Alternate world history
Alternative world stories are an elaboration of the science fiction genre and are called allohistoria , parahistory , virtual history , imaginary history , unheard history , potential history , eventual history , alternate history , alternative history or Uchronie ("non-time", from ancient Greek οὐ- "Not-" and χρόνος "time") known.
The stories of these works take place in a world in which the course of world history has deviated from what we know at some point (at the so-called divergence point ). While science fiction operates with the potential , the counterfactual story operates with the unreal , thus asking the question: "What could have been if ...?" The genre was developed particularly in the English-language literature of the post-war period.
Alternative world stories are often used as a means of satire .
Historical events - mostly striking such as battles or political decisions - serve as the background for alternative world stories, which are used as the starting point for an alternative history by changing or removing certain factors of these events. Well-known and often used events include a .:
- The Battle of Salamis 480 BC From which the Persians emerge victorious;
- The Battle of Waterloo , from which Napoleon emerges victorious;
- The American Civil War the Southern States are winning;
- The assassination attempt in Sarajevo , which fails, which does not lead to the First World War ;
- The Second World War , won by National Socialist Germany (or ended in time by a compromise peace);
- The assassination of John F. Kennedy ( Vietnam War , Cold War proceed differently)
- The events around 1990 (end of communism, reunification of Germany ) did not take place or took place differently.
In addition, there are also parallel world narratives in which both possibilities of history develop independently of one another and later, mostly in the present, come into contact with one another.
Literary works (selection, alphabetical)
- Richard Bachman : Death March , 1979 (The novel suggests in some places that the German Reich won World War II and developed into a nuclear power), ISBN 3-548-26327-5
- Otto Basil : If the Führer only knew that! , 1966 (The German Reich won the Second World War, after Adolf Hitler's death in the 1960s the world was heading for a nuclear war with the other superpower Japan), ISBN 978-3-85286-197-5 .
- Thomas Brussig : There's no such thing in any Russian film, 2015 (Brussig tells about his life in a GDR in which reunification failed), ISBN 978-3-59603266-2 .
- Samuel Bury: Histoire de la prize de Berne et de l'annexion de la Suisse à l'Allemagne. 1872. Switzerland is occupied by Bismarck in the 19th century.
- Roger Caillois : Pontius Pilatus , 1963 (Pontius Pilatus clears Jesus Christ), ISBN 3-928262-13-0
- Emmanuel Carrère : Cleopatra's nose. Little history of the Uchronie . Gatza, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-928262-09-2 .
- Michael Chabon : The Yiddish Policemen's Union , 2007 (Engl .: The Yiddish Policemen's Union , the United States built during World War II in Alaska one - only temporary - home for Jewish refugees)
- A. Bertram Chandler : The Australian Revolution , 1983 ( Kelly Country ; Ned Kelly leads successful Australian uprising against the British)
- Ronald W. Clark : Queen Victoria's Bomb , 1967
- Vadim Dawydow : The Heir to the Throne (Russian: Наследники по прямой ) (Trilogy: The Castle of Cimmeria , 2007, ISBN 978-5-289-02584-5 , The Prophecy , 2008, ISBN 978-5-289-02619-4 , In spite of death , 2008, ISBN 978-5-9942-0073-5 ). The influence of the current protagonists creates several points of divergence (bifurcation points), which significantly changes world history, e.g. B., the Second World War ends two years earlier. A "classic" alternative world story without artifacts from other world, future or the like, which is very popular in the Russian way of the genre.
- Len Deighton : SS-GB (English: SS-GB ; the German Reich succeeds in invading England in World War II, the United Kingdoms become an SS state)
- Philip K. Dick : Das Orakel vom Berge , 1962 (English: The Man in the High Castle ; The German Reich and the Japanese Empire occupied America and divided it up among themselves during World War II), ISBN 3-453-52272-9
Christian v. Ditfurth : The Luxembourg plot ( Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are not murdered by Freikorps units), Droemer / Knaur 2008, ISBN 978-3-426-63496-7
- ders .: July 21 (The assassination attempt of July 20, 1944 succeeds, the German Reich builds the atomic bomb before the United States), ISBN 978-3-426-62415-9
- else: The wall stands on the Rhine (the GDR is slammed into the Federal Republic after a Soviet-American " horse trade" ), ISBN 3-462-60004-4
- Another: The Consul ( Adolf Hitler is murdered before he seizes power ), ISBN 978-3-426-62787-7
- Andreas Eschbach : NSA - National Security Office . Fiction about what would have happened if there had already been computers, cell phones and social media in Nazi Germany.
