As Paiute or Piute refers to three regional dialect groups or tribal groups of North American indigenous people in the cultural area of the Great Basin , the respectively variants of Numic languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family spoke, historically never a political entity or tribal identity developed. "Paiute / Piute" is therefore a collective term for the following groups who, like most indigenous peoples, simply referred to themselves as "people" or "the people" depending on their dialect:
- Northern Paiute or Numa / Numu ("people", "the people"), formerly mostly Paviotso (a slightly derogatory Shoshone name for Northern Paiute bands in Nevada) or as Snake Indians (collective term for allied Northern Paiute, Northern Shoshone and Bannock) denotes: in northeast California , northwest Nevada , east Oregon and south Idaho .
- Southern Paiute or Nuwuvi ("people", "the people"): in northern Arizona , southeastern California, southern Nevada and southwestern Utah .
Mono or Monache / Monoache ("fly larva eater", a loan word of the hostile Yokuts, who hereby referred to the Kucadikadi band of the Northern Paiute): on both sides of the Sierra Nevada in the border area of California and Nevada, divided into two regional tribal or. Dialect groups, the border being the Sierra Nevada; to be distinguished from the Kucadikadi Band ("eaters of salt fly larvae ", derived from Kutsavi - "salt fly larvae " and Dika'a - "eaters") of the Northern Paiute,historically misleading as "Mono Lake Paiute / Paviotso" or "Western Mono":
- Owens Valley Paiute (Eastern Mono) or Numa ("people", "the people"): on the east side of the Sierra Nevada in the Owens Valley near the Owens River .
- Western Mono (Mono or Monache) or Nyyhmy / Nim ("people", "the people"): on the western side of the Sierra Nevada in the southern foothills near Mono Lake and in the Mono Basin .
Origin of name
The origin of the word "Paiute / Piute" is unclear, one possible interpretation is the meaning "the water ute" or "the true ute". The word "Paiute / Piute" is obviously very similar to the Bannock's own designation as Banakwut, Nimi Pan a'kwati or Pannaitti , which is represented as a water people. The Paiute were contemptuously called Diggers by the settlers (probably because they dug for roots in the ground with a digging stick), this term is now rejected as offensive by the Paiute.
The "Paiute / Piute" did not form " tribes " in the strict sense, but were divided into several dozen bands (groups) , which are usually in local groups (English, local bands ) divided. The local group consisted of several extended families , so that almost every member of a band was related to most, if not all, of the others. The local group was based on its distinctiveness (clear differentiation from other groups by means of its own group name), its small size (manageable number of members in which everyone knows each other ), its homogeneity (very large agreement in the world views of the members) and self-sufficiency (economic and social largely self-sufficient ) the social basis and identification for the individual members. Local groups came together especially in winter or to organize a hunt, collecting, processing and preserving berries and wild plants as well as for cultural and religious occasions. Campaigns were mostly undertaken by local groups (less often the whole band ).
Usually, as already mentioned, the individual groups simply referred to themselves as "people" or "the people", depending on the dialect; however, each local group (and band) had its own name to differentiate itself from neighboring groups and to express their identity. Again, there are great differences among the "Paiute / Piute"; While the Northern Paiute (such as the Bannock and Shoshone) named their bands / local groups after their preferred food sources, the Southern Paiute and Mono usually named their bands / local groups according to geographical features, hunting areas, plantations, mountains or rivers.
Based on a common language, culture and region, the bands or local groups were generally assigned to either the Northern Paiute, Southern Paiute or Mono , but these developed different cultures due to the environment and contact with neighboring peoples and sometimes fought each other.
Today around 5,000 "Paiute / Piute" still live in various Indian reservations .
Although the languages of Northern Paiute, Southern Paiute and Mono all come from the same language family, they are not as closely related to one another as the name suggests, since they belong to different branches of the Numic languages, and are neighboring languages of the respective Numic branch closer.
The Northern Paiute (Numu or Paviotso) (the Northern Paiute and Bannock; a dialect continuum with regional dialects: Southern Nevada, Northern Nevada, Oregon, and Bannock) as well as the Mono language (Nim) (the Western and Eastern Mono) both make up the Western Branch of Numic languages; the Southern Paiute , however, belongs to the Southern Branch and is a dialect variant of the Colorado River Numic (Ute – Southern Paiute) (also a dialect continuum with regional dialects: Chemehuevi, Southern Paiute and Ute).
Despite the supposed special proximity of the Northern and Southern Paiute, the "Northern Paiute (Numu or Paviotso)" is particularly close to the language of the Bannock (a dialect variant of the "Northern Paiute", the Bannock themselves are actually a group of the Northern Paiute) in Idaho “The" Southern Paiute "is therefore more similar to the Kawaiisu (Nɨwɨ'abigidɨ or Tehachapi) of the Kawaiisu (Nuwa or Tehachapi) (the Colorado River Numic and Kawaiisu together form the southern branch ) more than the" Northern Paiute ".
Therefore the neighboring peoples of the Timbisha (Tümpisa Shoshoni) ( Nümü Tümpisattsi - ″ Death Valley People ″, literally: ″ People from the Place of red ocher (face) paint ″; formerly known as Koso or Panamint , also Northern Death Valley Shoshone ), Western Shoshone ( Newe - "people", "the people"), the Gosiute (Goshute) (linguistically a group of the Western Shoshone), the Northern Shoshone (Central Numic Branch), Kawaiisu ( Nuwa - "people "," the people "; also Tehachapi or Southern Death Valley Shoshone ) and Ute (southern Numic branch) called" Paiute / Piute ".
In contrast , the Bannock (Banate) ( Nimi Pan a'kwati, Bana'kwut - "water people") , who linguistically belong to the "Northern Paiute" , are now regarded as a separate ethnic group, as they were formerly a splinter group of the Northern Paiute, after taking over the The horse culture of the Plains and the territory shared with Northern Shoshone were culturally almost identical to them.
Something similar can be said of the Chemehuevi ( Nüwüwü - "people", "the people"), who are linguistically only the southernmost group of the "Southern Paiute", but due to their migration at the beginning of the 19th century south to the Colorado River and the When they adopted the cultural customs of the River Yuma there , they are now mostly regarded as an independent ethnic group.
Way of life
The Northern Paiute, native to the desert climate south of Mono Lake of eastern California, western Nevada and southeastern Oregon, were adapted to the inhospitable environment. The individual tribes or clans claimed their own territory, in the center of which was usually a lake or other water source that supplied them with fish and water birds. Hares and pronghorns were frightened up and killed with driven hunts . The linguistically closely related Owens Valley Paiute lived in the southeast, the Northern and Western Shoshone (proper name: Newe - 'people', pronounced: 'Nih-wih') lived in the east, and in the west their areas bordered on those of Hokan and Penuti - Speaking to peoples like the Miwok and Yokut .
