City of Friedland
|Height :||51 m|
|Area :||4.65 km² (as of 1900)|
|Residents :||59 (2014)|
|Population density :||13 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||March 31, 2001|
|Postal code :||15848|
|Area code :||033676|
Entrance to Karras
Karras ( Karas in Lower Sorbian ) is a district of the unofficial city of Friedland in the Oder-Spree district ( Brandenburg ). At the end of the Middle Ages, Karras belonged to the Friedland dominion, which in 1533 became an office of the Order of St. John. Until it was incorporated into Friedland in 2001, Karras was an independent municipality.
Karras is located about four kilometers southeast of Friedland, about eleven kilometers south of Beeskow and about eleven kilometers as the crow flies north of Lieberose . The place can be reached by a junction from the B 168 , which runs through the south-western part of the district. Smaller roads also branch off from the B 168 at the Postbrücke residential area and directly at the southern exit of Friedland. A small road branches off to Günthersdorf north of Karras.
The district of Karras borders in the north on the district of Friedland, in the east on Günthersdorf , in the southeast on Trebitz , in the south on Schadow and in the west on the district of Niewisch . The district is characterized by two smaller bodies of water; the Wuggel forms the north-eastern boundary (to Friedland and Günthersdorf), the Sangase forms the boundary to Schadow and Niewisch. The highest point is a flat hill in the southeast of the district with about 68 m, the lowest point is the valley of the Wuggel with about 49 m. The entire southeast corner of the district is wooded. But also in the central and western part, which is predominantly characterized by agriculture, there are two larger forest parcels.
The Postbrücke residential area belongs to Karras and, up to the Second World War, the Elisenruh residential area, which was built around 1840, is located north of the Sangase and opposite the Voigtmühle residential area, which, however, lies within the Niewischer district. The location of the place is remarkable in that it is located directly on the northeastern edge of the district.
The place is possibly mentioned for the first time as Corasno in a document from 1249 . In 1336 a German copy of the same document says Carasne . In both cases, however, the identification with Karras is not certain. What is certain, however, is the mention of 1518 as a chariss . After Ernst Eichler , the name derives from an nso. Basic form * karas for crucian carp . The fish name crucian carp was also adopted from Slavic into German. The crucian carp prefers to live in shallow, heavily overgrown lakes, ponds and ponds. At least two puddles that the Friedland Rent Office sold in 1826 were in the area of Karras. According to Rudolf Lehmann, the structure of the village is a dead end village ; this structure has changed little to this day.
At the end of the Middle Ages, Karras was an accessory to the Friedland rule , which probably developed around the middle of the 13th century, at the triangle of roads to Beeskow , Lieberose and Neuzelle and the transition to Neuzeller Straße over the lowland of the Dammmühlenfließ around the castle there. The town of Friedland was also created under the protection of the castle. The castle and town were probably laid out by Margrave Heinrich the Illustrious of Meissen, then Margrave of Lusatia.
In 1301 the castle and town of Friedland ( castrum et oppidum ) were first mentioned in a document. Already in 1307 the castle and town belonged to Timo v. Strele (Strehla) come. In 1415 the castle and town were owned by Otto v. Kittlitz , who also ruled Spremberg . In 1438, 1449 and 1453 the von Lossow family owned the castle and town of Friedland. Since 1443, his sons Hans and Caspar v. Lossow, who were still sitting at Friedland Castle in 1452. In 1468 the rule of Friedland passed into the possession of Henning Quast. In 1472 two Beynewitz brothers were enfeoffed with the dominion of Friedland, and in 1477 Nickel Bennewitz sat at the castle in Friedland. Probably soon after the sale of his previous regular property, the rule Wehlen on the Elbe in Saxony (today the city of Wehlen ), Niclas v. Köckritz the rule Friedland as well as the rule Schenkendorf near Guben , and in 1481 also the rule Lieberose ( Lieberose in the district of Dahme-Spreewald ). Niclas v. Köckritz became bailiff of Lower Lusatia in 1490 , an office he held until 1494. In 1496 he also bought the Lübbenau estate . In 1499 Niclas v. Köckritz and in the same year his seven sons Hans, Nickel, Heinrich, Dietrich, Caspar, Lippold and Poppo were enfeoffed with the extensive property. In 1503 they sold the rule of Lübbenau for 9000 guilders to Werner vd Schulenburg. In 1512 the rule of Schenkendorf had to be sold to the Order of St. John for 12,000 guilders . The rule of Friedland was passed to Caspar v. Köckritz liked it. In 1518 Caspar v. Köckritz and left four sons, only the eldest son Georg was of age. Since the rule was heavily in debt, the Niederlausitz Landvogt Heinrich Tunkel v. Bernitzko as representative of the feudal lord and guardian of the three children Hans, Andreas and Peter v. Köckritz bought the Friedland dominion for 16,750 Rhenish guilders to the Order of St. John or Master of St. John, Georg v. Schlabrendorf. King Ludwig II had initially given his approval for the sale in 1523, but later withdrew it. In 1527 the new Bohemian king, the Habsburg Ferdinand I, enfeoffed the brothers Georg, Hans and Andreas v. Köckritz literally with the Friedland rule. But they finally had to sell their property to the Order of St. John in 1533 for 21,500 thalers.
