis. Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr AöR, Gelsenkirchen, September 18, 2019, archived from the original on September 18, 2019 ; accessed on September 18, 2019 .
- S-Bahn lines 1 and 4 continue despite the trouble. Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln AöR, September 30, 2019, archived from the original on September 30, 2019 ; accessed on October 28, 2019 .
- DB Regio will also be operating the S 1 and S 4 S-Bahn lines from December 2021 onwards. Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr AöR, Gelsenkirchen, April 2, 2020, archived from the original on April 23, 2020 ; accessed on April 23, 2020 .
- Abellio concludes a subcontractor contract with DB Regio to provide the services for S3. In: Locomotive Report. October 28, 2019, archived from the original on October 28, 2019 ; accessed on October 28, 2019 .
- Modernized 422 presented for Keolis . In: railway magazine . No. 11 , 2017, ISSN 0342-1902 , p. 30 .
- Services 2017 / S 074-143343. In: TED tenders electronic daily. April 11, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2018 .
- S-Bahn-Zug: Dortmund has adopted a sponsorship October 11, 2011. (No longer available online.) In: Dortmund.de. October 11, 2011, archived from the original on November 11, 2011 ; accessed on September 26, 2018 .
- DB Regio NRW forwards the CHINA 8 message. (No longer available online.) September 13, 2015, archived from the original on October 7, 2015 ; accessed on September 26, 2018 .