- Eric Flint : 1632 (series) (The focus of the plot is on the residents of the small US town of Grantville , which is transported from rural West Virginia in 2000 to the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War in Thuringia in 1631.)
- Stephen Fry : Making History (ger .: Making History ; How would look like if Hitler had never been born, the world?), ISBN 3-499-22410-0
- William Gibson & Bruce Sterling : The Difference Engine (Engl .: The Difference Engine ; In the 19th century the first functional, mechanically operated, is computer built), ISBN 3-453-05380-X
- Robert Harris , Vaterland , 1992 (English: Fatherland ; the German Reich won the Second World War, the action takes place on Hitler's 75th birthday in 1964 in a Berlin that was rebuilt according to Albert Speer's plans. Filmed with Rutger Hauer ), ISBN 3-453-07205-7
- Theodor Herzl : The Entrepreneur Buonaparte (1900, a short story, full text on Wikisource)
- Oliver Henkel : The time machine of Charlemagne ( Odoacer failed to conquer Rome in 476, the Roman Empire existed until the time of Charlemagne , who was now intriguing against Rome), ISBN 3-8311-1661-X
- Christian Kracht : I will be here in the sunshine and in the shade ( Lenin missed the train that was supposed to bring him from Zurich to Russia and the Soviet was founded in Switzerland in 1917), ISBN 3-462-04041-3
- Michael Kurland : Where is Aaron Burr? , 1975 ( The Whenabouts of Burr ; The signatures under the United States Constitution have suddenly changed. The research leads into a web of parallel worlds with alternate histories), ISBN 3-548-31058-3
- Charles Lewinsky , Doris Morf : Hitler on the Rütli. Logs of a suppressed time. Zurich 2014. Hitler's troops march into Switzerland in May 1940, the army has to surrender, and Switzerland is incorporated into the Third Reich.
- Kirk Mitchell : Germanicus trilogy, German-language editions 1988–1990 at Bastei-Lübbe under the titles Procurator , Imperator and Liberator (Jesus Christ was not executed, after more than 2000 years the Roman Empire is still the leading world power)
- Guido Morselli : Light at the end of the tunnel (The Central Powers German Empire and Austria-Hungary win World War I through an Alpine tunnel . The German Empire renounces annexations and founds a Western European community), ISBN 3-518-38707-3
- Christoph Ransmayr : Kitahara disease ; Germany after the Second World War and implementation of the " Morgenthau Plan "
- Philip Roth : Conspiracy against America (English: The Plot Against America ; Charles Lindbergh becomes President of the USA in 1941 and comes to an understanding with the German Reich), ISBN 3-446-20662-0
- Matt Ruff : Mirage , 2012
- Éric-Emmanuel Schmitt : Adolf H. Two Lives (Hitler was accepted at the Vienna Art Academy in 1908 and his life took a completely different course.) ISBN 3-250-60107-1
- Norman Spinrad : The Iron Dream , 1972 (Engl .: The Iron Dream , Adolf Hitler emigrated to the United States, where it is an SF writer who publishes his crude ideas in novels), ISBN 3-453-30684-8
- Lyon Sprague de Camp : Read Darkness Fall , 1941 (an American archaeologist is transported back to Rome in the year 535 and saves the Ostrogoths from destruction).
- Alfred Stabel : The German Golden Apple (The Turks conquer Vienna in 1683 and establish themselves as a Central European great power), ISBN 978-3-86346-079-2
- Heinrich von Stahl's Kaiserfront book series takes place in a parallel world in which the First World War ended differently and the world is attacked by aliens in 1953.
- Hannes Stein : Der Komet , 2013 (The Austrian heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand narrowly escapes the assassination attempt in Sarajevo, and neither the First nor the Second World War takes place, the city of Vienna, where the novel is set, is developing very differently.), ISBN 978 -3-86971-067-9 .
- Vladimir Fyodorowitsch Tendryakov : Attack on Visions , 1989: Jesus is stoned to death in one of his first sermons, the sun state of Campanella is realized, but develops into a terror regime, ISBN 3-353-00515-3
- Harry Turtledove : various works, including Southern Victory (the South wins the Civil War - and how this affects the 20th century)
- Simon Urban's novel Plan D from 2011 describes a Germany in which there was no turning point in the GDR in 1989 after a coup.
