|Region :||South Aegean|
|Regional District :||Andros|
|Geographic coordinates :|
|Area :||380.049 km²|
|Residents :||9,221 (2011)|
|Population density :||24.3 inhabitants / km²|
|LAU-1 code no .:||5901|
|Districts :||3 municipal districts|
|Local self-government :||
2 city districts |
22 local communities
|Location in the South Aegean region|
The Greek island of Andros ( Greek Άνδρος [ ˈanðrɔs ] ( f. Sg. )) Is the northernmost and second largest island of the Cyclades and the third largest in the South Aegean region (Περιφέρεια Νότιου Αιγαίου). There it has formed the municipality of Andros (Δήμος Άνδρου) and the regional district of Andros (Περιφερειακή Ενότητα Άνδρου) since 2011 . The administrative seat is the city of Andros . According to the 2011 census, the island had 9,221 inhabitants.
With 383,022 square kilometers, Andros is the second largest Cycladic island after Naxos . Andros is separated from the western Aegean island of Evia by the approximately 11 km wide and 400 m deep Kafiras Strait (Στενό του Καφηρέα also Στενό του Κάβο Ντόρο). The Greek mainland coast of Attica is about 56 km to the west. From the southern tip of Cape Steno (Ακρωτήριο Στενό) the distance to the nearest Cycladic island of Tinos is 1.5 km. In the immediate vicinity of the north and east side there are some uninhabited rock islands. The Gavrionisia are located in the bay of Gavriou (Όρμος Γαυρίου) on the south side. The farthest away, but belonging to Andros, are the Kalogeri rocks around 42 km northeast in the middle of the Aegean Sea.
Andros extends over 39.8 km in a north-west-south-east direction. At its widest point in the center of the island, from Cape Thiaki (Ακρωτήριο Θειάκι) on the west coast to Cape Gria (Ακρωτήριο Γριά) on the east coast, the island measures 16.7 km. The narrowest point is in the south of the island from the west coast to the Bay of Korthi (Όρμος Κορθίου) at 5.3 km.
Andros is one of the most mountainous Cyclades islands with a richly indented, mostly steep coast. Four almost parallel mountain ranges each stretch from southwest to northeast. In between there are gorges and valleys with streams that carry water all year round and lush vegetation. Beaches exist almost exclusively at the mouth of streams, and beach walls are often formed.
In the north the Agii Saranda (Άγιοι Σαράντα) reach 718 m. The highest peaks on the island are in the central mountain region of Kouvara-Petalo . The northern mountain range Kouvara (Κουβάρα) has several almost equally high peaks, the Profitis Ilias with 997 m represents the highest elevation. The Petalo (Πέταλο) is only connected to the Kouvara on the northwest side and also reaches heights over 990 m. In the valley of Chora lies the 28.2 km² catchment area of the Megalos Potamos (Μεγάλος Ποταμός 'Great River'). With 11.6 km, the longest flowing water on the island flows into Paraporti Beach (Παραλία Παραπόρτι) south of the island's capital, Andros. Further south follow the mountain ranges Gerakones (Γερακώνες, 685 m) and Tsirovlidi (Τσιροβλίδι, 726 m) and in the extreme south of the Rachi (Ράχη) with 682 m.
The climate of Andros is characterized by mild, rainy winters and warm, mostly dry summers. Due to the topography, there are considerable climatic differences depending on the altitude and orientation. Only the places in lower elevations show the typical Aegean climate of a summer dry period of several months. The annual average temperature is 18.0 ° C. Due to the prevailing winds from the northwest to the northeast from late July to early September, the average summer temperatures are 25.0 ° C in July. Average winter temperatures reach 12.0 ° C in January. Frost days are rare, an average of eight a year.
