City of Friedland
|Height :||48 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||7.89 km²|
|Incorporation :||March 31, 2001|
|Postal code :||15848|
|Area code :||033676|
Pieskow ( Lower Sorbian Pěski ) is a district of the non-governmental city Friedland in the Oder-Spree district ( Brandenburg ). In the early modern period, the place belonged together with Niewisch and Speichrow to the three so-called "water villages" or "Zieckoschen goods", which were a fief of the Neuzelle monastery and until 1816 an exclave of the Guben district in the Lübben district. Pieskow was an independent municipality until it was incorporated into Friedland in 2001.
Pieskow is approx. 6 km southwest of Friedland and approx. 9 km northwest of Lieberose on the east bank of the Schwielochsee . The district borders in the north on Niewisch, district of the city of Friedland, in the east on Schadow , also a district of the city of Friedland, and Goschen , district of the city of Lieberose, in the south on Speichrow, district of the community Schwielochsee and in the west on the also to Speichrow belonging to the Schwielochsee. The place can be reached via the L 441, which branches off from the B 168 at the Wuggelmühle residential area and continues via Möllen , Niewisch, Pieskow to Speichrow and Goyatz , where it joins the B 320 . In Pieskow the L 434 branches off to Schadow. The highest point is the 63.8 m high vineyard immediately southwest of the town center. The lowest point is the lake level of the Schwielochsee with 40.8 m.
The district is traversed from southeast to northwest by the Pieskower Torfgraben coming from the Schadow district . There is another nameless lake in the south of the district. West of the town center on the Schwielochsee is a weekend house settlement.
The place was first mentioned as "Pyeszk" in a not exactly dated list of taxes from the Neuzelle monastery, which was created between 1416 and 1426. The name is probably from an aso. The basic form "* pěski = settlement on sandy areas" can be derived. According to Rudolf Lehmann in the historical local dictionary, Pieskow was originally a dead end village according to the village structure . According to the Schmettauschen map series of 1767/87, however, it was a street village . The "street" of that time led from Niewisch through Pieskow on to Speichrow. Another path branched off to the east at the northern end of the village and led to Schadow on the northern edge of the peat trench lowland.
The village was probably owned by the Neuzelle monastery before 1388 . According to the document book of the Neuzelle monastery, King Wenzel confirmed to the Neuzelle monastery the handover of the town of Fürstenberg an der Oder with the villages of Krebsjauche (today Wiesenau ), Ziltendorf , Diehlo and Speichrow, which was certified by Jobst of Moravia . Pieskow was probably one of them at the time. In a lifting list of the monastery Neuzelle from the years 1416/26 Pyeszk is mentioned as property of the monastery anyway. It is very likely that Niewisch already belonged to the monastery at that time.
In 1429 the Neuzelle monastery was destroyed by the Hussites . Abbot Nicolaus II of Bomsdorf (1432–1469) rebuilt the monastery. But he had to sell some monastery villages, mostly for repurchase. Pieskow and Speichrow were very likely among them. At the end of the 15th century both villages were owned by Kunz v. Löben, who had his seat in Trebitz. In 1495 the monastery bought the three villages from the widow of Kunz v. Löben, Elisabeth v. Birckholtz for 1,800 Rhenish guilders. This was suggested by Nickel v. Czetwitcz (Zedtwitz) zu Osnig ( Groß Oßnig ) as their guardian and the brothers Caspar and Heinrich Birckholtz to Schorbus . The widow also received a personal property of 900 guilders. Niewisch, on the other hand, was at the v. Zabeltitz awarded. It must have come to the monastery soon afterwards.