The Northern Paiute called themselves Numa or Numu ('the people'), but they used to be called Paviotso . Paviotso is a slightly derogatory term used by the Western Shoshone for Northern Paiute, but only for groups that lived in Nevada, so this term is too narrow. Other ethnonyms: Mono Pi-Utes, Oregon Snakes, Paiute, Paviotso, Py-utes
The food sources were also the names for the individual groups, for example the group that settled around Pyramid Lake was called Cui Ui Ticutta ('the Cui-Ui fish-eaters', a suction carp widespread there ). Further examples are the group known as Koop Ticutta ('ground squirrel eaters') and the Toi Ticutta ('eaters of the broad-leaved cattail') that live around the Lovelock area .
The Northern Paiute were culturally closer to the Western Shoshone and Bannock than the Southern Paiute, and there were often marriages between these groups. Since some groups of the Northern Paiute were allied with the Western Shoshone as well as Bannock against the Plateau and Plains tribes ( Blackfoot , Lakota and others) and were often to be found in common hunting and war camps, they were often called Snake Indians or Snakes by the whites designated. The individual groups mostly respected the rights of each other, so that there were few disputes among the Northern Paiute, but their relationship to the Washoe, who differed greatly from them culturally and linguistically, was rather critical. There were also often armed conflicts with the linguistically related Ahwahnee (also Ahwahneechee , residents of the village of Ahwahnee) who live in the Yosemite Valley and are respected and feared by the neighboring tribes ( Miwok , Mono and other Paiute) . The Ahwahnee Yosemite (derived from the Miwok Yohhe'meti or Yos.s.e'meti - 'those who kill') were called by the neighboring tribes , especially the Miwok, who suffered from the constant wars with the Ahwahnee. Ultimately, Mono and Paiute almost completely destroyed the Ahwahnee except for eight warriors and a few old women and men in the mid-1850s. The surviving young women and children were taken into slavery and grew up as Mono and Paiute, so that today the Ahwahnee are mostly counted among the Northern Paiute.
The Northern Paiute had their first contact with Europeans at the beginning of the 1840s. But there were probably individual encounters with immigrants 20 years earlier. At this time, the way of life was hardly changed by European influences, but the Paiute already knew the use of horses. With the increasing settlement of the west by settlers, a process of displacement began, in the course of which there were violent clashes, including the Pyramid Lake War in 1860, the Snake War of 1868 and the Bannock War of 1878. The various conflicts led repeatedly for the intervention of the United States Army , nevertheless significantly more Paiute died as a result of the diseases brought in by the Europeans.
Ghost dance movement
Around 1870, the ghost dance , which according to the religious beliefs of the tribes predicted the disappearance of the white settlers , arose in the settlement area of the Paiute . Under the Paiutian seer Wovoka , the spirit dance movement reached all the Plains tribes around 1890 and grew into the belief that the bison and the slain warriors would return and that the warriors of the tribes were invulnerable. The increasing fear of this movement culminated in the massacre at Wounded Knee of the Lakota - Sioux , which finally broke the resistance of the Indians against displacement.
The first reservation established for the Northern Paiute was the Malheur Reservation in Oregon. According to the will of the American government, the various Paiute should be brought together there. However, the Paiute could not be persuaded to move, or rather quickly left the reserve due to the poor living conditions. Instead, they tried to maintain their traditional way of life or established small Indian colonies within white-populated areas where they looked for work. Later larger reservations were set up in Pyramid Lake and Duck Valley , but by this time the small settlements, also due to the influx of Shoshonen, were already consolidated and were recognized by the government as independent tribes under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Other Northern Paiute Reserves are the settlement areas of the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe and the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Indians.
Owens Valley Paiute
Traditionally, and in most textbooks, the indigenous inhabitants of the Owens Valley near the Owens River are on the up to now eastern side of the southern Sierra Nevada as Owens Valley Paiute generally attributed the Paiute, while on the west side of living of the Sierra Nevada bands as Mono / Monache referred become. Both regional tribal groups spoke strongly differing dialects of the mono language (Nim) , but together they formed the ethnic and linguistic people of the mono . Their common language, together with the language of the Northern Paiute, forms the western branch of the Numic languages of the Uto-Aztec language family .
Owens Valley Paiute (Eastern Mono)
The Mono Bands in the Owens Valley near the Owens River in the border area of California and Nevada on the east side of the southern Sierra Nevada spoke the now endangered Owens Valley Paiute , the Eastern dialect of the Mono language (Nim) , in contrast to their western relatives they more intensive agriculture, were therefore able to feed larger groups and were more aggressive and hostile towards neighboring Indian tribes - in the end they also fought the Americans advancing on their territory. They refer to themselves as Numa ("the people") or Nün'wa Paya Hup Ca'a 'Otuu'mu ("Coyote's children who live in the moat"), because according to their belief their mythological ancestor, the trickster, was coyote , and the Owens Valley was referred to by them as the " moat ". Today they are each part of the Big Pine Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley (Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians) , Bishop Paiute Tribe (formerly: Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Bishop Community of the Bishop Colony) , the Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Lone Pine Community of the Lone Pine Reservation , the Bridgeport Indian Colony (BIC) , the Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians and the Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation (Benton Paiute Tribe) .
Western Mono (Mono or Monache)
The mono bands on the west side of the Sierra Nevada in the southern foothills near Mono Lake and in the Mono Basin in a narrow strip of land in today's counties Madera, Fresno and Tulare spoke (speak) the also endangered Western Mono or Mono Lake Paiute , the western dialect of the mono-language (Nim) , in contrast to their warlike and more intensive farming eastern neighbors, they mostly lived in smaller groups - often socio-politically organized not in bands, but therefore in local groups - from fishing, hunting and collecting and were therefore mostly on the move as typical hunters and gatherers . They called themselves Nyyhmy or Nim ("the people") or as cawu h nyyhmy .
The current tribal designation as Mono / Monache or Western Mono is a loan word from the language of the hostile Yokuts, which, however, denotes the Kutzadika'a / Kucadikadi ("eater. ") Who live around Mono Lake with Monoache ("fly larvae eater") from salt fly larvae ", derived from Kutsavi -" salt fly larvae "and Dika'a -" eater ") of the Northern Paiute. Since this southernmost group of the Northern Paiute is referred to in historical sources and to this day simply as Mono Lake Paiute or Mono Lake Paviotso , both ethnicities are often confused with one another or even viewed as one and the same. Incidentally, the Mono also called these Northern Paiute kwicathyhka ("fly larvae eater").
