Illegal immigration and residence

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Under illegal immigration (including illegal migration or irregular migration ), the Immigration understood in violation of the laws of the destination country.

The causes of illegal migration are for example

  • The migrant's lack of opportunities for legal migration (for example, lack of passport or entry visa or lack of opportunity to apply for asylum for the destination country outside the destination country)
  • the social and economic conditions of the target country, e.g. B. the existence of jobs, accommodation or social-ethnic networks on site;
  • wrong images and ideas about work opportunities and conditions in the target country
  • Conditions of the home country, e.g. B. tyranny, lawlessness and corruption, oppression of minorities, violations of human rights, lack of training or jobs, lack of prospects or poverty.
  • Escape from war in their home country or the country where they last worked or lived. Many who lost their previous jobs in the civil war in Libya in 2011 moved on to Europe.
Non-EU citizens staying illegally in the EU-28 and EFTA. Eurostat 2015

Death toll

According to press releases, 15,566 immigrants have died along the EU's external border since 1988 , of which 6,513 are still missing in the Mediterranean.

10,989 people died in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean on the way to Spain. 4,205 drowned in the Channel of Sicily, between Libya, Tunisia, Malta and Italy, 3,076 of them missing; 140 more dead between Algeria and Sardinia, Italy. Another 4,534 dead between Morocco, Algeria, Mauritania, Senegal and Spain, when crossing the Strait of Gibraltar or near the Canary Islands, of which 2,322 are missing. 1,369 dead in the Aegean Sea between Turkey and Greece, 824 of them missing. 603 dead in the Adriatic Sea, between Albania, Montenegro and Italy, of which 220 are missing. In the Indian Ocean there were 624 dead between the Comoros and the French island of Mayotte. But the sea is not only crossed with normal ships, but also hidden in cargo cargo ships. 153 men suffocated or drowned.

The Sahara is a dangerous passage for migrants from sub-Saharan Africa to get to the Mediterranean. Migrants cross them with trucks and other vehicles between Sudan, Chad, Niger and Mali on their way to Libya and Algeria. At least 1,703 people have died here since 1996. The statistics also include the victims of mass deportations carried out by the authorities in Tripoli, Algeria and Rabat, with migrants simply being abandoned in desert-like border areas.

Serious abuse of migrants also occurs in Libya. There are no official figures, but in 2006 Human Rights Watch and Afvic Tripoli charged the country with arrests, beatings and torture in migrant centers. Three of these centers are funded by Italy. At least 560 people died during mass violence against immigrants in September 2000 in Zawiyah , in north-west Libya. - In the meantime, the EU has been negotiating a framework agreement with Libya since 2010, which also affects questions of migration and visa policy.

360 people have already been found dead in trucks. 244 migrants drowned while crossing border rivers, the majority of them on the Oder-Neisse border between Poland and Germany, in the Evros between Turkey and Greece, in the Save between Croatia and Bosnia and in the Morava between Slovakia and the Czech Republic. 112 people froze to death en route in the icy border areas in the mountains, above all in Turkey and Greece. There are still minefields along the Evros River on the Greek border with Turkey. At least 92 people died here trying to get to Greece.

265 migrants have been shot by border police officers, 37 of them in Ceuta and Melilla , Spanish enclaves in Morocco, and 28 in the Van district in eastern Turkey near the Iranian border. Some people have also been shot dead by French, German, Spanish and Swiss police. 41 men have been found dead, hidden in the chassis of aircraft. 29 people have died in the Calais jungle or under trains in the Channel Tunnel while trying to travel to England. Again 12 perished among other trains to other borders and three while trying to swim the English Channel.

Government control issues

Smoothing the ground on the border between the United States and Mexico to reveal footprints

Despite technically improved control options, illegal migration is becoming more and more difficult to control for states . Most states encourage and allow cross-border migration, e.g. B. by business people, visitors and tourists. According to the 2002 annual Federal Border Police report, there were 436,580,484 journeys across Germany's Schengen external borders.

Since the EU enlargements to the east , the unauthorized crossing of the Green Border has become less and less attractive because of the increasing costs and the increasing risk of being tracked down by the border police using high-tech devices, then arrested and pushed back. The situation on the blue border , i.e. the sea route, is comparable , as the unabated high number of deaths in the Mediterranean shows.

