City of Hornburg
City of Hornburg
|Height :||101 (86–167) m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||22.11 km²|
|Residents :||2457 (May 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||111 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||1. November 2013|
|Postal code :||38315|
|Area code :||05334|
Location of the city of Hornburg in Lower Saxony
The town of Hornburg is part of the municipality of Schladen-Werla in the Wolfenbüttel district ( Lower Saxony ). Until November 1, 2013 the place was an independent city. Together with the Tempelhof district , it had 2,464 inhabitants (as of June 30, 2012). Hornburg's population had reached its peak around 1950 with almost 4,400 inhabitants. Today Hornburg only has 2,449 inhabitants (as of June 30, 2015).
The eponymous Hornburg was first mentioned in 994 in a document in connection with market , coin and customs rights of the city of Quedlinburg . Located on a limestone plateau on the " Great Break ", the castle was the northern border fortress of the Halberstadt bishops . It dominated the trade routes from Braunschweig to Halberstadt and Wernigerode as well as the Hildesheim – Halberstadt trade route . In the great fire of 1512, 120 houses in Hornburg were destroyed. First designated as a city by the Halberstadt bishop in 1528 , it received market rights 24 years later .
Hornburg experienced its heyday in the 16th century, when there was considerable prosperity through the cultivation of hops . This plant, which is important for brewing, thrived particularly well thanks to the favorable climatic conditions - little rain and lots of sunshine.
The half-timbered town of Hornburg had 5 city gates in the Middle Ages : Halberstädter Tor, Braunschweiger Tor, Vorwerkstor, Pfarrhofstor and Dammtor. The latter is the only one that has survived. The coat of arms of the town of Hornburg is located on this to the right of the mighty gate pillars . This is sculptured from a sandstone slab (65.0 cm × 70.0 cm). On the coat of arms of the city is the coat of arms held by two shield bearers, a female and a male figure. In the center there is a hunting horn hanging from an antler clasp and above it the letters H and B for the town of Hornburg. Between the year 1552 we find stylized foliage, above a small heraldic cartouche with the hunting horn. Below that, symmetrically arranged, two highlighted, sealed letters K and W. The letters stand for the surnames of the two ruling mayors at that time, who alternated during their term of office. In 1552 these were Henning Küchenthal the Elder. J. and Hinrich Wagenführ . They took the citizenship oath , granted citizenship and were used for life .
On June 4, 1552, the Archbishop of Magdeburg and Bishop of Halberstadt , Friedrich von Brandenburg , son of the Brandenburg Elector Joachim II , signed the market charter, which is important for the city of Hornburg. Whoever wanted to live in the security of the city wall had to prove the purchase of a piece of land, pay a citizen's allowance of 4 Talers and own a leather fire bucket .
1648 Hornburg came with the territory of the former Bishopric of Halberstadt in Brandenburg-Prussia and was named after the French period the district Halberstadt of the Prussian province of Saxony incorporated. On September 30, 1928, the Hornburg manor district was merged with the town of Hornburg. The district of Halberstadt became part of the district of Wernigerode in 1932 . As part of the reorganization of the Salzgitter area Hornburg was born on August 1, 1941 together with Isingerode , Roklum and the Vorwerk Tempelhof the Brunswick Wolfenbüttel assigned. This made Hornburg part of the British zone of occupation in 1945 and of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 .
In 1999 Hornburg hosted the cultural festival “ Day of the Brunswick Landscape ”.
In the course of the transformation of the joint municipality of Schladen into a unified municipality on November 1, 2013, Hornburg became part of the municipality of Schladen-Werla. The last mayor was Helga Küchler .
In addition to the Protestant church Beatae Mariae Virginis (→ Sights), Hornburg has been home to the Catholic St. Clemens Church since 1977 , for which Pope Clement I was elected as patron in memory of the Pope who was born in Hornburg but was not canonized Clement II
The local council of Hornburg, which was elected on September 11, 2016 , consists of seven councilors as follows (changes compared to 2013):
The local mayor is Marc Samel (SPD).
(Status: local election on September 22, 2013)
Culture and sights
The handicraft museum on Montelabbateplatz houses handicraft shops and pictures of the town's history; one room is dedicated to the most famous Hornburger, Pope Clement II . The Biedermeier house below the castle wall attached to the museum houses a fully furnished petty bourgeois apartment from around 1900.
Half-timbered buildings of the old town
His great era owes Hornburg its ornate Renaissance - half-timbered houses with overhanging storeys and jewelery beams, which are richly decorated with frescoed compartments rosettes, fans Friesen and banners. There are structural relationships with Halberstadt and Einbeck . Probably the most beautiful half-timbered house in the old town is located on the market square; it was built in 1609 as a council pharmacy. The Neue Strasse with its low front doors seems to confirm how small people used to be. But don't be mistaken: one reason for this was to raise the level of the road to prevent damage from flooding. The river Ilse flows through Hagenstrasse; the Hagenmühle, built here in 1604, is the only remaining watermill in the Wolfenbüttel district , along with the Erkerode watermill .
