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The masters / rabbis of the Jewish doctrine that was later regarded as authoritative and passed on orally through constant repetition are referred to as Tannaim ( Tannaites , Aramaic: Tanna = teacher; aram.tanna from Hebrew shana, repeat, teach, learn ) . It is the teachers of the law whose teachings form the content of the Mishnah , that is, the teachers of the Mishnah period .

Dezisor Dezisor Geonim Saboräer Amoraim Zugot

Number, periodizations and meaning

There are more than 250 of them, almost all of whom lived in Palestine, beginning with the Hillel and Shammai schools and ending with Judah ha-Nassi .

Her literature: Mishnah , Tossefta , Baraita (Tannaitic fragments in the Talmud), Halachic Midrashim .

The time period of the Tannaim in the narrower sense is set from approx. 10 to 220 or 70 to 240. There are different dating approaches, transitions, and assignment problems. Similar to the Amorae, it is divided into different generations. Research has found a different number of mostly between three and six generations with diverging years to distinguish them. The German philologist Karl Bertau distinguishes three generations of Tannaim. He ranks Rabbi Gamaliel II , Rabbi Akiba , Eleazar ben Azariah , Yehoshua ben Hananiah and Yehuda ha-Nasi as the first, Ishmael and Eliezer ben Hyrcanus as the second , and Shimon bar Jochai as the third generation . The Austrian Judaist Günter Stemberger , on the other hand, divided into four generations of Tannaites. The Jewish Encyclopedia divides into six generations according to the annual limits 10 to 80, 80 to 120, 120 to 140, 140 to 165, 165 to 200 and 200 to 220.

The period of those teachings commenting followed the Tannaim Amoraim (up to 500), then the Babylonian Talmud processed Saboraim (until the 7th century), and finally the period of Geonim (until the 11th century).

The period of the so-called Soferim (beginning with Ezra ) preceded the Tannaites .

The importance of the Tannaites lies in the collection and arrangement of the oral tradition in halachic codices (Mishnah, Tossefta) and halachic Torah exegesis (halachic Midrashim) at a time when the chain of tradition was broken down by the persecution and death of teachers and the destruction of the There was a risk of dropping out of scholarly schools ( Jewish war , Bar Kochba uprising ).

Selected tannaites

First generation Tannaites or "early Tannaites"

Rabbi Akiba - Ben Bag Bag - Chananja ben Aqaschja - Chananja ben Chiskija ben Garon - Chanina ben Dosa - Chanina Segan ha-Kohen - Gamaliel I. - Hillel the Elder - Ishmael ben Elisha ha-Kohen Gadol - Jochanan ben Sakkai - Nachum from Gimso - Nachum of the Medes - Nechonja ben ha-Qana - Shammai - Simeon ben Gamaliel I. - Zadok

Second generation Tannaites

Abba Saul ben Batnit - Ben Assai - (R. Simeon) Ben Nannos - Ben Paturi - Ben Soma - R. Chananja (or Chanina) ben Gamaliel II. (Also: Gamliel) - Dosa ben Archinos - Eleazar from Modiin - Eleazar ben Arach - Eleazar ben Azariah - Eleazar ben Zadok I. - R. Eleazar ben Parta - Eliezer ben Hyrkanos - Eliezer ben Jacob the Elder - Elisha ben Abuja - Gamaliel II. - Yehoshua ben Chananiah - Yehuda ben Baba - R. Yehuda ben Batyra - Jochanan ben Beroka - Jochanan ben Nuri - Jose ben Chalafta - Jose (f) the priest - Jose ha-Gelili - R. Jose, son of the Damascus woman (ben Dormasqit) - Mattia ben Cheresch - R. Papias - Pappos (ben Jehuda) - Samuel the little one - Simeon ben Natanael - Simeon ha-Paqoli - R. Simeon of Timna (ha-Timni / ha-Temani, "from Teman" [Edom]) - Rabbi Tarfon

Third generation Tannaites

Chananja (Babylon) - Chananja ben Chakinai - R. Chananja ben Jehuda - Chanina ben Teradjon - R. Eleazar ben Jehuda , from Bartota (Birtota?) / Eleazar Isch Bartota - Rabbi Ilai I. - Jehoshua ben Qorcha - Jehuda ben Ilai - Rabbi Ishmael - Jochanan ha-Sandelar - R. Jochanan ben Torta - Jonathan - Joschia - Jose ben Qisma - Nechemja - Shimon ben Jochai - Simeon ben Gamaliel II.

Fourth generation Tannaites

Abba Eleazar ben Gamla - Abba Jose ben Dostai - Abba Saul - Achai ben Joschija - Chidka - Dosa - Dostai ben Jannai - Eleasar ben Jose ben Chalafta - Eliezer ben Jacob the Younger - Eliezer ben Jose ha-Gelili - Eurydemos ben Jose (ben Chalafta ) - R. Isaak - Jakob (ben Korschai) - Jehuda ben Tema - Jose ben Jehuda - Rabbi Meir - Natan ha-Babli - R. Nehorai - Pinchas ben Jair - Reuben ben Istrobeli - R. Simeon from Schiqmona - Simeon ben Eleazar - Simeon ben Menasja

Fifth generation Tannaites / transition to the Amoraim

Banna'a - Bar Qappara - Dostai ben Jehuda - Eleazar ha-Qappar - Jehuda ha-Nasi - R. Jehuda ben Laqish - R. Jehuda ben Naqosa - R. Ishmael ben Jose (ben Chalafta) - R. Jonatan ben Amram - R . Jose ben Meshullam - R. Jose ben Saul - Levi bar Sisi (? Sosius) - R. Mana in Akko - R. Menachem ben Jose (ben Chalafta) - R. Simai - R. Simeon ben Chalafta - Simeon ben Yehuda - R . Simeon ben Yose ben Laqonja - b Symmachos. Joseph

Tannaites of undefined, uncertain or contradicting assignment

Abba Chanin (Chanan) - Chananja (Tannait) - R. Chananja ben Aqabja (or Aqiba) - Eleazar ben Shammua - Eleazar ben Simon - Eleazar ben Zadok II. - Eleazar Chisma - Issi (also Jose) ben Aqabja - Issi (shortening of Josef) ben Jehuda = Issi of the Babylonians (?) - R. Ishmael, son of Jochanan ben Beroqa / Ismael ben Jochanan ben Beroka - Jonatan ben Usiel - R. Jose ben Jasjan / Ben Jasjan - R. Jose ben Kipper (Kefar?)

Literature (selection)

  • Heilprin : Seder ha-Dorot , Warsaw 1878 ff.
  • Bacher : The Agada of the Tannaites , 2 vol., 1884 ff.
  • A. Hyman : sefer toldot tannaim we-amoraim , 3 vols., London 1910
  • Nahum Norbert Glatzer : Investigation into the history of the Tannaites , 1932
  • M. Margolioth (ed.): Encyclopedia of Talmudic and Geonic Literature, being a Biographical Dictionary of the Tanaim, Amoraim and Geonim , 2 volumes, Tel Aviv 1960

See also

Individual evidence

  1. a b Adin Steinsaltz : Talmud for everyone , Verlag Morascha, 2nd edition, Basel, 1998, p. 38
  2. ^ Karl Bertau: Scripture - Power - Holiness in the literatures of the Judeo-Christian-Muslim Middle Ages , de Gruyter, Berlin, 2005, p. 72
  3. Günter Stemberger: Introduction in Talmud and Midrasch , CH Beck, 2nd edition, Munich, 1982, p. 77 ff.