Schwarzenberg in the Bohemian Forest
Schwarzenberg in the Bohemian Forest
|coat of arms||Austria map|
|State :||Upper Austria|
|Political District :||Rohrbach|
|License plate :||RO|
|Residents :||570 (January 1, 2020)|
|Population density :||21 inhabitants per km²|
|Postal code :||4164|
|Area code :||07280|
|Community code :||4 13 41|
|Address of the
Schwarzenberg am Bw. 185
4164 Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald
|Mayor :||Michael Leitner ( ÖVP )|
Municipal Council : (2015)
|Location of Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald in the Rohrbach district|
Schwarzenberg from the north
|Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria|
Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald is a municipality in Upper Austria in the Rohrbach district in the upper Mühlviertel with 570 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020). The community is located in the judicial district of Rohrbach .
The community of Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald lies at an altitude of 756 m in the upper Mühlviertel. It extends from north to south 6.9 km, from west to east 8.2 km. The total area is 27.4 km², of which 71.2% are forested and 26.3% of the area is used for agriculture.
Districts of the municipality
The municipality includes the following localities (population in brackets as of January 1, 2020):
- Hinteranger (124)
- Felling (0)
- Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald (446)
The center itself is divided into the following districts: West-Schwarzenberg, Reindlmühle, Unterschwarzenberg, Geiszeile, Waldkapelle and the center itself.
|Pleckensteiner Wald , unincorporated area in Bavaria||Nová Pec ( Czech Republic )|
|Neureichenau ( Freyung-Grafenau district )||Klaffer ( Upper Austria )|
|Breitenberg ( District of Passau )||Ulrichsberg ( Upper Austria )|
Originally under the feudal sovereignty of the Passau bishops , the place was several times during the Napoleonic Wars . a. occupied by Bavaria . Since 1814, the place finally belongs to Upper Austria. After the "Anschluss" of Austria to the German Reich on March 13, 1938, the place belonged to the "Gau Oberdonau " until 1945 . Schwarzenberg was part of the judicial district of Aigen from 1850 . In 2003 the judicial district of Aigen was dissolved and the municipality was assigned to the Rohrbach judicial district.
In 2014, 627 people lived in the community of Schwarzenberg, making Schwarzenberg the tenth smallest of the 42 communities in the district. In terms of population density, the municipality had the lowest population density in the district with 23 inhabitants per km². In 2001, 90.3 percent of the population were Austrian citizens (Upper Austria 92.8 percent, Rohrbach district 96.9 percent); by the beginning of 2013, the value fell slightly to 89.3 percent (Upper Austria 91.1 percent, Rohrbach district 96.9 percent) Percent). A total of 67 foreigners were counted in the municipality in 2013, almost exclusively from EU countries. The 103 citizens of the municipality who were not born in Austria also had their country of birth almost exclusively in an EU country. In 2001, 94.1 percent of the population committed to the Roman Catholic Church (Upper Austria: 79.4 percent), 3.2 percent were without confession and 2.2 percent were Protestant.
The average age of the community population in 2001 was above the national average. 17.2 percent of the residents of Schwarzenberg were younger than 15 years (Upper Austria: 18.8 percent), 56.3 percent between 15 and 59 years old (Upper Austria: 61.6 percent). The proportion of residents over 59 years of age was 26.6 percent, well above the national average of 20.2 percent. As a result, the average age of the population of Schwarzenberg changed in all segments. The proportion of people under the age of 15 fell to 11.9 percent on January 1, 2013, while the proportion of people between 15 and 59 years of age increased significantly to 64.4 percent. The proportion of people over 59 years of age fell slightly to 23.7 percent. According to marital status, in 2001 42.1 percent of the residents of Schwarzenberg were single, 47.0 percent married, 7.5 percent widowed and 3.3 percent divorced.
