Δήμος Λειψών (Λειψοί)
|Region :||South Aegean|
|Regional District :||Kalymnos|
|Geographic coordinates :|
|Area :||17.350 km²|
|Residents :||790 (2011)|
|Population density :||45.5 inhabitants / km²|
|LAU-1 code no .:||6104|
|Local self-government :||no|
|Location in the South Aegean region|
Lipsi ( Greek Λειψοί [ liˈpsi ] ( m. Pl. ), Also Lipsos ) is a Greek Dodecanese island . Together with several uninhabited small islands, it forms a municipality ( dimos δήμος) within the South Aegean region .
Lipsi is located in the Eastern Aegean Sea 13 km east of Patmos , 9 km north of Leros and 5 km south of Arki . The maximum extension of the 15.84 km² island is almost 8 km from northwest to southeast. The protected natural harbor bay on the south side divides the island into two different sized peninsulas. These are connected to the north of the port bay Ormos Lipson (Όρμος Λειψών) by a land bridge, which is the narrowest part of the island at around 750 m. The only place is east of the port and extends partially to the adjacent peninsula. Predominantly agricultural, partly laid out with terraces, the roughly 2 × 4 km large hilly peninsula reaches a maximum height of 113 m and with the Kastro hill in the south 108 m. The larger (4.5 × 3 km) western peninsula is more mountainous and almost uninhabited. To the west of the port lies the mountain Plaka (Πλάκα), which is a little over 200 m high, followed by the north-west of Skafi (Σκάφη), the highest point on the island, at 277 m . In addition to the harbor bay, there are other larger bays, in the far northwest the Moschato Bay (Όρμος Μοσχάτο) and Platys Gialos (Πλατύς Γιαλός) as well as in the southeast Chochlakoura (Χοχλακούρδα) and in the south Katsadia (Κάάτατστατατατο).
The sea depth between the main island and the surrounding islands, which are divided into several small groups, is no more than 100 m, within the small island groups it is significantly less. Overall, the total area of the surrounding islands is around 1.5 km².
The individual islands
|Surname||Greek name||group||Area km²||location|
|Lipsi||Λειψοί ( m. Pl. )||15.84|
|Arefousa||Αρέφουσα ( f. Sg. )||Refoulia (Ρεφούλια)||0.175|
|Νήσοι Μανώλη ( m. Pl. )||Refoulia (Ρεφούλια)||0.029|
|Megalo Aspronisi||Μεγάλο Ασπρονήσι ( n. Sg. )||Voria Aspronisia (Βόρεια Ασπρονήσια)||0.056|
|Makry Aspronisi||Μακρύ Ασπρονήσι ( n. Sg. )||Voria Aspronisia (Βόρεια Ασπρονήσια)||0.048|
|Micro aspronisi||Μικρό Ασπρονήσι ( n. Sg. )||Voria Aspronisia (Βόρεια Ασπρονήσια)||0.037|
|Paploma||Πάπλωμα ( n. Sg. )||0.004|
|Kouloura East||Κουλούρα Α ( f. Sg. )||Notia Aspronisia (Νότια Ασπρονήσια)||0.078|
|Kouloura West||Κουλούρα Δ ( f. Sg. )||Notia Aspronisia (Νότια Ασπρονήσια)||0.02|
|Notio Aspronisi West||Νότιο Ασπρονήσι Δ ( n. Sg. )||Notia Aspronisia (Νότια Ασπρονήσια)||0.01|
|Notio Aspronisi East||Νότιο Ασπρονήσι Α ( n. Sg. )||Notia Aspronisia (Νότια Ασπρονήσια)||0.007|
|Megalo Kalapodi||Μεγάλο Καλαπόδι ( n. Sg. )||Kalapodia (Καλαπόδια)||0.039|
|Micro Kalapodi||Μικρό Καλαπόδι ( n. Sg. )||Kalapodia (Καλαπόδια)||0.005|
|Lyre||Λύρα ( f. Sg. )||0.05|
|Stavri||Σταυρή ( f. Sg. )||Kalavre Islands (Νήσοι Καλαυραί)||0.067|
|Πιλάβι ( n. Sg. )
|Kalavre Islands (Νήσοι Καλαυραί)|
|Ψωμό ( n. Sg. )
|Kalavre Islands (Νήσοι Καλαυραί)||0.071|
|Kaparonisi (Kappari)||Καπαρονήσι ( n. Sg. ) (Καππάρι)||Kalavre Islands (Νήσοι Καλαυραί)||0.068|
|Piato||Πιάτο ( n. Sg. )||Kalavre Islands (Νήσοι Καλαυραί)||0.06|
|Makronisi (Makry)||Μακρονήσι ( n. Sg. ) (Μακρύ)||Kalavre Islands (Νήσοι Καλαυραί)||0.197|
|Frangkos||Φράγκος ( m. Sg. )||0.225|
|Σαράκι ( n. Sg. )
Source: Island information from, Lipsi
Compared to the nearby mainland of Asia Minor, the reptile community is severely impoverished and is viewed as the result of an ongoing process of extinction. Of Lipsi and the surrounding islands, the two gecko species are cyrtopodion kotschyi ( Mediodactylus kotschyi ) and European fingerless ( Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus ) known. There is an inverse relationship between the frequency of the two types. On islands where Mediodactylus kotschyi is common, Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus is very rare and vice versa. On Lipsi there is a population of the Asian Minor Mountain Otter ( Montivipera xanthina ), which was first detected in the south-eastern Aegean in the second half of the 20th century.