Due to the height of the island and its northwest-southeast orientation, the annual rainfall is remarkable compared to other Cyclades islands. In the coastal towns they are on average 450–500 mm, in the mountain regions they are often over 900 mm. Almost every year from January to February there is snowfall in the villages of the Kouvara-Petalo mountain region. Snowfalls at lower altitudes, such as on the Gavrionisia in winter 1990–1991, are a rare occurrence . In the summer months in the Kouvara-Petalo mountain region, the dry and cool Meltemi combined with evaporation leads to local cloud formation and increased air humidity.
The island, according to ancient authors originally populated by Carian pirates, was settled by Ionians during the so-called Ionian colonization . These founded around 650 BC. Several colonies on the Chalkidiki from Andros .
After the establishment of the Latin Empire , in 1207 it received its own prince, the Venetian nobleman Marino Dandolo , whose successors from other Venetian families asserted themselves against the Turks and only had to cede the island to them in 1566.
There has been an Arvanite minority on the island since the 13th and 14th centuries .
Since the late 19th century, the island has developed into a center of art in Greece, and the artists' “ urban escape ” was led not only by interest in light, rural motifs or striking landscapes, but also by longing for a simple, secluded life.
In 1912, 24 small communities were formed on the island, the island was part of the Cyclades prefecture as the province of Andros . With the implementation of the community reform according to the Kapodistrias program , these rural communities were merged into the three communities Andros (city) , Korthi and Gavrio and the province was abolished. On January 1, 2011, the Kallikratis program brought these three communities together to form the newly created community of Andros ( Dimos Androu Δήμος Άνδρου), the administrative center is the city of Andros . The previous communities form community districts, the 24 communities from the period up to 1997 form two city districts and 22 local communities as bodies of local self-government.
|Parish||Greek name||code||Area (km²)||2001 residents||Residents 2011||City districts / local communities
(Δημοτική / Τοπική Κοινότητα)
|Andros (city)||Δημοτική Ενότητα Άνδρου||590101||102.756||4,107||3,901||Andros, Apikia, Vourkoti, Lamyra, Mesaria, Pitrofos, Stenies|
|Korthi||Δημοτική Ενότητα Κορθίου||590102||81.918||2,547||1,948||Ormos Korthiou, Kapparia, Korthi, Kochylou, Paleokastro, Syneti|
|Ydrousa||Δημοτική Ενότητα Υδρούσας||590103||195.367||3,355||3,372||Gavrio, Ammolochos, Ano Gavrio, Aprovatou, Arni, Vitali, Katakilos, Makrotandalo, Batsi, Paleopoli, Fellos|
Economy and Infrastructure
The predominantly Greek tourism takes place mainly in Batsi, south of Gavrio, but also in the area around Andros town and in Gavrio. Most Athenians visit Andros on weekends . Andros is rarely the destination of vacation packages.
Andros plays a prominent role in Greek contemporary art . Numerous Greek artists have studios on the island that they live in temporarily.
- Museum of Modern Art (the Vasilis and Eliza Goulandris Foundation)
- Maritime Museum
- Local museum
- Tourlitis lighthouse
- Aulus Avillius Flaccus († 39 AD) was a Roman knight and prefect of Egypt. Was banished to Andros
- Theophilos Kaïris (1784-1853), philosopher of the Enlightenment
- Alexander Pantages (1867–1936), American vaudeville impresario .
- Nikitas Kaklamanis (* 1946), former mayor of Athens
- Results of the 2011 census, Greek Statistical Office (ΕΛ.ΣΤΑΤ) ( Memento from June 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (Excel document, 2.6 MB)
- Ελληνική Στατιστική Αρχή [ΕΛΣΤΑΤ] (Ed.): Στατιστική Επετηρίδα της Ελλάδος (Statistical Yearbook of Greece) 2009 & 2010 . Piraeus 2011, p. 47 .
- Πλημμυρικά Μεγέθη σε Λεκάνες Απορροής της Ν. Άνδρου ( Memento from August 17, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 304 kB, Greek)
- Sven Snogerup, Brit Snogerup: Changes in the flora of some Aegean islets 1968-2000 . In: Plant Systematics and Evolution . No. 245 . Springer-Verlag, 2004, p. 169-213 .