- Volkmar Weiss : The Thousand Year Reich Artam (Adolf Hitler crashes in the plane in November 1941 and the war against the USA does not take place, the new Reich Artam is created in the conquered East), ISBN 978-3-926370-45-7
- Jerry Yulsman : Elle Ander Morning (ger .: Elle Ander Morning ); (Adolf Hitler was murdered in Vienna in 1913 , so the Second World War did not take place), ISBN 3-453-31308-9
- Thomas Ziegler : The Voices of the Night (Post-war Germany is completely de-industrialized in 1945 as part of the Morgenthau Plan. The majority of Germans emigrate to South America and build a new Nazi empire there).
- Peter Friedrich: Sea lion, trilogy. The Wehrmacht landed in Kent in July 1940. An alternative sea lion operation is carried out with the methods and weapons available at the time, ISBN 9-781-52023042-9.
- It Happened Here (1964) (The German Reich occupied Great Britain during World War II)
- The Boy and His Dog (1975) (The plot set in 2024 mentions a Third World War that took place between 1950 and 1983)
- The Trial of Lee Harvey Oswald (1977)
- Philadelphia Experiment II (1993) (a failed teleportation experiment sends a stealth bomber with nuclear weapons back in time, with the help of which the German Reich won the war)
- Vaterland (1994) (Germany in 1964 after victory in World War II)
- White Man's Burden (1995) (The social roles of blacks and whites in the USA are reversed)
- 2009 Lost Memories (2002)
- Nothing So Strange (2002)
- Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow (2004) (An alternative 1939, in which zeppelins dominate aviation thanks to the obvious absence of the Hindenburg disaster , the technology seems more sophisticated overall and no political signs of an imminent Second World War are discernible)
- Virtual JFK (2008)
- Inglourious Basterds (2009) (The film itself, set in the summer of 1944, has no alternative main plot; the known timeline only breaks with the murder of the NSDAP leadership cadre and the subsequent surrender of the German Reich)
- Watchmen - The Guardians (2009) (Alternative USA of 1985, in which the Vietnam War was won and Richard Nixon is permanent president)
- Jackboots on Whitehall ("Nazi Invasion") (2010) (Satirical puppet film in which the German Reich invades Great Britain through a tunnel in 1940)
- Anonymous (2011)
- Iron Sky (2012) (Comedy in which National Socialists fled to the moon)
- Nazi Sky - The Return of Evil (2012) (A group of National Socialists around Dr. Mengele take refuge in an underground world in Antarctica)
- For All Mankind (2019) (Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov is the first person to step on the moon)
- Once Upon a Time in Hollywood (2019)
- The Third World War (1998) ("Documentation" about an alternative course of the Eastern European reform movement in 1989, which culminated in the invasion of the Soviet Union in the Federal Republic and ultimately in the nuclear exchange)
- CSA: The Confederate States of America (2004)
- Star Trek : TOS episode " Reaching into History " (1967)
- Sliders - The Gate into a Foreign Dimension (1995-2000)
- Animorphs (individual episodes, 1998–2000)
- Full Metal Panic! (Anime, 2002-2005)
- Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion (Anime, 2006-2008)
- Fringe - Borderline Cases by the FBI (2008-2012)
- The Man in the High Castle (since 2015)
- Parallels - Journey to New Worlds (Pilot Only)
- SS-GB (2017)
Computer games (selection)
- Wolfenstein 3D : At the end of the game you kill Adolf Hitler.
- Imperium Romanum (Adventure) : Time travel pirates bring modern technical achievements to ancient Rome and thus change history
- Command & Conquer: Red Alert : In 1946, scientists in New Mexico, led by Professor Albert Einstein, decide to prevent World War II by eliminating Adolf Hitler before he can take power in the German Reich. This triggered the Second World War from the Soviet Union under Stalin.
- Enigma: Rising Tide : The RMS Lusitania was not sunk by a German submarine in 1915. The US does not enter World War I and the German Reich wins the war. In 1937 three powers (German Empire, USA and an alliance from Japan and the British colonies) are fighting for supremacy.
- Homefront : In the near future, Kim Jong-un and the united Korea attack the United States during an oil crisis, the protagonist joins the resistance against the occupiers.