Criminalization and threats to migrants

The link between illegal migration and crime is not so much that individual immigrants commit criminal offenses . Rather, criminal behavior arises primarily from the immigrants' involvement with professional human smuggling. There are discussions about granting potential witnesses and confessors a limited right of residence if they can help solve crimes.

On the occasion of a discussion by the European Migration Network in May 2017 on integrated return management, Stefan Dünnwald, migration researcher and employee of the Bavarian Refugee Council , said that a life in illegality is associated with "greater vulnerability, prostitution, crime and possibly radicalization ".

Migration and media discourse "criminal offenses"

The media often report "foreign gangs" when immigrants are affected, but about "lone perpetrators" in cases involving locals. In contrast, the scientific study by Jörg Alt in 2003 (see bibliography) showed that those affected tend to have an inconspicuous lifestyle and generally stay away from criminal activities. The danger of slipping into the criminal milieu is therefore particularly given when a migrant without a right of residence loses his job.

Law enforcement against migration

Smuggling of migrants

Container used for people smuggling

In order to get to the western welfare states, those entering the country are dependent on so-called smugglers who, for a fee, initiate entry into the destination country.

According to Wagner, infiltrations have turned into lucrative sources of money over the years, and fees can reach up to 30,000 US dollars, depending on the target country. Because of the high profit margins, organized crime is also increasingly active in this area and has shifted its activities from drug trafficking and arms smuggling to human smuggling. The associated professionalization in terms of organization and procedures counteracts the efforts of the states fighting illegal immigration. According to Hong, the criminal network structures give the smuggling mechanism its own dynamic. The migration researcher Jonas Widgren estimated the annual turnover in the smuggling sector at 7 billion US dollars in October 1994 (Eleventh IOM Seminar on Migration). In 2018, the media reported that smugglers had doubled their prices per person smuggled from countries such as El Salvador, Guatemala or Honduras via Mexico to the USA in the previous ten years.

In the United States, in February 2017 , John F. Kelly arranged for parents to be arrested for paying money to have their children smuggled across the border .

For the time of its EU Council Presidency, Germany has set itself the goal of deepening the close partnership between the EU and the North African states in the fight against smuggling. Cooperation with countries on both sides of the Mediterranean is to be expanded further. a. in the areas of sea rescue, combating human smugglers and combating the causes of flight.

Forced labor

Forced labor within the meaning of international law is, according to the International Labor Organization (ILO), "any type of work or service that is required of a person under threat of any kind and for which he or she has not volunteered" (Article 2 (1)). A distinction must be made between state, commercial and sexual exploitation of the victims . Slavery, on the other hand, is a form of forced labor, but goes hand in hand with the absolute control of one person over another person or group of people in the sense of a property right . Forced labor is traditionally rooted in discrimination , colonization and debt bondage . According to the ILO, modern forced labor is characterized by "restrictions on freedom of movement, withdrawal of ID cards and threats to denounce all migrants who complain about inadequate living and working conditions to the immigration authorities ." In 2004, an estimated 12.3 million victims of forced labor were living worldwide . Around 10 million are exploited by private individuals (2.5 million as a result of human trafficking), the rest are forcibly forced to work by the military or states. 1.4 million people are sexually exploited. In Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America we find an average of 3.25 victims per thousand inhabitants and in the industrialized countries an average of 0.3 people per 1000 inhabitants. One in five forced labor in the Pacific and Asia is governmental. The European Union has been committed to the fight against exploitation and human trafficking since 2000.

If migrants are not financially able to pay the smuggling fee, they are indebted to the smugglers and thus become dependent on them. Since the loan taken out has to be worked off, the migrants have no access to the primary labor market . Cases are known in which people smugglers have set up entire networks of bogus companies in order to refer migrants to subcontractors in the construction, hotel and catering industries.

human trafficking

The most profitable branch in the connection between smuggling and organized crime is human trafficking ( Section 232 StGB ) of women for sexual exploitation through forced prostitution . Most women are smuggled in against their will. Siegler wrote, "According to the German Federal Criminal Police Office, one fifth of the 50,000 prostitutes from Eastern Europe are forced into prostitution against their will".