Today, descendants of the Western Mono live in the Big Sandy Rancheria of Mono Indians of California , Cold Springs Rancheria of Mono Indians of California , Northfork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California , Table Mountain Rancheria of California and as part of the Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation (the majority of Yokut, as well as some Tubatulabal). In addition, descendants live in the North Fork Band of Mono and the Dunlap Band of Mono Indians , neither of which are recognized as tribes at the state level.
The Mono Indian Tribe , which is also not recognized by the state , is only formed by members of the Kutzadika'a / Kucadikadi and Kawaiisu - no descendants of the actual Mono can be found here. Today, however, most of the descendants of the Kutzadika'a / Kucadikadi (Mono Lake Paiute) live in tribes of the Western Mono.
The southern Paiute lived in the desert regions, plateaus, mountains and canyons along the western bank of the Colorado River and in the Mojave Desert in southern Utah, Nevada and southeastern California, only the Kwaiantikowkets (San Juan Band) lived east of the Colorado and south of the San Juan River and north of the Little Colorado River in northern Arizona.
They referred to themselves as Nuwuvi ('the people') and were called Payuchi or Yutas Cobardes ('cowardly ute ') by the Spaniards , as they were mostly peaceful in contrast to neighboring Ute and Northern Paiute.
Way of life
Recent research has shown that the southern Paiute farmed earlier than previously thought . Excavations on the Santa Clara River in southern Utah revealed that it was artificially dammed for irrigation . The members of the Dominguez Escalante Expedition reported in 1776 of drying racks ( tapestle ) with maize and three small fields with irrigation ditches. The trapper Jedediah Smith bought corn and pumpkins from the Paiute in 1826 and reported on the cultivation of green watermelons . In 1849 missionaries of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ("Mormons") described wheat , beans , sunflowers , amaranth, and sorghum to the Paiute , and in 1852 a trip to potatoes , reservoirs, and large-scale irrigation channels.
The Southern Paiute traded frequently with the peoples living on the coast. For example, excavations have shown trade links between the Owens Valley Paiute and the Chumash people . In addition, there were close trade relations between the Chemehuevi, the Tudinu of the southern Paiute and the Mohave and Serrano.
Relationship with neighboring tribes
As already mentioned, the southern Paiute were mostly peaceful and the groups north of the Colorado River only took up arms in case of defense - with the exception of the groups known as Las Vegas Paiute (Kwiengomats, Nuaguntits, Pegesits, Tudinu) and the Chemehuevi west of the Colorado River, strongly influenced by the warlike neighboring Mohave and highland Yuma ( Yavapai , Walapai ( Hualapai , formerly: Yuma-Apache ) and Havasupai ).
In the north and north-east their tribal areas bordered (partly with overlaps) those of the aggressive and warlike Ute . In fact, there were often mixed marriages among the neighboring Southern Paiute and Pahvant and Moanunts Ute , so that the Antarianunts (a Ute name), Beaver Band ( Kwiumpats ), Panguitch , Cedar Band ( Ankappanukkicicimi and Kumoits ) and the Escalante Band ( Kaiparowits ) were referred to as Ute by neighboring Paiute . For the Cedar Band, on the other hand, the northern Beaver Band ( Kwiumpats ) was one of the hostile Pahvant-Ute, whose slave hunts particularly affected the Kumoits .
Several groups of the Southern Paiute ( Moapa Valley bands, Shivwits, Uainuints and Pahranagats ) accused the northeastern (and culturally close to the Ute) Beaver Band ( Kwiumpats ), Panguitch , Cedar Band ( Ankappanukkicicimi and Kumoits ) as well as the Gunlock Band , their children and To rob women and sell them as slaves. The Shivwits in particular suffered from these slave hunts , but the Moapa Valley bands also accused them of slave hunting.
Even before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1776, the Southern Paiute were victims of slave hunts by the neighboring Diné (Navajo), Ute and Apache , but with the flourishing of a large slave market in New Mexico and in northern Mexico under Spanish rule, their slave hunts increased Indian enemies considerably. Particularly in winter and early spring, the starved and weakened southern Paiute were attacked and kidnapped by Indian and Spanish (later Mexican) slave hunters. Often times, families of the Southern Paiute were forced to sell their children and loved ones to slave hunters and in the slave markets during times of hunger.
Most of the time, however, resentment towards the others prevailed among the individual groups, but no open hostility - even in times of need, the resources of neighboring territories were shared. The Kwaiantikowkets (San Juan Band) had little contact with other southern Paiute due to their geographical location, but were friends with the Havasupai and lived in constant fear of the powerful Diné (Navajo), some of whom they influenced the dress and living style as well as the language took over. The relationship between Southern Paiute and Ute was ambivalent - on the one hand the latter were feared as aggressive slave hunters - on the other hand the Kaivavwits (Kaibab Paiute) admired them for their culture (the Ute had introduced the Bear Dance at Kaivavwits ) and their warlike power.
The Western Shoshone in the north and north-west enjoyed a peaceful life - there were mixed marriages among each other, trade contacts and the assumption of Shoshone dances - some of the Las Vegas Paiute bands ( Kwiengomats, Nuaguntits, Pegesits, Tudinu ) even spoke Shoshone in part. However, the Nimikko? Ici ('those who kill people'), most likely the Timbisha Shoshone (formerly Koso or Panamint , also Northern Death Valley Shoshone ), were viewed as hostile. The Moapa Valley Paiute bands ( Ichuarumpats, Moapats, Nauwanatats, Pahranagats, Pintiats, Sauwontiatst and Utumpaiats ), Shivwits and the Uainuints often crossed the Colorado River and fought the Walapai.
The Chemehuevi and Las Vegas Paiute not only maintained friendly contacts with the Western Shoshone living in the north (with the exception of the Timbisha Shoshone, formerly Koso / Panamint Shoshone), but also with the Kawaiisu living in the west and south-west (own name: Nuooah (new-wa ) - 'the people'), Serrano (Spanish: 'mountain dwellers', proper designation: Yuharetum - 'people of the pines '), Vanyume ( Wanyuma , Beñemé , Desert Serrano), Cahuilla (proper name: Iviatim ) and the deserts of Yuma the Kumeyaay (Tipai - Southern Diegueño and Ipai - Northern Diegueño ). The Chemehuevi (and to a lesser extent the Las Vegas Paiute) were influenced culturally and linguistically by the Colorado River Yuma or River Yuma ( Mohave , Halchidhoma , Quechan ), who live directly in the south , so that they can be found in many customs (meaning of dreams , Chants, type of irrigation, cultivated plants, living style) differed from the other southern Paiute. The Chemehuevi hunted in the territory of the Quechan and seldom fought them. They were mostly allied with the Mohave ( Pipa Aha Makav - 'people on the water') - but there were not infrequently armed conflicts. According to tradition, the Las Vegas Paiute and Chemehuevi had together destroyed the Desert Mohave and driven it out of their areas, so that the Chemehuevi could then take over and both groups developed their own identity.