Since the late 19th century, today's municipality of Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald has experienced a significantly below-average population development compared to the federal state of Upper Austria and the Rohrbach district. While the number of inhabitants in Upper Austria almost doubled between 1869 and 2013 or remained practically the same in the Rohrbach district, the number of inhabitants in Schwarzenberg shrank by almost half during this period. Already between 1890 and 1934 the population of the municipality had decreased by almost a quarter from around 1100 to 850 inhabitants. Thereafter, the population stagnated until 1951 and has since declined by almost a further quarter. In 2014, the lowest population level to date was measured. The reason for the population decline has always been emigration. While this was stopped in the 1970s and a slight immigration was recorded, Schwarzenberg has shown a sharp increase in emigration since the 1980s. This migration could not be compensated by the slight birth surplus. After the turn of the millennium, the birth balance also turned negative.
The municipal council as the highest body of the municipality has 13 seats and is elected every six years in the course of Upper Austria-wide municipal council elections. The municipality board consists of three members, with the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) providing all members after the municipal council elections in 2009 with the mayor, the deputy mayor and one other member.
The strongest parliamentary group in the Schwarzenberg municipal council has always been the ÖVP, which since 1945 has always achieved an absolute majority of votes and mandates or, with three exceptions, always had a two-thirds majority. In 1955 the ÖVP achieved its best result to date with 100 percent as a single candidate, and in 1979 it recorded its worst result with 62.8 percent. The second strongest party in the Schwarzenberg municipal council was always the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ), which still reached 26.9 percent in 1945 and fell to 2.8 percent in 1949. After that, the SPÖ did not run for office in 1955 and between 1961 and 1985 was able to achieve results between 18.8 and 25.7 percent. In 1991 she got her worst result to date with 13.6 percent, since then she has achieved results between 20 and 24 percent. The Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) first competed in Schwarzenberg in 1979 and was able to achieve 15.1 percent straight away. After she did not run in 1985, she missed out on the municipal council in 1991 with 4.1 percent. After 10.7 percent in 1997, the FPÖ did not run in the last two elections. In the last municipal council election in 2009, the ÖVP achieved 75.6 percent or ten seats, the SPÖ won 24.4 percent or three seats.
The mayor has been determined by direct election since 1997 , with no absolute majority for a candidate in a runoff election . The first direct election was won by mayor Ernst Greiner (ÖVP), who has been in office since 1991, with 77.3 percent in the first ballot against the SPÖ candidate. Greiner stopped running in 2003, whereupon his party colleague Bernhard Hain won against the SPÖ candidate with 64.4 percent. In the 2009 election, Hain was confirmed in office with 88.2 percent with no opposing candidates.
Mayor since 1850:
|Term of office||Surname||Term of office||Surname|
|1850-1864||Johann Neundlinger||1938||Otto Schacherreiter|
|1864-1867||Johann Schmöller||1938||Ferdinand Hornat jun.|
|1867-1876||Raimund Kaspar||1938-1945||Max dust|
|1876-1882||Johann Mair||1945-1947||Johann Kasper|
|1882-1910||Norbert Autengruber||1947-1949||Ludwig Deutschbauer|
|1910-1913||Ignaz Stadlbauer||1949-1973||Adolf War|
|1913-1919||Rudolf Hutterer||1973-1991||Alois Obermüller|
|1919-1922||Johann Groiss||1991-2003||Ernst Greiner|
|1922-1933||Johann Kasper||2003-2015||Bernhard Hain|
|1933-1938||Josef Kasper||from 2015||Michael Leitner|
As in municipal council elections, the ÖVP also dominates state elections in the municipality, although the dominance of the ÖVP has decreased somewhat since 1945. Between 1945 and 1991, the ÖVP always achieved a two-thirds majority with results between 68.0 and 79.5 percent. The ÖVP recorded the best election result in 1955. In 1997 the ÖVP came in with a minus of around five percent to 65 percent, in 2003 and 2009 to around 62 percent. In Schwarzenberg between 1945 and 1991, the SPÖ achieved results between 18.9 and 29.9 percent, with its peak result from 1967. After the SPÖ only achieved 17.3 percent in 1991, it was again able to achieve 24.6 percent in 2003, which put it in second place, as in all previous elections. The FPÖ reached a maximum of 3.3 percent between 1945 and 1985, only in 1979 the election result was slightly higher at 6.2 percent. In 1991 the FPÖ came to 8.8 percent, in 1997 to 13.7 percent and in 2003 again to 8.4 percent. In the last state elections in 2009, the ÖVP again achieved first place with 61.6 percent, while the FPÖ was the second strongest force for the first time with its best result of 16.3 percent. The SPÖ lost more than nine percent and was only the third strongest force with 15.3. The Greens performed well below the national average with 3.4.