The rule Friedland was now converted into an office of the order, the income of which went to the master master of the Balley Brandenburg as table and chamber goods. The rule Friedland remained in the possession of the Order of St. John until 1811. Only during the Thirty Years' War from 1643 to 1650 was there an interruption when the Swedish Colonel Johann Wittkopp had illegally appropriated the office of the Order.
In 1811 the Balley Brandenburg was abolished. The last master master was August Ferdinand Prince of Prussia . The Friedland Ordensamt was drafted by the then Saxon King Friedrich August I and converted into a Saxon office . In 1815 the Kingdom of Saxony lost more than half of its territory to Prussia, including Lower Lusatia . The Saxon Office Friedland was converted into a Prussian Rent Office in 1815, which was only dissolved in 1874.
|Population development from 1818 to 2002|
In the early modern times, the post road from Liebrose to Friedland ran through the southwestern part of the Feldmark; however, it passed the place at some distance. At the bridge over the Sangase there was a jug, from which today's post office bridge developed. At the transition from the late Middle Ages to the early modern period, Karras was, so to speak, a border village between the rule (later Ordensamt) Friedland and the rule Lieberose . The Post Bridge was also a customs post.
During the Thirty Years War , the village was largely destroyed and depopulated. In 1642 only two farmers lived in the village, nine houses were devastated. In 1665, however, nine house positions were occupied again. The Lehnschulze cultivated six hooves , four farmers each with five hooves and four kossas one hoof each. In total there were 30 hooves on the field of Karras. In 1708 only three farmers and four kossäts are mentioned. For 1730 the numbers are: four farmers and five kossas. The Schmettausche map series from 1767/87 shows the Post Bridge with the Poststrasse and a vineyard south of the town center on a path that led from the town to the Post Bridge.
1809 lived three full farmers (full farmers), including the Lehnschulze, five Ganzkossäten and two cottagers or Büdner in Karras. Wine was still grown near the village until 1802. In 1818, eleven campfire sites and 62 residents were recorded in Karras. In 1826, the Friedland Rent Office sold two puddles in the Karras district that had previously belonged to the office. The place had hardly changed until 1840; 69 people lived in eleven houses. In 1853 the area had a size of 1736 acres . In 1864 the number of residential buildings remained the same; but now 84 people lived in these eleven houses. In 1871 there were 101 people in Karras; but this was the peak of the population development. Only in the years after 1945 was this number exceeded for a few years due to the admission of refugees, only to fall well below 100 inhabitants again in the years after 1950. Today Karras still has 59 inhabitants.