In addition to the threat of deportation because of their illegal residence status, there is a risk of retaliatory actions by the smugglers, to whom they are mostly exposed in their home countries without protection.

With the EU victim protection directive of April 29, 2004, the introduction of a special residence permit was agreed for victims of human trafficking, which requires cooperation with the responsible police, law enforcement and judicial authorities to combat human trafficking. In Germany, there has been residence for humanitarian reasons since 2008 for the purpose of giving evidence in criminal proceedings ( Section 25 subs. 4a of the Residence Act ). The public prosecutor's office or the criminal court and the immigration authorities work together to make a decision ( Section 72 subs. 6 AufenthG).

Economic factor

According to Klaus Jürgen Bade, unlawful immigrants are a significant economic factor within the EU . The migration expert is of the opinion that without illegal employment, entire economic sectors across Europe would collapse. Bade cites that illegally entered people have built a third of the French motorways and that one third of the car production is done in undeclared work . In the south of Italy they generate 30 percent of the gross national product and thus keep entire economic structures alive. In the UK, according to Bade, the fashion and construction industries would disintegrate. The German government's move from Bonn to Berlin would have been significantly delayed.

In the United States, illegal immigrants represent an estimated 3.5% of the total population and 5% of the workforce.

The ethnologist Felix Hoffmann is of the opinion that illegal employment and thus correspondingly low wages have made the emergence of the agricultural industry in Almería since the 1990s, which still provides a substantial part of European vegetable production, internationally competitive in the first place. Here, the Spanish migration legislation has created legal norms in accordance with EU legislation that indirectly presuppose years of illegal employment when it comes to having to literally earn legality.

The ethnologist Gilles Reckinger sees the price dictation of international retail groups when buying tomatoes and oranges as one of the causes of the exploitation of irregular residents. In order to reach the purchase price and to enable the farmers to earn income, the harvest must be organized by underpaid harvest workers (2018: With a hectare yield of 50 tons outdoors, the farmer receives 10 cents per kilo of tomatoes, of which he pays a harvest worker 4 euros for 300 kg of tomatoes that this harvests in 90 minutes or more). The profits of the trading groups and the prosperity of the consumers are based on the exploitation of these modern work slaves.

Impact on labor market and social systems

Unauthorized work can have macroeconomic consequences, especially with regard to the labor market and social security systems. Illegal employment thus has a personnel and functional impact on the distribution of income .

As early as March 10, 1997, the industrial union BAU organized a warning week in Berlin against "mass unemployment, arbitrary destruction of regular jobs, wage and social dumping , bogus self-employment and illegal employment ."

In the United States, social security contributions from people whose social security number does not match an existing record are posted to the Earnings Suspense File (ESF). This is the case, for example, if an incorrect social security card has been presented to the employer. In this way, illegal immigrants pay contributions without being entitled to social security benefits. It is estimated that illegal immigrants and their employers deposited a total of $ 13 billion in 2010.

Economic consequences

Rising, unregistered foreign employment has several consequences because of the low wages. On the one hand, the quantity to be produced more cheaply or the share of a discounted service on the market is growing . On the other hand, the affected industry is growing because of this production advantage , which in turn gives the industry an unfair advantage. The local employees enter into a competition with their equally qualified, much cheaper paid, competitors. On the other hand, in turn, will benefit producers and consumers of the cheaper costs , making it the displacement of regular workers from their employment comes. The influence of illegal residents and employees on the domestic market has not yet been clarified , as they ultimately cover their own needs in the destination country during their work-related stay abroad .

The economic consequences of illegal immigration depend in particular on the current level of unemployment and on how many regular employees are forced out of their employment. The regular employees only benefit from the growth of illegal employment if they find jobs in other sectors in higher-skilled occupations, thus increasing their prosperity and consuming cheaper . If this way out remains closed due to high unemployment or poor qualifications of the local population, regular employment falls.

Greece offered a labor market in the 1990s, but more on the informal level. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, its geopolitical location made it a popular transit country for Eastern European immigrants. The financial benefits of illegal employment dampened the inflation at the time so much that it was able to meet the requirements of monetary union.

Social situation of illegal immigrants

Above all, the churches and charities regularly point out the desolate social situation of migrants who do not legally live in Western Europe. In the political discussion, however, their living conditions hardly play a role.