coat of arms
The municipality of Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald determined the design of the municipality's coat of arms and the municipality colors (green-white-black) by resolution of the municipal council on June 10, 1983. The coat of arms was subsequently awarded by resolution of the Upper Austrian provincial government on September 12, 1983, or the municipal colors were approved. The design of the coat of arms comes from Franz Haudum from Wilhering . The blazon of the coat of arms reads: “ In green, a silver, chalice-shaped glass over a black three-mountain lined with a silver bar. “The lower part of the coat of arms alludes to both the place name and the geographical location of the municipality on the southern slope of the Bohemian Forest with the Dreisesselberg in the three-country corner through the black Dreiberg. The green base color of the coat of arms stands for the heavy forest cover of the municipality, the "Schlägler Glas" reminds of the glassworks "Sonnenschlag" built by Schlägl Abbey in 1638, with which the clearing and the actual settlement of the Schwarzenberg area began.
Economy and Infrastructure
Workplaces and employees
In 2011, Schwarzenberg housed 48 workplaces with 87 employees, no company with 20 or more employees. The most important industry was agriculture and forestry with 20 workplaces and just as many employees. This was followed by accommodation and catering with four businesses and 15 employees, as well as retail with six workplaces and eight employees. Of the 302 labor force living in Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald in 2011, only 1.3 percent were unemployed. Of the 294 employed, 62 were employed in manufacturing (21 percent), 53 in construction (18 percent) and 36 in trade (12 percent). Other important sectors were public administration with nine percent and agriculture and forestry, as well as accommodation and catering with seven percent each. Of the 289 employed persons from Schwarzenberg (excluding employed residents temporarily absent from work), only 63 persons were employed in Schwarzenberg in 2011. 226 or 78 percent had to commute to work. Of the out-commuters, 52 percent had their place of work in the Rohrbach district and a further 37 percent in the rest of Upper Austria. The most important commuter communities were Linz, Ulrichsberg and Rohrbach. In return, only eight people commuted to Schwarzenberg.
Agriculture and Forestry
In 2010 the statistics showed 39 agricultural and forestry holdings for the municipality of Schwarzenberg. These included 14 full-time businesses and 25 part-time businesses. The total number of businesses had fallen by 10 businesses or 20 percent compared with 1999, with the number of part-time businesses in particular falling sharply. In 2010, the farms cultivated a total of 640 hectares of land, 59 percent of which was farmed by full-time farmers and 41 percent by part-time farmers. The average area of full-time farmers was 27.1 hectares, well above the district average (34.7 hectares) or the Upper Austrian average of 33.8 hectares.
Transport and infrastructure
Schwarzenberg is connected to the higher-ranking transport network via Dreisesselbergstrasse (L 580). The Dreisesselbergstraße connects the center of Schwarzenberg with the municipality of Klaffer am Hochficht in the southeast and with the village of Lackenhäuser (municipality of Neureichenau , district of Freyung-Grafenau ) in the west. In the municipality of Klaffer, the Hinteranger Bezirksstraße (L 1560) branches off from Dreisesselbergstraße and runs through the south of the municipality of Schwarzenberg and Schwarzenberg with the German municipality of Breitenberg ( Passau district ).
Culture and sights
- Church of St. John Nepomuk
- War memorial at the cemetery
- Forest chapel
Museum of local history and donors
The Schwarzenberg Heritage and Donor Museum has been housed in the town's historic elementary school since 1992. Since 2005 the upper floor has been dedicated to the state poet Adalbert Stifter , who has several references to Schwarzenberg:
- Stifter's birthplace in Oberplan is only about 20 km from Schwarzenberg.
- On the way through to his spa stays in Lackenhäuser , Stifter liked to stop at the local inn between 1855 and 1866.