Through the mediation of the Quechan and Mohave, the Chemehuevi also had contacts with the Yavapai (Tolkepaya and Yavapé) belonging to the highland Yuma and with Californian tribes up to the coastal Chumash . Chemehuevi hunted regularly in the territory of the Yavapai and in the western territory of the Walapai (Hualapai), traded and sometimes married among the Yavapai. This automatically made them enemies of the loose alliance of the Cocopa ( Cocopah , proper: Kwapa - 'river people'), which was dominated by the Maricopa (proper name: Piipaash) and Akimel O'Odham (Pima) . , halchidhoma (also Xalchidom , Eigenbez .:, Xalychidom Piipaash 'or Xalychidom Piipaa'), Kohuana (also Coana , Kahwan , Cutganas ) Halyikwamai (also Halykwanis , Quiçama ) Kavelchadom (also Kaveltcadoms , Opa or Cocomaricopa ) and several südlichkalifornischer Tribal groups. Sometimes the Chemehuevi, together with Mohave and Quechan, undertook joint campaigns against Halchidhoma, Cocopah and the Pima Maricopa Alliance. These ventures were even sometimes joined by Tonto Apache, the Western Apache, and Yavapai (Wipukepaya and Kwevkepaya), who were related to one another by mutual marriages (and commonly referred to by whites as Tonto Apache or Mohave Apache ), taking advantage of every opportunity the Pima had -Maricopa to rob and to war.
In 1851, Mormon settlers ( Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ) occupied the most important water sources in the southern Paiute, resulting in a dependency on the part of the Paiute, as they no longer had free access to the springs that were so important for their way of life. The increasing influx of white settlers and the introduction of European agriculture (especially large herds of cattle) made it difficult for more and more groups to follow their traditional way of life. Despite all the difficulties, relations between the Mormons and the Southern Paiute were largely peaceful (thanks to the diplomatic skill of Mormon missionary Jacob Hamblin ) and the Mormon presence even ended the slave trade in captured Paiute by neighboring tribes.
A group of the Southern Paiute from the area south of the Grand Canyon settled within the Navajo Indian Reservation . It wasn't until 1980 that they were recognized as a tribe by the Bureau of Indian Affairs .
Groups of the Northern Paiute
- Aga'idökadö / Agai Ticutta (" Cutthroat Trout Eater", today's Walker River Paiute Tribe )
- Pakwidökadö / Pugwi Ticutta ("Chub-carp-fish-eater", today's Walker River Paiute Tribe )
- Atsakudöka tuviwarai / Atsakudokwa Tuviwa ga yu ("Those who lived in the red table mountains", also Atsa-Kudok-Wa , lived in northwestern Nevada along the Oregon-Nevada border in the Santa Rosa Mountains northwards to the slumbering hills, westwards to the Jackson Mountains, northeast to Disaster Peak and east again to the Santa Rosa Mountains, the Quinn River was the most important water resource, today part of the Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes )
- A'waggoo Dukadu (" suction carp eaters", lived in the Bridgeport Valley around today's city of Bridgeport in California, therefore often referred to as Bridgeport Paiute , today part of the Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony of California )
- Goyatöka (" crayfish eater"), mostly Yahuskin / Yahooskin (often referred to as Upper Sprague River Snakes or even Upper Sprague River Klamath , lived on the banks of the Goose, Silver, Warner and Harney Lake and along the Sprague River in Oregon, now part of the Klamath Tribes )
- Hunipuitöka ("Hunipui root eater"), mostly Walpapi (lived along the Deschutes River , Crooked River and John Day River in central Oregon, today part of the Burns Paiute Tribe of the Burns Paiute Indian Colony of Oregon , the Klamath Tribes as well the Confederated Tribes of warm Springs Indians )
- Kamodökadö / Kamu Ticutta (" rabbit eaters", lived north of Pyramid Lake in the Smoke Creek and Granite Creek Desert (which belong to the Black Rock Desert) in Nevada, today's Yerington Paiute Tribe of the Yerington Colony and Campbell Ranch )
- Kidütökadö / Gidu Ticutta (" yellow-bellied marmot eater"), also Gidi'tikadii (" woodchuck eater") (also known as Northern California Paiute , lived on Goose Lake, as well as in the Surprise Valley in northern California and in the Warner Valley in Oregon, as well as in the valley along the eastern mountains of the Warner Range along the Oregon-Nevada border to the South to the Long Valley and Lower Lake, today's Fort Bidwell Indian Community of the Fort Bidwell Reservation of California )
- Koa'aga'itöka ("(Trapped) Salmon Eaters", lived in the Snake River Plain , now part of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation )
- Koosi Pah Ticutta ("Muddy Water Eater", today's Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and Colony )
- Küpadökadö / Koop Ticutta ("Erdhörnchen" -Esser ") lived along the shores of Humboldt Lake, in the east their area was bounded by the Shoshone, including the Pahsupp Mountains, Kamma Mountains and Majuba Mountains to the Humboldt River and Sink River, today Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony )
- Kuyuidökadö / Kooyooe Dukadu / Kooyooe Duka'a / Cui Yui Ticutta or Cui-ui Dicutta (" Cui-ui fish-eaters", lived along the shores of Pyramid Lake , today's Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe )
- Makuhadökadö , also Pauida tuviwarai (lived in the area of Battle Mountain and Unionville in Nevada, parts of the Humboldt Valley, as well as in the desert valleys Buena Vista Valley, Pleasant Valley, Buffalo Valley and in the Sonoma and East Mountains)
- Moadökadö / Moa Ticutta ("wild onion eater"), also Aga'ipañinadökadö / Agai Panina Ticutta ("inland sea fish eater", literally "Summit Lake fish eater" or " trout - from the lake - eater") (lived at Summit Lake - called Agaipaninadi by them - in Nevada and along the southern Idaho border, east of Kidütökadö , today's Summit Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada )
- Onabedukadu / Onabe Dukadu / Ozav dika (" salt eater" or " alkali eater", also known as Soda Springs Valley Paiute or Coleville Paiute , lived in the border region of California and Nevada from Coleville , California, in the Antelope Valley to the Monte Cristo Range and the Excelsior Mountains in Nevada, now part of the Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony of California )