Those who have entered without a right of residence lead a life outside of social security . As a result, they face the usual risks such as accidents, unemployment and illness, as well as starvation in the event of incapacity for work (in old age) without protection. Their living conditions are usually well below the standard in Central Europe. They enjoy no occupational safety and do not receive a performance-related wage . "The working, living and dependent relationships of many migrants without a right of residence take on traits that can certainly be described using the term modern slavery ."

Not all illegal migrants are affected to the same extent by the circumstances described. The poorer the conditions in the country of origin, the greater the willingness to accept these conditions in the destination country. A fixed return option and secure employment in prospect facilitate acceptance. In the 1990s, for example, despite the wage dumping involved , a Polish, illegally employed immigrant earned enough in one week to support a family of five at home for a month.

In addition to the sometimes inhumane living situation on the fringes of society, the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung also faced the question in May 2000 of whether illegal migration could not contribute to rethinking the minimum living standards applicable to locals in Germany and to tightening the regulations on reasonableness .

Unlawful immigrants, in particular, are a target for xenophobic activities. During the crisis in the construction industry in the 1990s they were a suitable scapegoat for aggression as an expression of fear of repression , social envy and fear of a falling standard of living on the part of the locals.

A vicious circle consists in the fact that migrants can only get from third world countries to Europe at great expense . A mobile phone remains the only connection to the family at home. Illegally resident and illegally working day laborers in southern Europe often spend the night in temporary housing and slums . Out of shame towards their families, they only send pictures that show themselves "rich" in stylish clothes and in front of status symbols of the western world.

Many illegally resident do not have travel documents, entry visas for transit countries or enough money for the return journey and therefore cannot return to their country of origin. Without identity papers, they cannot be forcibly deported to their country of origin. You will become stateless under certain circumstances (and could then receive a stateless travel document ).

Without identity papers, legal work, renting an apartment or registering with the registration system are not possible.

Conceptual criticism

Todos somos ilegales - We are all Illegals ("We are all illegals"), protest against the policies of the US immigration service INS in California (1994)

Not only the network does not oppose the designation of people as “illegals” . No one is illegal . As early as 1988, the well-known “Nazi hunter” Elie Wiesel is said to have used the slogan for the first time in English (“No Human Being Is Illegal”) on a flyer for the “National Campaign for the Civil and Human Rights of Salvadorans ”. Regarding the use of language, the Federal Agency for Civic Education states: “It would be incorrect, neither politically nor legally, to speak of 'illegal migrants' or 'illegal immigrants' because it is not the people themselves that are illegal, but the act they perform the border crossing. In critical migration research, attempts are made to circumvent the classification legal / illegal by using the description 'irregular' or 'undocumented'. The latter in particular has established itself in French under the term 'sans papiers'. "

The “ Foundation for Science and Politics ” also recommends avoiding the word field “illegal” completely and always replacing it with the word field “irregular” or refraining from allusions to rule violations. The author of the SWP study states: "Most international organizations use the term» irregular migration «because it is viewed as less discriminatory and as sufficiently neutral and comprehensive." Illegality is usually associated with crime. Especially from the point of view of human rights and refugee aid organizations, this designation contains an inadmissible stigmatization . They argue that migration is not a criminal act in the narrower sense, but merely a violation of the entry, residence and employment laws of the state concerned. Non-governmental organizations prefer the term “undocumented immigrants”, which aims at the essential characteristic of the people concerned, namely not having valid identity documents or residence or work permits.