- The old school building was extended during Stifter's tenure. As a display in the museum shows, the Schwarzenberg school was one of around 100 schools that were newly built, expanded or furnished by adapting existing buildings under Adalbert Stifter's direction.
Since its inception, the museum has been looked after by the Schwarzenberg cultural ring, which however announced its closure in 2018.
Sculpture park and the "art of vacation"
From 1992 to 1997 the international wood sculptor symposium "Grenzgänger" took place in Schwarzenberg, which was organized by the state of Upper Austria. (Office for Cultural Foreign Relations) under the leadership of Aldemar Schiffkorn . From this time a number of sculptures resulted, which were set up in the local area of Schwarzenberg and formed a sculpture park.
From 1998 onwards, the community of Schwarzenberg independently organized an art and culture program based on this, which was organized in cooperation with the Institute for Cultural Economics at the University of Linz and operated under the label “Art of Vacation”. There were sculptor symposia with “artists in residence” and various art activities and workshops. The program took place three times (1998–2000) until it was due to the lack of tourist demand and the suspension of the subsidy by the state of Upper Austria. 2001 was discontinued.
- Every year a Schwarzenberg local cup of the stick shooting club takes place.
- Every year in summer the Schwarzenberg beach volleyball tournament takes place at the outdoor pool area. This has been organized by the Schwarzenberg Sports Youth since 2008. There has been a separate section since 2011.
- Every year in winter the Schwarzenberg giant slalom takes place on the Schwarzenberg-Bahn (Hochficht). The organizer is the SportUnion Schwarzenberg, section Alpine skiing.
- Every year the so-called International 6h Böhmerwald Mountain Bike Race takes place in Schwarzenberg. One of the best-attended and most strenuous hourly races in the region for athletes.
The so-called "Budlhaumfest" in Oberschwarzenberg is a tent festival that takes place on the large area of the Dreiländereck inn. This big festival is held every year in July and, due to the border location, is also very popular with the German neighbors. Every year there is space for around 1,000 visitors at the open air.
- Adalbert Stifter (1805–1868) writer
- Franz Xaver Schmid (1819–1883), philosopher, writer and university professor
- Jordan Koller (1858–1918), sculptor and collaborator with Josef Kepplinger in Ottensheim
- Karl Lugmayer (1892–1972) philosopher, politician and popular educator
- Zyrill Fischer (1892–1945) Franciscan priest and resistance fighter
- Viktor Schauberger (1885–1958) forester and inventor
- Josef Reitinger (1922–1994), prehistoric and Upper Austrian regional archaeologist
- Franz Wöss (* 1958), Formula 3 driver and team owner
- Statistics Austria: Population on January 1st, 2020 by locality (area status on January 1st, 2020) , ( CSV )
- Province of Upper Austria ( Memento of the original from November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Population levels in Upper Austria in comparison by citizenship
- Statistics Austria: Population by religion and federal states 1951 to 2001 , accessed on October 2, 2013
- Statistics Austria community data of Schwarzenberg am Böhmerwald
- Province of Upper Austria ( Memento of the original from October 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Resident population in Upper Austria compared by age group
- Province of Upper Austria ( Memento of the original from July 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Local council elections in Schwarzenberg from 1945
- Province of Upper Austria election results in mayoral elections
- Province of Upper Austria Mayor of the community of Schwarzenberg since 1850
- Province of Upper Austria ( Memento of the original from July 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. State election results in Schwarzenbach am Böhmerwald from 1945
- State of Upper Austria coat of arms of the community of Schwarzenberg
- Cross-border commuters: International Sculpture Symposium Schwarzenberg 1992 in three languages. With texts by W. Umminger. Schwarzenberg 1992, see entry on zvab.com .
- Information on the "Art of Vacation" in Schwarzenberg / Böhmerwald at kuwi.uni-linz.ac.at, requested on September 17, 2016.
- Franz Haudum: Jordan Koller (1858-1918). A sculptor from Schwarzenberg. In: Upper Austrian homeland sheets. Volume 34, Linz 1980, issue 3/4, pp. 200–205, online (PDF) in the forum OoeGeschichte.at