- Pogidukadu / Pogi Dukadu / Poo-zi Ticutta (" Onion Eater", today's Yerington Paiute Tribe of the Yerington Colony and Campbell Ranch and Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony of California )
- Qui na taue Pha Numa ("People in the Big Smoke Valley" lived between Toiyabe Range and Toquima Range in Nevada, today's Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes of the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation )
- Sawawaktödö ("mugwort eaters") / Sawakudökwa tuviwarai ("mugwort eaters who live in the mountains") (lived in the Winnemucca area, from the Osgood Mountains and the Sonoma Mountains in the east to the Jachson Mountains in the west, from the Slumbering Hills and Santa Rosa Mountains in the north to Table Mountain in the south, today's Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada )
- Tagötöka / Taga Ticutta (" tuber eater", literally "eater of the tubers / roots of desert parsley", an edible plant from whose powder biscuits were baked, therefore often referred to as biscuits roots , lived along the Jordan River in Utah and Owyhee River in Oregon and Idaho, now part of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation )
- Tasiget tuviwarai ("Those who live in the midst of the mountains" lived in the Winnemucca Valley, today's Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe )
- Toedökadö / Toe Dukadu / Toe Tukadu / Toi Ticutta ("Eaters of the broad-leaved cattail ", lived in the Carson Depression , today's Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and Colony )
- Tövusidökadö / Taboosse Dukadu / Tobusi Ticutta (" pine nut eaters", lived in the foothills of Nevada, today's Yerington Paiute Tribe of the Yerington Colony and Campbell Ranch )
- Tsösö'ödö tuviwarai ("Those who live in the cold" lived near Steens Mountain in Oregon)
- Wadadökadö / Wada Ticutta ( Wada-Tika - "Wada root and grass seed eater", also known as Harney Valley Paiute , its territory once covered approximately 52,500 square miles and stretched around Malheur Lake , between the Cascade Mountains in central Oregon and the Payette Valley north of Boise , Idaho, as well as from the southern Blue Mountain near the source of the Powder River , north of the John Day River , south to the desert-like surroundings of the Steens Mountain , today's Burns Paiute Tribe of the Burns Paiute Indian Colony of Oregon )
- Way Dukadu ("ryegrass-eater" or " lolch- eater", lived in the Bridgeport Valley in California, hence called Bridgeport Paiute , today part of the Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony of California )
- Yamosöpö tuviwarai / Yamosopu Tuviwa ga yu ("Inhabitants of the Crescent Valley", lived in what they called the Crescent Valley Paradise Valley in Nevada and in the Santa Rosa Mountains and along the Little Humboldt River, as well as on the Oregon-Nevada border south into the Osgoods Mountains, now part of the Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes )
- Kutsavidökadö / Kutzadika'a ( Kucadikadi , Kutsavidökadö , Ku Zabbi Ticutta , Koza'bittukut'teh , Kotsa'va - " salt fly larvae eaters", derived from Kutsavi - "fly larvae" and Dika'a - "eaters"; southernmost group of Northern Paiute, lived in the Mono Lake area and hiked as far as Walker Lake in Nevada; since they are known in historical sources and are known to this day as Mono Lake Paiute or Mono Lake Paviotso , they are often combined with the non-Northern Paiute Ethnicity of the Mono - especially the Western Mono - confused, the foreign name as “Mono Lake Paiute” or “Mono” is a loan word and derives from Monoache / Monachie (“Fly larvae eater”), the Yokut term for the Kutzadika'a, today mostly part of the mostly Mono-inhabited Big Sandy Rancheria of Western Mono Indians of California , Cold Springs Rancheria of Mono Indians of California , Northfork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California , Table Mountain Rancheria of Califo rnia and the Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation ; In addition, together with the Kawaiisu, they form the Mono Indian Tribe, which is not recognized by the state .)
Groups of the Southern Paiute
- Ankakkani'kacimi / Un-ka-ka'-ni-guts / Unka-kanig-its / Oaw'tuhus'eng ("Yellow Mouth of Canyon People" - 'People at the yellow mouth / opening of the gorge' or 'People at Bottom of the Red Cliffs', lived in the Long Valley in southern Utah.)
- Ankappanukkicicimi / Unkapanukuints ('people of the red river', also called Suh'dutsing - ' tree of life ' ( called Cedar in western North America ), therefore often referred to as the Cedar Band , lived near Cedar City in the Cedar Valley along the river of the same name in the southwest of Utah, to tribal areas shared with the Kumoits , north lived Kwiumpats (Beaver band) , east of the Panguitch , southeast the Kaivavwits (Kaibab) , southwest of the Gunlock band and in the west the Panaca belong today as Cedar band of Paiutes the Paiute Indian tribe of Utah (PITU) )
- Antarianunts (a Ute designation, as the name ends in unts , the southern Paiute called this group Yantarii , lived east of the Kaiparowits between the Escalante River in the west and the Colorado River in the east and the Henry Mountains in the southeast of Utah, due to many Mixed marriages with Ute settling to the east a mixed Paiute-Ute band)
- Gunlock Band (the south-living George Band / Uainuints called the Gunlock Band Matooshats / Matissatï , the Gunlock Band, however, summarized Southern Paiute bands north-west of them under the name Matooshats / Matissatï , the common English name refers to today's Gunlock im extreme southwest of Utah, today belong together with Shivwits , Uainuints and Uinkarets as Shivwits Band of Paiutes to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU) )
- Ichuarumpats ('people of the cactus plains, i.e. the desert', lived in the Moapa Valley and shared tribal areas with the Moapats in southeastern Nevada, had 35 tribal members in 1873, today part of the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians )
- Indian Peaks Band (originally lived between the Panaca in the west and the Kwiumpats (Beaver Band) in the east, now belong to the Paiute Indian Tribe of together with the Ankappanukkicicimi (Cedar Band) , Kwiumpats (Beaver Band) and Panaca as the Indian Peaks Band of Paiutes Utah (PTU) )