European Union


Estimate of illegally staying people in the EU in 2008 (source: HWWI )
Country minimal
EU 27 000000001900000.00000000001,900,000 000000003800000.00000000003,800,000
Sweden 000000000008000.00000000008,000 000000000012000.000000000012,000
Finland 000000000008000.00000000008,000 000000000012000.000000000012,000
Estonia 000000000005000.00000000005,000 000000000010000.000000000010,000
Latvia 000000000002000.00000000002,000 000000000011000.000000000011,000
Lithuania 000000000003000.00000000003,000 000000000017000.000000000017,000
Poland 000000000050000.000000000050,000 000000000300000.0000000000300,000
Denmark 000000000001000.00000000001,000 000000000005000.00000000005,000
Germany 000000000196000.0000000000196,000 000000000457000.0000000000457,000
Great Britain 000000000417000.0000000000417,000 000000000863000.0000000000863,000
Ireland 000000000030000.000000000030,000 000000000062000.000000000062,000
Netherlands 000000000062000.000000000062,000 000000000131000.0000000000131,000
Belgium 000000000088000.000000000088,000 000000000132000.0000000000132,000
France 000000000178000.0000000000178,000 000000000400000.0000000000400,000
Luxembourg 000000000002000.00000000002,000 000000000004000.00000000004,000
Portugal 000000000080000.000000000080,000 000000000100000.0000000000100,000
Spain 000000000280000.0000000000280,000 000000000354000.0000000000354,000
Austria 000000000018000.000000000018,000 000000000054000.000000000054,000
Italy 000000000279000.0000000000279,000 000000000461000.0000000000461,000
Slovenia 000000000002000.00000000002,000 000000000010000.000000000010,000
Hungary 000000000010000.000000000010,000 000000000050000.000000000050,000
Slovakia 000000000015000.000000000015,000 000000000020000.000000000020,000
Czech Republic 000000000017000.000000000017,000 000000000100000.0000000000100,000
Romania 000000000007000.00000000007,000 000000000011000.000000000011,000
Bulgaria 000000000003000.00000000003,000 000000000004000.00000000004,000
Greece 000000000172000.0000000000172,000 000000000209000.0000000000209,000
Cyprus 000000000010000.000000000010,000 000000000015000.000000000015,000

Due to the increasing isolation of the external borders and the increasing pressure to control inland, the impression is growing that the proportion of illegal immigrants is increasing significantly. According to the migration report of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) from 2005, estimates assume up to one million illegal immigrants. This corresponds to up to two percent of the workforce in Germany. Before May 1, 2004, when countries such as Poland , Slovakia and Hungary joined the EU , the number was significantly higher. Since then, the number has declined, partly due to the legalization effect of Romania and Bulgaria joining the European Union. The number of foreign immigrants who regularly reside in the country but work irregularly is usually significantly higher than the number of immigrants without regular residence status. Indicators for Germany suggest that four times more immigrants disregard work bans than residence bans. These include EU citizens from the new Member States and asylum seekers.

In 2005 it is estimated that between 2.8 and six million people were living in the European Union without valid residence permits. This corresponds to 0.6 to 1.3 percent of the regular total population. This EU estimate is based on country values ​​for the then 25 Member States, which were collected in a database. The analysis of the trends since then shows a rather declining number of people without regular residence status in most European countries.


On the legal situation in the Federal Republic of Germany

Whether unauthorized migration results in illegal status is decided according to the Residence Act . If the case falls under Section 95 of the Act, the case can be classified as a criminal offense if it is reported. May apply the facts Moonlighting ( § 266a of the Criminal Code ) and tax evasion ( § 134 BGB and § 70 para. 1 of the Criminal Code), where a worker is employed illegally.

Helpers (e.g. teachers, doctors and lawyers) are liable to prosecution if they make false, insulting statements in order to favor people without a valid residence status ( Section 95 AufenthG). The confidentiality obligation of some professional groups does not imply the right to refuse to give evidence in criminal proceedings.

In Germany there is no uniform regulation of how teachers deal with the situation (see also the article 'Compulsory education' ). Illegally immigrant families often keep their children away from school as a precaution.

Political prospects for action


In Germany, the socio-political debate has been caught between two poles, especially since the refugee crisis in Germany in 2015/2016 :

  • Representatives of a repressive position advocate, for example, arming the federal police , deportations or the fight against undeclared work by the employment office and customs.
  • Others are calling for legalization campaigns similar to those in Spain, Italy or the USA. These are, for example, due date regulations that are tied to the length of the stay or existing employment relationships.
  • But there are also weighty objections to this: the experience of those countries that implemented this instrument for regularization of residence shows that new illegal migrants followed relatively quickly, so that sooner or later a new legalization was necessary. The important point of criticism that legalizations mean a pull factor (see migration research ) cannot be dismissed out of hand. Accordingly, little is happening in the area of ​​politics and law, as the absence of the topic in the Immigration Act shows.
  • At the same time, the presence of several hundred thousand people without access to basic rights is hardly compatible with the ideal of a constitutional state. As long as certain parts of the economy, especially in agriculture, food processing and the construction industry, depend on cheap labor and cannot resort to legal opportunities for (temporary) immigration, there will be illegal migration.