A bad loss for the half-timbered town of Hornburg occurred when one of the most beautiful and largest half-timbered houses, the Neidhammelhaus, was destroyed by fire in 1972. The valuable decorative facade had remained standing, but had to be torn down because of the risk of collapse. This meant a sensitive cut in the urban structure of the city and street scene on the waterway in the vicinity of the church. In 1996 the previously stored, listed facade was placed in front of a new building and could thus be kept in place. The Neidhammelhaus was built in 1563 by the then city treasurer Valentin Mitgau. His family coat of arms, a heart pierced by an arrow, adorns one of the ten uprights on the first floor. According to the council files from 1594, "the Neidhammel" was the most taxed house in Hornburg.
The Beatae Mariae Virginis church from 1616 is one of the most beautiful Protestant churches in the northern Harz foreland. The post-Gothic hall church is the second new Protestant church in the area of the Braunschweigische Landeskirche after its sister of the same name in Wolfenbüttel, which began in 1608 . The organ prospectus by Christoph Cuntzius (early 18th century) is one of the most important in northern Germany .
The late Renaissance altar and pulpit were donated by members of the von Randow family . Hans von Randow and his son Frederick resided in the 16th and 17th centuries than half the municipal office main men on the Hornburg. Tombstones of Hans von Randow and his daughter Ilse are still in the Hornburg church, the altar of which was donated by Hans's widow.
Hornburg Castle, which is also the town's landmark, rises dominantly over the town. It was the border castle of the Halberstadt diocese . It is believed that Suitger was born on her in 1005, who became Pope Clement II in 1046 as Bishop of Bamberg . The Hornburg was destroyed for the first time in 1113, and again by Heinrich the Lion in 1179.
In 1430 the castle was destroyed a third time. In the 15th century the castle was expanded like a fortress. During the Thirty Years' War , the castle was a target of imperial and Swedish troops. In 1645 it was destroyed by the Swedish general Königsmarck and then served as a quarry.
After its destruction, the castle grounds lay fallow until the 1920s. Then it was partially reconstructed on the foundation walls. Today the castle is privately owned and cannot be visited to the public.
Not far from the Marienkirche, on the dam, behind the renaissance house no. 20 built in 1569, stood the baroque Hornburg synagogue , the complete interior of which can now be viewed in the Jewish Museum of the Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum "Hinter Aegidien".
The house itself was a Jewish school from 1763 to 1810. Erected in the second row in 1766, the synagogue was considered an example of a building specially built for this purpose - a rarity in northern Germany in the 18th century . The cubic half-timbered building with a mansard hipped roof was built on a square floor plan with a side length of 9 meters. On the west side an extension had two separate doors, one to the vestibule of the men's synagogue, the other staircase to the women's gallery.
The synagogue in Halberstadt , built by banker Lehmann in 1712, is a direct model - one of the largest and richest of its time, the sweeping mansard roof of which towered over the lower houses of the Jewish quarter (a requirement of the Talmud ). The Hornburg synagogue appeared to be a somewhat simpler reduction of this building, right down to the last detail. In 1924 the dilapidated building, which had not been used by a minyan (a minimum of ten adult Jewish people who form a prayer community) had not been used since 1882, was demolished. Thanks to the active work of the graphic artist Ephraim Moses Lilien and the curator of the Braunschweig State Museum Karl Steinacker, the interior furnishings were recovered in 1924 and have been preserved and exhibited there in the Jewish Museum department .
Economy and Infrastructure
Hornburg station (Kr Wolfenbüttel) was on the Wasserleben – Börßum railway line . This route is closed.
- Clement II (1005-1047), Pope from 1046 to 1047
- Hans von Randow († 1572), half-city governor of Hornburg and Zilly
- Anna Landmann († 1597) was the last woman to fall victim to the witch hunt in Hornburg
- Georg Wilhelm Wahnschaffe (1710–1791), Prussian chief bailiff, Braunschweig-Lüneburgischer Drost, hydraulic engineering expert, land improver and multiple domain and manor owner, took over the Hornburg domain in 1758
- Emma Goslar (1848–1923), local poet and lecturer
- Wilhelm Rieke (1880–1967), politician and member of the state parliament
- Claus Arnold (1919–2014), artist
- Renate Thon (* 1949), politician (Alliance 90 / The Greens)
Pope Clement II
- Ernst Andreas Friedrich : The Hornburg. In: If stones could talk. Volume IV, Landbuch-Verlag, Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7842-0558-5 , pp. 82-84.
- Eberhard Segner: History of the city of Hornburg. Heckner, Wolfenbüttel 1994.
- Hans-Jürgen Derda : Hornburg. In: Herbert Obenaus, David Bankier , Daniel Fraenkel (Hrsg.): Historical manual of the Jewish communities in Lower Saxony and Bremen. Volume 2, Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-753-5 , pp. 884-888.
- Figures, data and facts from the municipality of Schladen-Werla. Retrieved March 17, 2019 .
- Statutes of the municipality of Schladen-Werla , accessed on September 23, 2017
- Administrative region of Magdeburg (Ed.): Official Gazette of the Government of Magdeburg . 1928, p. 201 . ,
- Result of the local council election Hornburg 2013 on the website of the municipality Schladen-Werla , accessed on October 24, 2015
- Result of the local council election Hornburg 2016 on the website of the municipality Schladen-Werla , accessed on October 2, 2016