|coat of arms||map|
|Commune number :||3801|
|Province (county) :||Vestfold and Telemark|
|Residents:||27,351 (Feb 27, 2020)|
|Population density :||385 inhabitants per km²|
|Language form :||Bokmål|
|Mayor :||Are Karlsen ( Ap ) (2015)|
|Located in the province of Vestfold og Telemark|
Horten is a coastal town between Holmestrand in the north and Tønsberg in the south. The municipality only borders on Tønsberg. The municipality includes the town of Horten and the localities of Kirkebakken ( Borre ), Nykirke , Åsgårdstrand and Skoppum . The urban area includes the islands of Bastøy , Løvøya, Mellomøya and Østøya. The small island of Vealøs, a little north of the district Karljohansvern , with the fortress " Norske Løve ", built between 1852 and 1859 , is still used for military purposes by the Norwegian Navy . Bastøy is a prison island. Geologically, the city lies in the Oslo Trench region .
Traces of settlement from the Stone Age can be found in the commune . The Borrehaugene in Borre National Park testify to the fact that the commune was a center of power in the Viking Age . The Borre site includes the largest collection of monumental burial mounds from AD 600–900 and is now part of an approximately 18 hectare archaeological national park. Nine preserved monumental burial mounds, along with three other large burial mounds, were primarily visible from the Oslofjord. Of the original twelve monumental graves, one was partially destroyed in 1852 when bulk material was removed for road construction. The subsequent excavations resulted in a ship burial with a 17-21 m long Viking ship. Based on the finds, this monument is directly related to the world-famous Viking ships from Gokstad , Oseberg and Tune . Horten has been a ferry location for the ferry between Horten and Moss since 1582 .
The royal resolution of November 21, 1818 determined that the main naval base should be built in Horten. This happened without the Crown Prince Regent Karl Johan having referred the matter to Parliament ( Storting ). It was 10 years from the adoption of the resolution until the first ship was launched on the "Horten Verft". On August 25, 1828, hull number 1, the frigate Freia , went into the water. When the Navy moved its headquarters from Frederiksvern near Larvik to Horten in the same year , the shipyard was renamed "Marinens Hovedverft". In 1854 King Oskar I gave her the name "Carljohansvern Verft" in honor of his father, Charles XIV. John of Sweden, the former French Marshal Bernadotte . Horten has been the location of the Royal Norwegian Navy Music Corps since 1820. In 1864 a naval war school was founded.
The main shipyard of the Navy became the state-owned Horten Verft A / S in 1968, which for a time represented the economic backbone of the municipality with a good 2,000 employees. The company went bankrupt in 1987 and ceased operations. An industrial area, Horten Industrial Park (HIP), was created on the former shipyard site, with several companies, especially the electronics industry.
The main base of the Navy in 1963 by Karljohansvern by mountains moved. Today there are two important museums on the site of the naval base , the naval museum and the photo museum. Since 2006, the entire area of the former naval base with its 73 historic buildings has been protected as a historical monument.
Horten received city rights in 1907 and the first city coat of arms approved by King Håkon VII .
Borre and Åsgårdstrand municipalities were merged in 1965. Horten and Borre were to 1 January 1988 commune Borre . On June 1, 2002, the municipality changed its name to Horten Kommune.
- Marinemuseet - the naval museum in Karljohansvern , the oldest museum of its kind in the world, founded in 1853. Many ships can be visited, including the KNM Rap, the world's first torpedo boat from 1873.
- Preus Museum - the national Norwegian museum of photography with collections of Norwegian and international photographs as well as technical developments from the camera obscura to the digital camera. The museum is located in the same building as the Naval Museum.
- Borrehaugene - Borre National Park - contains the tombs of kings from the Viking Age. The park has an area of 182,000 m² and has the largest collection of royal tombs in Scandinavia. From 1989 to 1991 new excavations were made in and around the park. These revealed an interesting selection of art and craft items, many of which can be seen in the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo. The style of these items became known as the Borre style. It is characterized by its beautiful animal and knot ornaments, which were often used to decorate armor. The finds also confirm that a Viking ship was buried here. There is an exhibition on the history of the region at the Midgard Visitor Center .
- Edvard Munch's house in Åsgårdstrand, where Edvard Munch lived for a long time and where he found many motifs for his pictures.
- Nykirke church in the district of the same name, from the 12th century, renovated in 1686 and 1849, is dedicated to St. Nicholas.
sons and daughters of the town
- Francis Hagerup (1853–1921), politician, lawyer, diplomat and Prime Minister
- Herman Smith-Johannsen (1875–1987), Norwegian-Canadian cross-country skier
- Gil Andersen (1879–1935), Norwegian-American engineer, racing car driver and automobile manager
- Harald Strøm (1897–1977), football player
- Finn Ronne (1899–1980), Norwegian-American Antarctic explorer
- Leif Preus (1928–2013), photographer, founder of Preus Photography and the Preus Museum
- Rolv Wesenlund (1936–2013), comedian, music producer, singer and actor
- Kristin Halvorsen (* 1960) Minister of Finance
- Geir Jørgen Bekkevold (* 1963), politician
- Eivind Gullberg Jensen (* 1972), conductor
- Olaf Tufte (* 1976), rower and two-time Olympic champion
- Maria Aasen-Svensrud (* 1980), politician
- Sondre Holst Enger (* 1993), cyclist
Notes and individual references
- Statistisk sentralbyrå - Befolkning
- The place has been called Stavern since 1830.