Current status of the socio-political debate

See also: Jesuit Refugee Service

The “Manifesto illegal immigration - for a differentiated and solution-oriented discussion”, initiated by the “Catholic Forum Life in Illegality” and posted on the website there, was signed by 400 personalities by August 1st, 2005. This calls for first of all to take care of the factual guarantee of social rights that illegals are also entitled to under German law, and not to present humanitarian aid as aid to illegal residence. This entry is also recommended because there is no legal contradiction between guaranteeing minimum social standards and the right of the state to regulate immigration and residence. However, it clarifies the possibilities and obligations of professional groups such as doctors, teachers and social workers on the one hand, and the official state bodies on the other.

Support networks in Germany

Demonstration against the German deportation practice
On the occasion of the G8 summit in Heiligendamm, refugees and supporters demonstrate against their criminalization and the restriction of their freedom of movement through borders, discriminatory laws, residence requirements and deportations

Against the background of the experiences of National Socialism and German colonialism, migrants in Germany also receive support in their struggle for the recognition of asylum , of rights in general and a secure residence. In this tradition of solidarity, for example, the philosopher Hannah Arendt plays an important role, who in her works We Refugees and Elements and Origins of Total Rule, especially for refugees and stateless persons, called for the right to have rights.

Socially critical groups in particular show moral courage against the diverse forms of discrimination and racism to which immigrants are exposed and argue with those affected under the motto no one is illegal for the right to a secure life. A central task is the practical support of migrants in need. This often includes the need to protect migrants from violence. It is also about the improvement of living conditions, which under the conditions of illegality are very critical and existentially dangerous. One of the most important conditions for surviving in this society is the support in learning the German language. The improvement of the offer of German courses and legal assistance is supported and demanded. Church counseling centers, hospitals and schools play an important role here. In several German cities there are now medical contact points (e.g. offices for medical refugee aid) for people without health insurance , who support illegal migrants in particular in the event of illness, accidents, pregnancy, etc. by arranging free or cheap treatment.


In contrast to the USA and some European countries such as Spain and Italy, there was no politically motivated legalization of illegal immigrants in Germany . However, the admission of new member states to the EU indirectly legalized their citizens. The issue of illegal immigration takes place not least from the aspects of internal security and the consequences of illegal work .


People who live in Switzerland without a valid residence permit are called sans-papiers . Their number is naturally unknown. Estimates vary between 90,000 and 250,000 people. Many sans-papiers work for the “low-skilled”. Sans-papiers work in industries whose personnel requirements are not fully covered by Swiss or EU citizens. They clean in private households, look after children and the elderly, work on construction sites or in agriculture.

In Swiss migration policy, the prevailing opinion is that people who are illegally residing in Switzerland may not be “rewarded” with the legalization of their residence if they have resided illegally in the country long enough. This is why there is hardly any possibility of legalization of their residence for sans-papiers in Switzerland, even if they were born and raised in Switzerland. There are many different ways people become sans-papiers, the most common reasons being:

  • Most sans-papiers come to Switzerland from so-called third countries (not an EEA country) and have no regular opportunity to stay in the country. The admission practice for “low qualifications” from third countries is very strict. Nevertheless, many people, mostly women, immigrate from non-European countries.
  • A residence permit is usually tied to a reason, e.g. B. studying, a job or staying with your spouse. If the reason for your stay no longer applies, for example when you finish your studies or if you are separated after less than three years of marriage, the permit will be withdrawn or the permit will expire and will no longer be renewed.
  • Another group are people from the area of asylum after a negative decision to submerge .