- Kaiparowits ("mountain home of the people", also known as Tuh'duvawduhts'eng , "Barren Valley [People]") lived along the Escalante River and in the desert of the same name and in the Kaiparowits Plateau in southern Utah, hence also known as Escanlante Band known, became known together with Panguitch , northern groups of the Kaivavwits (Kaibab) as well as through mixed marriages with these related Moanunts-Ute (hence often called half-Ute or half-Paiute ), who preferred to hunt and fish around Fish Lake and near today's Koosharem resettled to the Koosharem reservation, established in 1928, today all belong to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU) as Koosharem Band of Paiutes )
- Kaivavwits / Kaipapicicimi / Kaivavwits / Kaibabits / Kaivavituningwi ("Mountain Lying Down People; ie. People of the Kaibab Plateau", usually referred to as Kaibab - probably a foreign name for neighboring Paiute bands, lived and still live today in the Arizona Strip in the Kanab Plateau along Kanab Creek and the Paria River , as well as in the eastern Kaibab Plateau in northwest Arizona, their proper name was therefore probably Kawnaw'duhts'eng ("Willow Mouth of Canyon People") or Kanaticimi ("Kanab [Creek] people"); in Arizona the southern groups are the officially recognized tribe of the Kaibab band of Paiute Indians , in Utah the northern groups today include as "Koosharem band of Paiutes" the Paiute Indian tribe of Utah (PITU) )
- Kanosh (named after Kanosh , the chief of the Pahvant-Ute ('near the water'), west of the Wasatch Mountains, between Sevier River and Sevier Lake, Clear Lake and Fish Lake, were culturally similar to their neighbors, the Kaivavwits ( Kaibab) , Kwiumpats (Beaver Band) , Sahyehpeech-Ute and Gosiute , after the establishment of the Kanosh reservation in 1929, the Pahvant-Ute and some groups of the Kwiumpats (Beaver) belong to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU) as the Kanosh Band of Paiutes )
- Koosharem (after the establishment of the Koosharem Reserve in 1928, Panguitch , northern groups of the Kaivavwits (Kaibab) and Kaiparowits as well as Moanunts-Ute (therefore often called half-Ute or half-Paiute ), which are in the Upper Sevier River Valley, were related to these lived and settled in the Otter Creek area south of Salina and in the Fish Lake area in Utah, a group of Moanunts-Ute (so-called Fish Utes ) hunted and fished preferentially around Fish Lake and overwintered near today's Koosharem, today all belong to Koosharem Band of Paiutes to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU) )
- Kumoits (formerly called Piedes , were often victims of slave hunts by the Pahvant-Ute living in the east, lived in the Cedar Valley , Iron County , in southwest Utah, shared tribal areas with the Ankappanukkicicimi , today mostly simply called Cedar Paiutes , today belong to Cedar Band of Paiutes to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU )
- Kwaiantikowkets ('people who are on the opposite side', i.e. south of the San Juan River in northern Arizona, also Toi'toippicimi / Tuyouipiningwi - 'people along the Fels river, i.e. the San Juan River', hence the San Juan Band called, lived south of the San Juan and Colorado Rivers and north of the Little Colorado Rivers, today's San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe of Arizona )
- Kwiengomats / Kiri-en'-go-mat (lived northwest of Las Vegas , their area bordered on that of the Shoshone and in the south on that of the Parumpats , settled in 1873 near Indian Springs in Nevada, today's Las Vegas Paiute Tribe )
- Kwiumpats / Kwi? Umpacíii, Kwiumpus, Quiumputs ('Frasera speciosa people'), named after an edible desert plant, lived along the Beaver River , near Beaver , Utah and are therefore also known as the Beaver Band , today belong together with the Indian Peaks Band , the Ankappanukkicicimi (Cedar Band) and Panaca as the Indian Peaks Band of Paiutes to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PTU) , some groups of the Kwiumpats had intermarried with the northern Pahvant-Ute and have belonged together since the establishment of the Kanosh reservation in 1929 with the Pahvant-Ute as Kanosh Band of Paiutes to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU)
- Moapats / Moapa / Muappacimi ('People in the Valley of the Beans River' or 'Moapa Valley People' or Mu'ti'cimi / Mudiningwi - 'People along the Beans River' or 'Beans People', as they are along the Muddy River ( Mu'ti'nukkinti - 'bean river', hence formerly Moapa River ) and in the Moapa Valley in southeastern Nevada and along the lower Virgin River in southwestern Utah planted, farmed and hunted beans, often referred to as the Muddy River Paiute , today Moapa Band of Paiute Indians )
- Nauwanatats (shared tribal areas with the Moapats in southeastern Nevada, now part of the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians )
- Nogwats / No-gv-ats (once lived near Potosi Mountain , Clark County , one of six high mountain peaks around Las Vegas, about 50 km southwest of Las Vegas in the Spring Mountains in southeastern Nevada, in 1873 there were still 56 tribal members, shared tribal areas with the Parumpats , today part of the Pahrump Paiute Tribe )
- Nuaguntits / Nipakanticimi / Nivaganiciningwi ('people of the snow-capped mountain, i.e. of Mount Charleston (officially: Charleston Peak)', the highest peak of the Spring Mountains, about 56 km northwest of Las Vegas, as well as in the adjacent Las Vegas Valley in southern Nevada , also called Las Vegas band , today's Las Vegas Paiute Tribe )
- Panaca ( Tsouwaraits and Matisabits , lived along the Meadow Valley Wash , near the present-day Mormon settlement of Panaca and the County Seat Pioche in Lincoln County in eastern Nevada, sometimes also referred to as Meadow Valley Paiutes , today belong together with the Indian Peaks Band , the Ankappanukkicicimi ( Cedar Band) and Kwiumpats (Beaver Band) as Indian Peaks Band of Paiutes to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PTU) )
- Panguitch / Paguits / Pakiucimi ('fish people', lived around the fish-rich Panguitch Lake ( pakiupa - 'water with fish'), Panguitch in Utah was named after them, had close cultural and family ties to the Pahvant and Moanunts Ute, together with northern groups of Kaivavwits (Kaibab) and Kaiparowits and through mixed marriages with these related Moanunts-Ute (hence often called half-Ute or half-Paiute ), a group of Moanunts-Ute (so-called Fish Utes ) hunted and fished preferably Fish Lake and wintered near the present Koosharem, resettled in the 1928 built Koosharem reserve, today all as Koosharem band of Paiutes include the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU) )