Since Eleanor's falcons visit the islands annually as a breeding area, the Greek bird protection organization Lipsi is one of the ten most important bird sanctuaries in Greece. Other protected birds that visit the islands to breed are the coral gull and the Mediterranean shearwater, and the eagle buzzard and shag live on the islands all year round .
Lipsi, Arki, Agathonisi, the surrounding islands and the bordering marine area were designated as Natura 2000 area GR 4210010 Arkoi, Leipsoi, Agathonisi kai Vrachonisides (Αρκοί-Λειψοί-Αγαθονήσι & Βραχονησεδisos as a European bird sanctuary 4210016 Nos & Nisides (Νήσος Λειψοί & Νησίδες) or as IBA (“Important Bird Area”) area GR 160 Islets of North Dodekanisa (Νησίδες και βραχονησίδες Βορείων Δωδεκανήσων).
Due to ceramic finds near the small church of Agios Nikolaos from the Mycenaean period (approx. 1600-1050 BC), the Protogeometric and Geometric periods (approx. 1050-700 BC) and the Hellenistic period, a continuous Settlement of Lipsi can be assumed since at least the Late Bronze Age.
According to some ancient sources, Karians are said to have lived on the island in the early days . Later Dorians settled on Lipsi. A settlement by Ionians from Miletus in Asia Minor is also documented by a marble inscription. Remains of the foundations of a fortification from the 4th century BC BC on the Kastro hill southeast of the city are assigned to an acropolis. During the Peloponnesian War , the waters served both parties as an anchorage.
Tombs from the Hellenistic and Roman times have been discovered between the present-day site and the Acropolis.
Constantly recurring pirate attacks in the Byzantine period led to a decrease in population and resulted in Lipsi becoming a pirate hideout. After a donation by the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos , Lipsi came into possession of the monk Christodoulos together with some smaller islands in 1087 and in the following year with the establishment of the Johannes monastery on Patmos in his possession. In the centuries that followed, the island served as the monastery’s arable and pasture land and was chosen as a retreat by hermits.
The conquest of the Dodecanese Islands from 1308 by the Johanniter followed in 1522 under Suleyman I. the Ottoman rule. After the conquest of Crete in 1669, Cretan families sought refuge on Lipsi and founded the present-day place.
During the Italo-Turkish War , troops of the Kingdom of Italy occupied the Dodecanese Islands in May 1912 . The Italian occupation lasted until 1923, when the Treaty of Lausanne gave the Italian Aegean Islands to the Kingdom of Italy. With the capitulation of Italy during the Second World War in November 1943, the islands came under German occupation until May 1945. The provisional British administration lasted until March 31, 1947, on March 7, 1948 the islands were integrated into the Greek state.
- Agios Ioannis Theologos
Agios Ioannis Theologos (Άγιος Ιωάννης ο Θεολόγος) is the largest church on the island. The church stands in the center of the village above the harbor. The construction was financed by emigrants from Australia and the USA . In the church there is the miraculous icon Panagia tou Charou (Παναγιά του Χάρου 'Mother of God of Death') which was made around 1600 and shows Mary holding a crucifix .
Dried up lilies, which were attached to the icon in April 1943, formed small buds on the stem in August and blossomed on August 23 (Εννιάμερα της Παναγίας). This phenomenon has been observed annually since then .