United States

See also


  • Constanze Bandowski, Karin Desmarowitz: Cleaning in Germany. About Latin Americans living illegally in the Federal Republic . In: Blickpunkt Latin America (magazine of the Catholic aid organization Adveniat in Essen), 1/2009, pp. 14–15.
  • Jörg Alt : Globalization-Illegal Migration-Poverty Reduction: Analysis of a Complex Phenomenon . Loeper Literaturverlag, Karlsruhe 2009, ISBN 978-3-86059-524-4 .
  • Jörg Alt: Living in the shadow world - the problem complex illegal migration. New insights into the living situation of 'illegal' migrants in Munich and other cities in Germany . Loeper Literaturverlag, Karlsruhe 2003, ISBN 3-86059-499-0 .
  • Jörg Alt, Michael Bommes (Ed.): Illegality: Limits and Possibilities of Migration Policy. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaft, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-14834-6 .
  • Hannah Arendt : We refugees
  • Hannah Arendt: Elements and origins of total domination
  • Andreas Beisbart: Without papers in Germany. Magazin Verlag, Kiel 2003. ISBN 3-925900-99-3 .
  • Madjiguène Cissé: papers for everyone. The Sans Papiers Movement in France . ISBN 3-935936-14-1 .
  • Nicholas P. De Genova: Migrant “Illegality” and Deportability in Everyday Life . In: Annual Review of Anthropology 2002, pp. 419-447.
  • Andreas Fisch: Irregular migrants between border security and legalization. Ethical demands on the access regime of the European Union . In: Ethica 2/2009, pp. 151-183.
  • Andreas Fisch: Rights of undocumented people and the consistency of the legal order . In: Heinrich Böll Foundation (Ed.): Dossier: Refugee Protection and Human Rights . 2008 ( online ).
  • Andreas Fisch: People who are illegally resident. Suggested solutions and weighing up the consequences from a socio-ethical perspective . With a foreword by Georg Cardinal Sterzinsky. Lit, Berlin 2007.
  • Andreas Fisch: The dignity of the stateless. Why the churches stand up for people living illegally in Germany . In: Rheinischer Merkur, February 5, 2009, p. 25 ( online ).
  • Gerda Heck: ›Illegal Immigration‹. A contested construction in Germany and the USA . Münster 2008, ISBN 978-3-89771-746-6 (Edition DISS, Vol. 17).
  • Felix Hoffmann: On the Commercial Normalization of Illegal Migration - Actors in the Agricultural Industry of Almería, Spain. Transcript, Bielefeld 2017, ISBN 978-3-8376-3925-4
  • Bill Jordan, Franck Duvell: Irregular Migration. The Dilemmas of Transnational Mobility . Surrey 2003.
  • Serhat Karakayali: Ghosts of Migration. On the genealogy of illegal immigration in the Federal Republic of Germany . Transcript, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 3-89942-895-1 .
  • Dominik Kohlhagen: "Illegal" migration and legal culture. Observations from field research among Africans in Germany . In: Journal for Legal Sociology 27, 2006, No. 2, p. 239.
  • David Kyle, Rey Koslowski: Global Human Smuggling . Baltimore 2001.
  • Mae M. Ngai: Impossible Subjects. Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America . Princeton / Oxford 2004.
  • Pierre-Alain Niklaus: Not called, but asked. Sans-Papiers in Swiss households . Lenos Verlag, Basel 2013. ISBN 978-3-85787-432-1 .
  • Marlou Schrover, Joanne van der Leun, Leo Lucassen, Chris Quispel (Eds.): Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective . Amsterdam 2008.
  • Helen Schwenken, Heinrich Böll Foundation (ed.): Life in the illegality. A dossier . Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-927760-80-6 (Democracy Series, Vol. 5; online ; PDF; 953 kB).
  • Thomas Straubhaar: Illegal Migration. An economic perspective . Osnabrück 2007 (Political essays on migration and integration; online ; PDF; 258 kB).
  • Mareike Tolsdorf: Hidden. Health situation and care of migrants living in hiding in Germany and Switzerland . Hans Huber Verlag, Bern 2008, ISBN 978-3-456-84554-8 .
  • Jürgen Kepura / Frank Niechziol / Markus Pfau: Smuggling crime - basics of phenomenology, etiology and police intervention. Police Science Publishing House. Frankfurt 2015. ISBN 978-3-86676-386-9