Siegmund d. J. v. In 1577 Zieckau on Neudöbern bought the three villages of Niewisch, Pieskow and Speichrow from the Neuzelle monastery. However, they remained vassal property of the Neuzelle monastery. He built a new knight's seat in Niewisch and in 1579 sold his previous estate, Neudöbern. Siegmund d. J. was one of the four sons of Siegmund the Elder, who died in 1542. Ä. v. Zieckau. As early as 1569, the son Hans had to give his share of Gut Neudöbern to Siegmund the Elder. J. sell. The son Balthasar died early. The fourth brother, Christoph v. Zieckau, a citizen of Calau, acquired the village of Schmogro (today Großräschen Ost, Oberspreewald-Lausitz district ) in 1579 . According to the sex of the v. In Zieckau, the three villages were also called the "Zickoschen Güter" or, according to their location, the three villages were also called the "water villages". Due to its location on Schwielowsee, Möllen , which adjoins Niewisch to the north, was also counted among the water villages; However, it had a slightly different ownership history, but was also owned by vd Schulenburg. According to the Zabeltitz family story , a daughter Catharina from the Pieskow family was with Heinrich v. Zabeltitz married on a large leash . In 1599 he had a free house in Lübben (Spreewald) from Wolf Ernst v. Beerfelde acquired.
In 1597 Richard III bought vd Schulenburg on Lieberose the three villages for 11,200 thalers. Richard III died on November 25th while hunting in Pieskow.
He was followed by his son Joachim (VII.). He had to sell some of his possessions to service debts. When he died in 1619, the debts were still so high that the lords of Lübbenau and Neu-Zauche had to be left to the creditors. First, the Lieberose rule fell to Joachim's widow, Maria Hedwig Countess of Dohna. In 1643 she ceded the rule to her son Heinrich Joachim. In 1648 he was still able to acquire the Lamsfeld estates and in his will determined the Lieberose lordship, the Lamsfeld estates and the Zickos estates to be a majorate. After his death in 1665 without a physical heir, the property fell to Achaz (II.) Von der Schulenburg on Beetzendorf in the Altmark, who at the time was governor of the Altmark and privy councilor of Brandenburg. In 1672 the three villages together had a comparatively high estimate of 3000 Talers.
The successor to ownership in 1681 was Levin Joachim, but he died childless in 1694. Now the property fell to the youngest son Hans Georg. He was a Danish major general and had won awards in the war against Sweden. Hans Georg von der Schulenburg died in 1715, heir was his only son Georg Anton.
Georg Anton vd Schulenburg died in 1778. Then there was an inheritance dispute because Georg Anton had bequeathed the allodial property to the children of his sister Sofie Henriette Countess von Podewils. The dispute was about what should be included in allod and what should be included in majorat. The legal dispute ended in 1781 with a settlement. The family of the Counts of Podewils received the rule of Leuthen, while the rule of Lieberose, the Lamsfeld estates, the Zickos estates, Siegadel and Trebitz remained with the von der Schulenburg family. But now the legal dispute continued among the cousins of the von der Schulenburg who were entitled to inherit, which was finally decided in 1787 in favor of the oldest of the cousins, the Danish Lieutenant General Johann Heinrich from the Tuchheim line. Johann Heinrich von der Schulenburg took possession of Lieberose in 1787. His marriage to Friederike Luise Countess Knut, however, remained childless and after his death in 1791 the son of his youngest brother Achaz Albrecht Ludwig, Dietrich Ernst Otto Albrecht, inherited the Lieberose reign or the majorate. Dietrich Ernst Otto Albrecht von der Schulenburg (1756–1831) sold the Lieberose estate and the associated goods in 1806 to his younger brother Friedrich Ferdinand Bernhard Achaz. This was raised to the hereditary Prussian count status in 1816.
In 1824 the civil jurisdiction was initially abolished and jurisdiction in the rule was transferred to the Lieberose court office. In 1834 the count applied for the transfer of civil jurisdiction back and received it back in 1836. In 1849 civil jurisdiction finally passed to the Lieberose District Court. The patrimonial jurisdiction in the manor district, which was created from the castle and its outbuildings, was retained. With the replacement of the feudal burdens in the middle of the 19th century, the time of Lieberose's feudal rule came to an end, although Pieskow still formally remained part of the Lieberose class. Friedrich Ferdinand von der Schulenburg died in 1847. His son Friedrich Albrecht now inherited the property. Friedrich Albrecht von der Schulenburg died in 1869. He was followed by his son Dietrich Friedrich Joachim Graf von der Schulenburg (1849–1911).