- Pahranagats / Pahranigats / Parnigats / Pata? Nikici ('Someone who puts his foot in the water' lived in the Pahrangat Valley and in the Pahroc mountain range in southeastern Nevada, west of the Panaca and north of the Moapats , and some of them shared tribal areas with the Moapats , now part of the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians )
- Paroosits (lived in the Virgin River Valley, called the Virgin River patusa or parusA , now mostly called Virgin River Paiutes )
- Parumpats / Pa-room-pats (hunted and planted in the Pahrump Valley and in the western Spring Mountains and settled near today's Pahrump in the extreme south of Nevada on the border with California, shared the Moapa Valley in southern Nevada, today's Pahrump Paiute , with various southern Paiute Tribe )
- Paspikaivats / Pa-spi-kai-vats ('people who live in the mountains along spring water', lived near today's Moccasin near pacippikkaina (Moccasin Springs) and in the Moccasin Mountains in the border area of Arizona and Utah, possibly up to Today Toquerville , Washington County in the southwest of Utah, in 1873 they still had 40 tribal members, today part of the Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians )
- Pegesits (lived east of the Parumpats in Red Rock Canyon , Mount Charleston and in the Las Vegas Valley southwards to the Hoover Dam , today's Las Vegas Paiute Tribe )
- Pintiats (shared tribal areas with the Moapats in southeastern Nevada, now part of the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians )
- Sauwontiatst (shared tribal areas with the Moapats in southeastern Nevada, now part of the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians )
- Shivwits / She-bits / Sübü'ts / Si-vints / Sipicimi ('people who live in the east', hunted and practiced agriculture along the Santa Clara River and the Virgin River in southwestern Utah, today belong together with the Gunlock Band , Uainuints and Uinkarets as Shivwits Band of Paiutes for the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU) )
- Tudinu ('desert people', lived in what is now Las Vegas , Nevada, also known as the Las Vegas Paiute , today's Las Vegas Paiute Tribe )
- Uainuints / Uenuwunts (also called Tonaquints , hunted and farmed from Hebron (Shoal Creek Fort) (now a ghost town ), Enterprise and Pinto south along the Santa Clara River (also called Tonaquint River ) to its confluence with the Virgin River south of St . George in the southwest of Utah, hence also called St. George Band , today belong together with Shivwits , the Gunlock Band and Uinkarets as Shivwits Band of Paiutes to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU) )
- Uinkarets / Uint-karits (called themselves Yipinkatiticimi - 'people from the yellow-pine-covered summit, i.e. from Mount Trumbull', they called Mount Trumbull Yipinkatiti - ' yellow-pine- tip', roamed from the Virgin River in the north to Colorado River in the south, shared areas with the Shivwits living to the west , today belong together with Shivwits , the Gunlock Band and Uainuints as Shivwits Band of Paiutes to the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU) )
- Utumpaiats / U-tum-pai-ats (lived near present-day Glendale , Clark County and in the Moapa Valley in southeastern Nevada, shared tribal areas with the Moapats , now part of the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians )
Chemehuevi / Camowév / Acimuev / Achiimuuév ( Mohave designation: 'Those who play with fish' call themselves Nüwüwü - 'The People', singular: Nüwü , lived south of the groups generally known as Las Vegas Paiutes west of the Colorador River, Most belligerent and southernmost group of the Southern Paiute, but today they are mostly seen as an independent group, often referred to as Tantáwats , Tantivaitsiwi - 'the southern ones ', sometimes also as Tuumantcokowi - 'black- bearded ', today's Chemehuevi Indian Tribe and Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California , as well as part of the Colorado River Indian Tribes , the Morongo Band of Mission Indians , the Cabazon Band of Mission Indians , the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians , the Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians and the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians )
- Howaits (also Hokwaits , lived in the Ivanpah Mountains , hence the Ivanpah Mountain Group )
- Kauyaichits (lived in the Ash Meadows area , hence the Ash Meadows Group )
- Mokwats (lived in the Kingston Mountains , hence the Kingston Mountain Group )
- Moviats (also Movweats, lived on Cottonwood Island, hence Cottonwood Island Group )
- Palonies (Spanish for 'the bald', migrated to the area north of Los Angeles )
- Shivawach (one group lived in Twentynine Palms , a second lived in Chemehuevi Valley )
- Tümplsagavatsits (also Timpashauwagotsits , lived in the Providence Mountains, hence Providence Mountain Group )
- Yagats (lived in the Armagosa Valley and along the Armagosa River , hence the Armagosa River Group )
Famous Northern Paiute
- PHIEoito (Chief Old Winnemucca )
- Sarah Winnemucca
- Wovoka (Jack Wilson, prophet, shaman ))
- Tenaya (chief of the Ahwahnee or Ahwahneechee)
- Numaga (* 1830 - † 1871, also known as Young Winnemucca , leading chief in the so-called Paiute War of 1860 (also known as the Pyramid Lake War )
- Captain John ( Shibana or Poko Tucket = "horse eater", chief of the Mono and the Paiute who live around Mono Lake)
- Egan (led several armed conflicts in the 1860s and 1870s with the American Army)
- Johnson Sides
- Catherine S. Fowler, Sven Liljeblad: Northern Paiute . In: William C. Sturtevant: Handbook of North American Indians. Smithsonian Institution, US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC 1964.
- Martha C. Knack: Boundaries between: the Southern Paiutes, 1775-1995. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln 2001, ISBN 0-8032-2750-7 .
- Hartmut Krech (ed.): The Paiute, hunters and gatherers of the desert . In: Indian life. Indian women and men tell their lives . Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2009, ISBN 978-3-8391-1047-8 .
- Barry Pritzker: A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2000, ISBN 0-19-513877-5 .
- Edward Sapir, William Bright: The collected works of Edward Sapir. 10. Southern Paiute and Ute linguistics and ethnography. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1992, ISBN 0-89925-138-2 .
- Julian H. Steward : Ethnography of the Owens Valley Paiute . In: University of California Publications in American Archeology and Ethnology. Vol. 33. Berkeley, CA, 1934.