- Panagia tou Charou
The church name Panagia tou Charou (Παναγιά του Χάρου) comes from the icon of the same name, which is today in the main church of Lipsi Agios Ioannis Theologos. The church is located in an agricultural area with wine and olive growing. Probably built in the 7th or 8th century, a monastery was founded by two monks from Patmos in 1600. In the 20th century the church was enlarged by a narthex on the east side.
- Panagia Kouselio
The Panagia Kouselio Church (Παναγιά του Κουσέλιου) stands on the foundation of an ancient temple. During the construction, parts of the ancient temple and marble inscriptions from the Byzantine period were used. At the church there are the remains of an early Christian three-aisled basilica from the 5th century BC. BC, which was equipped with a large, cross-shaped baptismal font and floor mosaics.
- Kimisis tis Theotokou
The two churches of Kimisis tis Theotokou (Κοίμησης της Θεοτόκου Dormition of the Theotokos ) are connected by the approximately 900 m long paved path Monopati tis Koimisis . The upper church of Pano Panagia was built around 1500, the lower Kato Panagia in 1770. A monk lived in the hermitage until the 1990s, and the upper hermitage has recently been inhabited again.
Church and Folklore Museum
The church and folklore museum (Νικηφόρειο Εκκλησιαστικό Λαογραφικό Μουσειό) is located on the Platia. In addition to icons from the 16th and 17th centuries, crucifixes, sacred garments as well as costumes and coins from different epochs of the island are exhibited. The collection also includes small archaeological finds, an Ionic capital from the 4th century BC. And oil lamps from the 3rd century BC. Chr.
The main income of the population comes from agriculture, fishing and income from individual tourism. Around 80% of the population have a second job. Just over half of the fishermen can make a living exclusively from their jobs. The fallow land created by emigration in the 1950s and 1960s is now used again for viticulture.
Due to the poor soils, low rainfall and persistent winds in connection with inadequate irrigation options, no large yields can be achieved. According to the results of a market research project , many products could be certified organic , especially wine and olive oil.
Viticulture has a tradition on Lipsi that goes back to ancient times. Vines of the Fokiano variety (φωκιανό), which make a red wine with an alcohol content of 16 to 20 percent, and table grapes of the Victoria variety (βικτώρια) are cultivated on terraces. 8,000 new vines have been planted over the past ten years. The producers have joined forces in a winegrowers' cooperative, the majority of which are produced for the local market.
The mild climate favors the cultivation of around 15,000 olive trees. The Koroneiki variety trees produce small fruits and result in an excellent quality oil that is extracted in a modern mill. Other agricultural products include vegetables, especially dried tomatoes and cereals, and maize is produced almost exclusively for personal use.
Pasture-raised goats and a small number of cows provide milk for the production of feta , mizithra and cream cheese as well as meat. The beekeeping is mainly carried out to increase income, mainly thyme honey is produced.
In addition to agriculture, fishing is another important source of income. Catches are sold on the nearby islands of Patmos and Leros, but the markets of Athens and Piraeus are also supplied all year round. In addition, tourist demand is served in the summer months. Be caught u. a. Real bonitos , mackerel , gold welts , octopuses various bream such as sea bream and sea bream , scorpionfish and lobster.
The decrease in fish stocks in recent years is linked to trawling . Minimum distances to the coast were not observed and too many young fish were caught. Another negative impact in shallower coastal areas is the destruction of the seagrass meadow stocks , which play an important role in the marine ecosystem . A fish farm in the Moschato Bay has meanwhile ceased operations.
According to official information, the island has around 400 guest beds, 120 of which are in two hotels. A municipal council resolution from 1988 prohibits the construction of hotels with more than 60 beds. There are also apartment complexes with up to 10 units and numerous private rooms. The season lasts from April to October, with a peak in June to August. Around a quarter of the number of visitors came from former residents, followed by other Greeks. By far most of the other holidaymakers come from Italy, the remainder from Central and Western Europe. The total number is around 8,000 overnight stays.
The port of Lipsi is divided into three zones according to use. The ferry port is located just outside the town in the northwestern area . In the summer months there are almost daily connections with Samos or Kos , or with Flying Dolphins from the neighboring islands of Leros and Patmos as well as with large ferries that operate on the line between Piraeus and Rhodes . The fishing port and the small marina are located in the eastern port area and directly adjacent to the main town . The southern area of the harbor basin is reserved for commercial activities.
The road network is well developed and in good condition, although the number of cars is limited. Only a few cars come to the island from outside, as Lipsi is mostly called by small ferries. Due to the small size of the island - the maximum possible distance from the main town is around 5 km - motorized two-wheelers are mainly used for private transport.