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e Gilles Reckinger: Bitter oranges. A new face of slavery in Europe , Edition Trickster by Peter Hammer Verlag, Wuppertal, 2018, ISBN 978-3-7795-0590-7
  2. All information, including the following, is taken from Fortress Europe , accessed on September 30, 2010.
  3. Human rights in Libya ( Memento from June 19, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  4. Inquiry in the Bundestag (PDF; 90 kB) - On this: The shift of the “migration problem” from Europe to North Africa?
  5. Dossier: Voluntary Return in a European Context. BAMF, accessed on January 12, 2019 .
  6. ^ Margret Jäger / Gabriele Cleve / Ina Ruth / Siegfried Jäger: Of German lone perpetrators and foreign gangs. Media and crime. [1] , archive link ( Memento from September 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  7. Ashley Cleek: With smuggling costs skyrocketing, parents balance risk and debt for their children's future. In: February 28, 2018, accessed June 16, 2018 .
  8. ^ Caitlin Dickerson: Trump Administration Targets Parents in New Immigration Crackdown. In: New York Times. July 1, 2017, accessed June 16, 2018 .
  9. Federal Minister of the Interior Seehofer: Strengthening the fight against human smuggling in the Mediterranean. Retrieved July 17, 2020 .
  10. ^ ILO report 2005 ; PDF; 798 kB
  11. ^ FR , August 12, 1996
  12. ^ SZ , April 26, 1997
  13. Directive 2004/81 / EC of the Council of April 29, 2004 on the issuing of residence permits to third-country nationals who are victims of human trafficking or who have been assisted in illegal immigration and who are cooperating with the competent authorities . L 261/19 of 6 August 2004
  14. ^ Klaus J. Bade: Immigration continent Europe: Migration and integration at the beginning of the 21st century . Rasch 2001, ISBN 9783935326193 , p. 38 f.
  15. ^ Social research institute Pew Research Center, quoted from: Heike Buchter: Illegale Immigranten: Woe, if they go. Zeit online, March 16, 2017, accessed March 16, 2017 .
  16. ^ Felix Hoffmann: On the Commercial Normalization of Illegal Migration - Actors in the Agricultural Industry of Almería, Spain. Transcript, Bielefeld 2017, ISBN 978-3-8376-3925-4
  17. Tomatoes for the world market , at
  18. Christoph Lehermayr: Europe's new slaves , at
  19. Alexia Fernández Campbell: The Truth About Undocumented Immigrants and Taxes. The Atlantic, September 12, 2016, accessed February 28, 2017 .
  20. Stephen Goss, Alice Wade, J. Patrick Skirvin, Michael Morris, K. Mark Bye, Danielle Huston: Effects of Unauthorized Immigration on the Actuarial Status of the Social Security Trust Funds. In: Actuarial Note, Social Security Administration, No. 151. Office of the Chief Actuary, Baltimore, Maryland, April 2013, accessed February 28, 2017 . }
  21. Country profile Greece ( Memento of November 8, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), Federal Agency for Civic Education , 2003
  22. ^ Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung , May 2000
  23. Wolfgang Huber : Nobody is illegal - the mission of the churches towards people without residence status ( Memento from August 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). Lecture. Berlin. July 9, 2001. Footnote (1)
  24. Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Immigrants (PICUM): Why “Undocumented” and never “Illegal” ( Memento from June 23, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  25. ^ Mechthild Baumann: Immigration, Flight and Asylum: Current Issues . Federal Agency for Civic Education. February 26, 2014
  26. a b Steffen Angenendt: Irregular migration as an international problem. Risks and Options . Science and Politics Foundation / German Institute for International Politics and Security. December 2007, p. 10
  27. Clandestino Research Project: Size and development of irregular migration to the EU (PDF; 180 kB)
  28. ^ Die Welt : There are one million illegals in Germany, April 20, 2006
  29. Jörg Alt: Life in the shadow world - problem complex illegal migration , Annex 4
  30. PDF file Country Report Germany
  31. PDF-File Database on irregular migration
  32. "Manifesto illegal immigration - for a differentiated and solution-oriented discussion"
  33. Contact point for Sans-Papiers in Basel Life Without a Face in Neue Zürcher Zeitung from March 26, 2016
  34. ^ Federal Commission for Migration Issues EKM: Living as Sans-Papiers in Switzerland.
  35. See interview . In:, November 10, 2008.