In 1910, 11,610 hectares of land belonged to the Lieberose rulership or manor district, including 9,221 hectares of forest alone. Dietrich von der Schulenburg died in 1911. His younger brother Otto (1857–1945) became heir. In 1929 the manor district was united with the city of Lieberose. The last remainder of the Lieberose rulership passed to communal authorities. As a result of the law on the abolition of the class privileges of the nobility and the dissolution of household assets, the Entrepreneurship Free Class Authority Lieberose was dissolved in 1929 and converted into a forest foundation. This form was permitted by law to hold larger forest holdings in one hand. In 1943 the family von der Schulenburg z. T. expropriated in order to create a military training area on the associated forest areas. The last owners of the Lieberose Forest Foundation were Count Otto, who died in 1945, and his son Count Albrecht Friedrich von der Schulenburg. The remains of the forest estate foundation were then expropriated by the Soviet military authorities after 1945.
The village of Pieskow
In 1416/26 the village had 32 hooves , one of which was paid for by the pastor in Niewisch and the house of God in Trebitz . The interest was three bushels of grain, 6 groschen and 15 heller . The village judge managed six hooves, so there were 25 interest hooves. Nine gardens are mentioned.
|Population development from 1818 to 2000|
In 1708 only one farmer lived in Pieskow , but 18 cottagers and two Büdner lived there . In 1718 14 cottages are mentioned and the village was valued at 1000 guilders. In 1723 21 subjects are mentioned. In the Schmettauschen map series from 1767/87 a sheep farm is shown southeast of the town center (on the other hand in the Urmes table sheet from 1846 on the northern edge of the town). A larger pond called "Peiskowische Teich" is shown east of Speichrow. The Pieskower Torfgraben is still shown with a winding course, so it was not yet straightened. In 1795 there was also a freebüdner in the village.
In 1809 a Ganzbauer (Vollbauer), 18 Ganzkossäts and two Häusler or Büdner lived in Pieskow. In 1818 there were 25 fireplaces , in which 178 people lived. At that time it was also practiced viticulture , because it is called a separately located winegrower's house with a fireplace and two residents. The sheep farm was leased to the residents of Pieskow. At Pieskow peat has been mined since 1818, which was transported over the peat ditch to Schwielochsee and from there to the lime kilns in Rüdersdorf.
In 1840 there were already 25 houses in Pieskow with 212 inhabitants; the winegrower's house is also still there. The Annenhof is also mentioned for the first time. The Urmes table sheet from 1846 lists three different sized, yellow-colored plots on and on the Pieskower vineyard south of the town center, certainly the vineyards and a building, the winegrower's house. The sheep farm was at the northern exit of the village. In 1853 there was a country school in town. For this year Berghaus states a residential stock of 30 buildings and 242 inhabitants, including the Vorwerk Annenhof. In 1864 32 houses and 257 residents were counted. The Annenhof consisted of a residential building, but 10 people lived in it. Viticulture was still practiced on the Pieskower vineyard until at least 1864. In 1870 the village mayor Richter is mentioned.
The three villages of Niewisch, Pieskow and Speichrow belonged to the Guben district as an exclave until 1816 , then only became part of the Lübben district in the district reform of 1815/6 . During the district reform of 1950 in the GDR, they initially remained with the Lübben district. However, with the district reform of 1952, they came to the Beeskow district , which was renamed "Beeskow district" in 1990. In the course of the formation of offices in the state of Brandenburg in 1992, Niewisch merged with 15 other communities to form the Friedland (Niederlausitz) office . In the district reform of 1993, the districts of Beeskow , Fürstenwalde , the independent city of Eisenhüttenstadt and the district of Eisenhüttenstadt were merged to form the Oder-Spree district. Pieskow and Niewisch came to the new Oder-Spree district. However, the southern part of the Beeskow district was separated and turned into the Dahme-Spreewald district, including Speichrow. This is how the district boundary runs today between the former “water villages”.
Niewisch lost its independence in 2001 when it voluntarily merged with 13 other municipalities from the Friedland / Niederlausitz office to form the new city of Friedland. The Friedland / Niederlausitz office was dissolved on October 26, 2003. Niewisch has therefore been part of the city of Friedland since 2001. The local advisory board consists of three members. André Benkow is currently (beginning of 2015) mayor.