- Homefront: The Revolution : Continuation of the first part, but without connecting to its plot, only the framework story about the US occupied by North Korea is taken over.
- Interstate '76 : The oil crisis worsens to such an extent that the entire public order of the United States collapses and police, bandits and vigilantes fight on the highways.
- World in Conflict : At the end of the 1980s, the USSR surprisingly attacks several European countries and, with the help of China, starts an invasion of the northwest coast of the USA.
- Turning Point: Fall of Liberty : Winston Churchill died in 1931 and Great Britain cannot withstand Germany and the Axis powers. They later succeed in installing a president they control in the USA.
- Sniper Elite (series) : In several parts of the series you can kill Adolf Hitler, although it is not always clear whether it is a double. In the add-on Zombie Army Trilogy, there is an alternative timeline in which Hitler lets fallen soldiers return as zombies and then becomes a zombie himself.
- Wolfenstein: The New Order : Germany won the Second World War and rules the world, the main character in the game joins a resistance and fights underground against the regime.
- GURPS Infinite Worlds: With a machine called the Parachronator, mankind has succeeded in making parallel world trips and exploiting these worlds for their own economic purposes.
- Deadlands : After an invocation, evil spirits rule the western United States, California was turned into an island landscape by an earthquake and the Civil War has been raging for 15 years.
- Space: 1889 : A steampunk setting at the end of the 19th century, in which the ether theory proves to be true and mankind colonizes Mars with airships.
- Crimson Skies : In the wake of the global economic crisis, the United States has disintegrated into several warring individual states, which are also being harassed by the remaining great powers.
- Emmanuel Carrère : Cleopatra's nose: Little history of Uchronie , Gatza, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-928262-09-2 .
- Johannes Dillinger : Uchronie. Unhappened story from ancient times to steampunk . Schöningh, Paderborn 2015.
- Uwe Durst: On the poetics of parahistorical literature , in: Neohelicon , XXXI, 2/2004, pp. 201–220.
- Uwe Durst: Three basic alienation types of the historical sequence , in: Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte DVjs , 2/2009, pp. 337–358.
- Hans-Heinrich Freitag / Peter Hühn (ed.): Literary views of reality. Studies on the constitution of reality in English-language literature. To honor Johannes Kleinstück , Frankfurt a. M., Bern, Cirencester / UK: Lang 1980 [Anglo-American forum; Vol. 12].
- Jörg Helbig: The past that wasn't. About parahistoric literature. In: Wolfgang Jeschke (Ed.): The Science Fiction Year 1989, Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, Munich, ISBN 3-453-03139-3 , pp. 391-403.
- Jörg Helbig: What if ... 150 years of parahistoric literature in Great Britain and the USA, in: Quarber Merkur 91/92, Franz Rottensteiner's literary magazine for science fiction and fantasy, Passau 2000. ISBN 978-3-932621-32-1 .
- Harald Husemann: When William Came; If Adolf Had Come. In: Anglistik und Englischunterricht: Images of Germany 29/30, 1986, pp. 57–83.
- Hans-Peter von Peschke: What if? Alternative history , Theiss, Darmstadt 2014, ISBN 978-3-8062-2795-6
- Gavriel David Rosenfeld: The World Hitler Never Made. Alternate History and the Memory of Nazism . 2005, ISBN ( review )
- Georg Ruppelt : After Martin Luther became Pope and the Allies lost World War II. Literary alternatives to the best of the worlds. Wehrhahn Verlag, 2007. ISBN 978-3-86525-096-4 .
- Erik Simon (ed.): Alexander's long life, Stalin's early death, and other weird stories. Stories and reports from Parallelwelten, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-453-14912-2 .
- JC Squire (ed.): If Napoleon Had Won At Waterloo, And Other Outlandish Stories. Stories and reports from Parallelwelten, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-453-14911-4 .
- Andreas Martin Widmann : Counterfactual representation of history: Investigations on novels by Günter Grass, Thomas Pynchon, Thomas Brussig, Michael Kleeberg, Philip Roth and Christoph Ransmayr. (= Heidelberg studies on historical poetics. 4). Winter, Heidelberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-8253-5610-1 (also: dissertation, University of Mainz).
- Fergusson, Niall: Virtual History - Historical Alternatives in the 20th Century , Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1997
- Alternative story: “When the Nazis win and Switzerland wages war” , Article of the World
- Uchronia.net: The Alternate History List (Bibliography, English)
- Alternative history wiki