- Homepage of the Walker River Paiute Tribe (Aga'idökadö and Pakwidökadö)
- Homepage of the Burns Paiute Tribe (Hunipuitöka (Walpapi) and Wadadökadö)
- Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes (Atsakudöka tuviwarai, Qui na taue Pha Numa, Yamosöpö tuviwarai and Western Shoshone)
- Homepage of the Klamath Tribes (Klamath, Modoc, Goyatöka (Yahooskin) and Hunipuitöka (Walpapi))
- Homepage of the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Indians (Tenino (Warm Springs), Wasco (Kiksht) and Hunipuitöka (Walpapi))
- Homepage of the Yerington Paiute Tribe (Kamodökadö, Pogidukadu and Tövusidökadö)
- ITMA Tribal Members - Fort Bidwell Indian Community (Kidütökadö)
- Homepage of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation (Lemhi (Agaideka, Tukudeka and Bannock), Boise Valley (Agaideka, Yahandeka), Bruneau (Kammadeka), Weiser (Yahandeka and Tukudeka), Fort Hall (Pohogwe and Bannock) and others Groups of the Northern and Western Shoshone, the Bannock and the Koa'aga'itöka)
- Homepage of the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe (Koosi Pah Ticutta and Toedökadö)
- Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony (Küpadökadö, share the Ft.Bidwell reservation with the Kidütökadö who live there)
- Homepage of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (Kuyuidökadö and Tasiget tuviwarai)
- Homepage of Summit Lake Paiute Tribe (Moadökadö (but mostly called Aga'ipañinadökadö))
- Homepage of the Winnemucca Indian Colony (Sawawaktödö and Western Shoshone)
- Homepage of the Shoshone Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation (Tagötöka and Western Shoshone)
- Homepage of the Reno Sparks Indian Colony (Northern Paiute (Numa / Numu), Washoe (Washeshu) and Western Shoshone (Newe))
- Homepage of the Cedarville Rancheria Northern Paiute Tribe
- Homepage of the Susanville Indian Rancheria (Washoe, Achomawi, Mountain Maidu, Northern Paiute and Atsugewi)
- Homepage of the Pit River Tribes (Eleven Autonomous Bands of Pit River Indians) (Achomawi, Atsugewi and Northern Paiute)
- Native Americans: Paiute (including a list of the recognized tribes of the Paiute)
- Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins: Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims (1883)
- Oregon History
Owens Valley Paiute (Eastern Mono) and Mono Lake Paiute (Western Mono)
Eastern Mono (Owens Valley Paiute)
- Homepage of the Big Pine Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley (Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians) (Owens Valley Paiute and Timbisha (Panamint / Koso) Shoshone or Northern Death Valley Shoshone)
- Homepage of the Bishop Paiute Tribe (formerly: Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Bishop Community of the Bishop Colony) (Owens Valley Paiute and Timbisha (Panamint / Koso) Shoshone or Northern Death Valley Shoshone)
- Homepage of the Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Lone Pine Community of the Lone Pine Reservation (Owens Valley Paiute and Timbisha (Panamint / Koso) Shoshone or Northern Death Valley Shoshone)
- Bridgeport Indian Colony (BIC) homepage (Miwok, Owens Valley Paiute, Northern Paiute, Western Shoshone and Washoe)
- Homepage of the Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians (Owens Valley Paiute and Western Shoshone)
- Homepage of the Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation (Benton Paiute Tribe)
Western Mono (Monache or Mono Lake Paiute)
- Homepage of the Big Sandy Rancheria Band of Western Mono Indians
- Homepage of the Northfork Rancheria of Mono Indians
- Cold Springs Rancheria of Mono Indians of California
- Table Mountain Rancheria of California (Mono Lake Paiute and Chukchansi band of Yokut)
- Homepage of the Tule River Indian Tribe (Yokut, Mono Lake Paiute and Tübatulabal)
- Homepage of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (consisting of the Cedar Band (Ankappanukkicicimi and Kumoits), the Shivwits Band (Gunlock Band, Shivwits, Uainuints and Uinkarets), the Indian Peaks Band (Ankappanukkicicimi, Kwiumpats, Panaca and Indian Peaks Band), the Koosharem Band (Kaiparowits, Panguitch, Northern Kaivavwits and Moanunts-Ute) and the Kanosh Band (Pahvant-Ute and Kwiumpats))
- Homepage of the Las Vegas Paiute Tribe (Kwiengomats, Nuaguntits, Pegesits, Tudinu)
- Homepage of the Moapa Band of Paiutes (Ichuarumpats, Moapats, Nauwanatats, Pahranagats, Pintiats, Sauwontiatst and Utumpaiats)
- San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe of Arizona (Kwaiantikowkets)
- Pahrump Paiute Tribe (Parumpats and Nogwats)
- Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians (Kaivavwits and Paspikaivats)
- Homepage of the Chemehuevi Indian Tribe
- Homepage of the Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California (identify themselves as Chemehuevi, but are considered by some historians to be descendants of Luiseño and other groups of neighboring Mission Indians)
- Homepage of the Colorado River Indian Tribes (Mohave, Chemehuevi, Hopi and Navajo)
- Homepage of the Morongo Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla, Serrano, Cupeño, Luiseño and Chemehuevi)
- Homepage of the Cabazon Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla and Chemehuevi)
- Homepage of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (Cahuilla and Chemehuevi)
- Homepage of the Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians (Cahuilla and Chemehuevi)
- Homepage of the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians (Sovovatum or Soboba Band of the Cahuilla, Luiseño and Chemehuevi)
- Traditional Southern Paiute Territory: Band Divisions , Southern Paiute Tribal Boundary
- Ginny Bengston: Northern Paiute and Western Shoshone Land Use in Northern Nevada. A Class I Ethnographic / Ethnohistoric Overview. In: Bureau of Land Management, Cultural Series. No. 2, 2003.
- Northern Paiute - Orientation - Linguistic Affiliation
- Werner Arens, Hans-Martin Braun: The Indians of North America: History, Culture, Religion , CH Beck, 2004, ISBN 3-406-50830-8 , p. 82.
- Homepage of the Pyramid Lake Paiute
- Homepage of the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe
- Homepage of the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Indians
- Liljeblad and Fowler, 412
- Pritzker, 227
- James R. Allison et al .: Archeology and Archaeobotany of Southern Paiute Horticulture in the St. Georges Basin, Southwest Utah. In: Kiva , Volume 73, Issue 4, pp. 417-449.
- Mojave Desert Indians - Indians Vanyume
- Northern Paiute Language Project
- Northern Paiute and Western Shoshone Land Use in northern Nevada ( Memento of the original from June 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 7.9 MB)
- , these could be but also the Wiyimpihtikka band ( "eaters of buffalo berries ") of the Western Shoshone act
- Homepage of the Cedar Band of Paiutes ( Memento of the original of November 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Martha C. Knack: Boundaries between: the Southern Paiutes, 1775-1995. University of Nebraska Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8032-7818-7 , p. 11.
- Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico
- Sarah Fleisher Trainor: Conflicting Values, Contested Terrain: Mormon, Paiute and Wilderness Advocate Values of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument , Chapter 6, 204, University of California, Berkeley, 2002
- Homepage of the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (PITU)
- Thomas E. Sheridan, Nancy J. Parezo: Paths of Life: American Indians of the Southwest and Northern Mexico, University of Arizona Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8165-1466-6 , p. 163.
- W. Paul Reeve: Making Space on the Western Frontier: Mormons, Miners, and Southern Paiutes , University of Illinois Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-252-03126-7 , p. 11.
- Virginia McConnell Simmons: Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico , University Press of Colorado, 2000.
- Pahrump's link to the past - VALLEY HAS STRONG CONNECTION TO THE AMERICAN INDIAN ( Memento of the original from May 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Homepage of the Shivwits Band of Paiutes ( Memento of the original from December 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Contemptuous designation by the neighboring fish-eating Mohave for the Chemehuevi, who, as a desert people, did not eat fish for cultural reasons