Pieskow has no church and was always parish in Niewisch.
Monuments and sights
The list of monuments of the state of Brandenburg for the Dahme-Spreewald district lists numerous archaeological monuments :
- No 90295 Corridor 1: Bronze Age burial ground
- No 90754 Hallway 2: Bronze Age burial ground
- No 90757 Corridor 1: Bronze Age burial ground
- Nr.90760 Hall 1: Prehistory settlement
- Nr.90761 Corridors 1,2: Prehistory settlement
- 90762 hall 1; Stone Age settlement
- No 90763 Corridor 1: Bronze Age settlement
- 90764 Hall 1: Mesolithic resting and work area
- 90765 Hall 1: German Middle Ages village center, Modern village center
- Nr.90758 Pieskow Flur 1 / Speichrow Flur 4: Settlement Bronze Age, Settlement Iron Age
- Nr.90759 Pieskow Flur 1 / Speichrow Flur 4: Settlement Bronze Age, Settlement Iron Age, resting place and work place Paleolithic
- Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Mark Brandenburg and the Markgrafthum Nieder-Lausitz. Volume 2, Adolph Müller, Brandenburg 1855, p. 603 ( online at Google Books ) (in the following abbreviated Berghaus, Landbuch, 3 with corresponding page number)
- Götz Freiherr von Houwald : The Niederlausitz manors and their owners. Volume III: District of Lübben. Verlag Degener & Co., owner Gerhard Gessner, Neustadt an der Aisch 1984, ISBN 3-7686-4109-0
- Rudolf Lehmann : Historical local lexicon of Niederlausitz. Volume 1, Hessisches Landesamt für Geschichtliche Landeskunde, Marburg 1979, ISBN 3-921-254-96-5 (hereinafter abbreviated Historisches Ortlexikon Niederlausitz, 1 with corresponding page number).
- Winfried Töpler : The Neuzelle monastery and the secular and spiritual powers 1268-1817. (= Studies on the history, art and culture of the Cistercians. Volume 14). Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-931836-53-3 (hereinafter abbreviated to Töpler, Neuzelle Monastery with corresponding page number)
- "Peski" entry in the Lower Sorbian place names database on dolnoserbski.de
- Main statutes of the city of Friedland from June 4, 2009 PDF
- Klaus Müller: Brandenburg name book . Part 12 (= the place names of the Beeskow-Storkow district ). 269 pp., Stuttgart, Steiner 2005. ISBN 3-515-08664-1 (pp. 85/6, or 94).
- Historisches Ortslexikon Niederlausitz, 1, p. 212/3.
- Contribution to the statistics of the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics. Historical municipality register of the State of Brandenburg 1875 to 2005 19.3 District Dahme-Spreewald PDF
- Topographical-statistical overview of the administrative district of Frankfurth ad O. 388 p., Berlin, G. Hayn 1820 (p. 214)
- Karl Friedrich von Klöden: Contributions to the mineralogical and geognostic knowledge of the Mark Brandenburg. Ninth piece. Alluvium. 85 p., Berlin, Naucksche Buchhandlung, 1836 Online at Google Books (p. 32)
- Topographical-statistical overview of the government district of Frankfurt ad O. 270 S., Frankfurt a. O., Gustav Harnecker's Buchhandlung, 1844 Online at Google Books (p.173)
- Berghaus, Landbuch 3, p. 667.
- Topographical-statistical manual of the government district of Frankfurt a. O. Frankfurt a. O. Verlag von Gustav Harnecker u. Co., 1867 Online at Google Books (p. 201).
- Official Journal of the Royal Prussian Government in Frankfurt ad Oder, year 1870, No. 3, from January 19, 1870 online at Google Books (p. 19)
- Rudolf Lehmann: Studies on the history of the church organization and administration of the Lausitz in the Middle Ages. 245 p., St. Benno-Verlag, Leipzig 1986 (studies on the history of the Catholic diocese and monastery, volume 28) ISBN 3-7462-0127-6 (p. 25)
- List of monuments of the state of Brandenburg. District of Dahme-Spreewald. Status: December 31, 2016 PDF ( Memento of the original from July 16, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.