The place is located in the Lower Lusatia and belonged to the Krummspreeischen Kreis in the Saxon period (also called Lübbenscher Kreis in the 18th century). After Niederlausitz was ceded to Prussia in 1815, the district was now called Lübbenscher Kreis or Kreis Lübben . He remained in the former GDR in the Lübben district until the district reform of 1952. In 1952 the northern parts of the old Lübben district were separated and assigned to the newly created Beeskow district. After the fall of the Wall , Karras joined 15 other municipalities to form the Friedland (Niederlausitz) office . In the district reform of 1993, the districts of Beeskow , Fürstenwalde , the independent city of Eisenhüttenstadt and the district of Eisenhüttenstadt were merged to form the Oder-Spree district; Karras (and the Friedland (Niederlausitz) office) was now an independent municipality in the Oder-Spree district.
With the voluntary amalgamation of 13 municipalities of the Friedland (Niederlausitz) office to form the new city of Friedland in 2001, Karras lost its independence and has been part of the city of Friedland ever since. The Friedland (Niederlausitz) office last consisted of only two municipalities and was dissolved on October 26, 2003, the last official municipality Groß Muckrow was incorporated into the city of Friedland by law. In Karras the mayor is elected directly. Rainer Töpel is currently (beginning of 2015) mayor.
The place does not have its own church, but was parish in Niewisch. Today he belongs to the Evangelical Church Community Friedland-Niewisch.
Monuments and sights
The list of monuments of the state of Brandenburg for the district of Oder-Spree shows a floor and an architectural monument for Karras:
- No. 90855 ground monument: village center German Middle Ages, village center modern times
- No. 09115495 Monument: former customs station (today the "Postbrücke" inn)
- Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Mark Brandenburg and the Markgrafthum Nieder-Lausitz. Volume 2, Adolph Müller, Brandenburg 1855, p. 603 ( online at Google Books ) (in the following abbreviated Berghaus, Landbuch, 3 with corresponding page number)
- Götz Freiherr v. Houwald : The Niederlausitz manors and their owners. Volume III: District of Lübben. Neustadt an der Aisch, Verlag Degener & Co., owner Gerhard Gessner, 1984 ISBN 3-7686-4109-0
- Rudolf Lehmann : Historical local lexicon of Niederlausitz. Volume 1. Hessisches Landesamt für Geschichtliche Landeskunde, Marburg 1979 ISBN 3-921-254-96-5 (in the following abbreviated Historisches Ortlexikon Niederlausitz, 1 with corresponding page number).
- Karras in the RBB program Landschleicher on June 26, 2016
- Karras on the website of the city of Friedland
- Historisches Ortslexikon Niederlausitz, 1, p. 182.
- Main Statute of the City of Friedland from June 4, 2009 PDF
- contribution to statistics. State Office for Data Processing State of Brandenburg Statistics. Historical municipality register of the state of Brandenburg 1875 to 2005 19.9 District Oder-Spree PDF
- Ernst Eichler : The place names of Niederlausitz. 1st edition. VEB Domowina publishing house, Bautzen 1975, p. 116.
- Official Gazette of the Royal Prussian Government in Frankfurt ad O., Public Gazette as a supplement to No. 22 of the Official Journal, May 31, 1826, p. 184 online at Google Books
- List of monuments of the state of Brandenburg: Landkreis Oder-Spree (PDF) Brandenburg State Office for Monument Preservation and State Archaeological Museum
- Heinz-Dieter Krausch : The earlier viticulture in Niederlausitz. Yearbook for Brandenburg State History, 18: 12–57, Berlin 1967, PDF (online at http://edoc.hu-berlin.de , p. 19)
- Topographical-statistical overview of the government district of Frankfurth ad O. Berlin, G. Hayn 1820, p. 208
- Topographical-statistical overview of the government district Frankfurt ad O. Frankfurt a. O., Gustav Harnecker's Buchhandlung, 1844 Online at Google Books (p. 169)
- Berghaus, Landbuch 3, p. 667.
- Topographical-statistical handbook of the government district Frankfurt ad O. Frankfurt ad O. Verlag von Gustav Harnecker u. Co., 1867 Online at Google Books p. 197.
- Rudolf Lehmann: Studies on the history of the church organization and administration of the Lausitz in the Middle Ages. St. Benno-Verlag, Leipzig 1986 (studies on the history of the Catholic diocese and monastery, volume 28) ISBN 3-7462-0127-6 , p. 25
- Ev. Friedland-Niewisch parish