In the summer months, municipal buses with a maximum of 15 seats run. The main destination is various bathing beaches. Otherwise a private taxi is available.
Lipsi is supplied with electricity via a submarine cable from the oil-fired power plants on Kos and Kalymnos. The installation of a wind turbine on Mount Plaka east of the port is in the planning stage .
As on other islands in the South Aegean, water resources are limited on Lipsi. The penetration of brackish water into the aquifer has been observed on several islands. The available reserves are not sufficient to meet daily needs. The deficit is compensated today with cost-intensive water transports in process water quality from Rhodes. Drinking water is delivered in the form of non- returnable bottles. Precipitation is used to achieve a minimum of autonomy. A 42,000 m³ sive reservoirs was very close to the church of Panagia tou Charou built, also are cisterns mandatory to invest in new buildings. The operation of a seawater desalination plant is planned; a framework agreement between the Minister of the Navy and local authorities was signed in 2009.
Lipsi has a municipal sewage treatment plant, which was built through contact with the former President of the European Parliament and long-time island visitor Charles Henry Plumb . The plant was financed and implemented with the support of the EU programs Envireg, the Commission's regional action program for the environment, and Medspa, community action to protect the environment in the Mediterranean region . Since the plant reaches its capacity limit in the summer months due to increasing tourism, an expansion is being considered; the population development must first be checked.
So far, there are no structures for an orderly waste disposal , a regulated landfill is planned in the north of the island northeast of the church of Agios Ioannis . Uncontrolled disposal and incineration in a garbage dump can lead to toxins being released into the environment, and there is a risk of fires in strong winds. The community is striving for a recycling system, but there is a lack of transport options for the recyclable materials.
- General information about Lipsi (Greek)
- Information about Lipsi
- ΔΑΦΝΗ - Δίκτυο Αειφόρων Νήσων του Αιγαίου, Λειψοί (PDF; 1.89 MB; Greek)
- Results of the 2011 census, Greek Statistical Office (ΕΛ.ΣΤΑΤ) ( Memento from June 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (Excel document, 2.6 MB)
- Ελληνική Στατιστική Αρχή [ΕΛΣΤΑΤ] (Ed.): Στατιστική Επετηρίδα της Ελλάδος (Statistical Yearbook of Greece) 2009 & 2010 . Piraeus 2011, p. 47 .
- Maria Panitsa, Dimitris Tzanoudakis: A floristic investigation of the islet groups Arki and Lipsi (East Aegean area, Greece) . In: Folia Geobotanica . Volume 36, No. 3 . Springer, 2001, ISSN 1211-9520 , p. 265-279 .
- John Foufopoulos: The reptile fauna of the Northern Dodecanese (Aegean Islands, Greece) . In: Herpetozoa . tape 10 , no. (1/2) . Vienna July 1997 ( PDF on ZOBODAT ).
- Conservation Measures for Falco eleonorae in Greece . Hellenic Ornithological Society. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- Natura 2000 area GR 4210010, Greek Natura 2000 area GR 4210010 ( Memento of the original from January 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Site Factsheet for Nisos Leipsoi (dytiko Tmima) Kai Nisides: Fragkos, Makronisi, Pilafi, Kapari, Kalapodia, Megalo Aspronisi, Makry Aspronisi, Kouloura, Notia Aspra, Sarakina, Piato, Psomos, Stavri, Lira, Arethousa, Manoli ( English ) eea.europa.eu. Retrieved on June 4, 2013. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- IBA GR 160 ( el ) ornithologiki.gr. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- Alexandra Stefanidou: Imperial monasteries of Alexios I Komnenos on islands of the Byzantine Empire . In: Wolfram Hörandner, Martin Hinterberger (Hrsg.): Yearbook of Austrian Byzantine Studies . tape 56 . Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2006, ISBN 978-3-7001-3697-2 , p. 400 . , Page 155
- Dodecanese under Italian occupation ( el ) egeonet.gr. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- Population development of Lipsi 1947–2001, Greek Statistical Office ELSTAT, Digital Library (Greek)
- Ioannis C. Karagiannis, Petros G. Soldatos, Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural Development: Current status of water deslination in the Aegean Islands . In: Desalination . No. 203 . Elsevier , 2007, p. 56-61 .
- Exuberant water bills for some Greek Islands, Kos Island info, August 9, 2008 ( Memento of the original from September 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Μονάδες αφαλάτωσης σε νησιά του Αιγαίου, ΣΚΑΪ νέα ( Memento of the original from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , June 11, 2009 (Greek)