Carl Ferdinand von Stumm-Halberg
Carl Ferdinand Stumm (from 1888 Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg ; also Karl-Ferdinand ; born March 30, 1836 in Saarbrücken , † March 8, 1901 at Halberg Castle ) was a Prussian coal and steel industrialist and free-conservative politician . As a secret councilor of commerce , baron , member of the Prussian House of Representatives , member of the Reichstag and founding chairman of the German Reich Party (Free Conservative Party), he was one of the most influential men in Prussia and richest people in the German Empire.
life and work
Education and family
Carl Ferdinand Stumm was born in the palace of his grandfather Friedrich Philipp Stumm (1751–1835) on Ludwigsplatz in Saarbrücken. At the age of 22, on April 1, 1858, he joined the Stumm brothers and took over the management of the Neunkirchen ironworks . He followed in the footsteps of his father Carl Friedrich Stumm (1798–1848), who had died by suicide and who had run the company as sole owner since 1835. Stumm came from the industrial family Stumm , who had bought the Neunkircher Hütte and shares in other ironworks in the Saar area on March 22, 1806 . In 1848, Carl Ferdinand's uncle Carl Böcking took over the management of the iron works, so that the young man could complete his training: After attending secondary school in Mainz and the renowned technical secondary school in Siegen , where he graduated from high school at the age of 16 , he graduated from From 1852 to 1854 internships in the Neunkircher factory and at the Sayner Hütte , then visited all the larger ironworks on the Lower Rhine and in Westphalia, completed his one-year voluntary military service in the Guard Dragoon Regiment and studied law , political science and metallurgy in Bonn and Berlin until 1858 . Since 1857 he was a member of the Corps Guestphalia Bonn .
Carl Ferdinand married his 2nd cousin Ida Charlotte Böcking (1839–1918) on May 31, 1860 in Asbacherhütte , who came from an industrial dynasty related to the Stumms and was the granddaughter of the former Prussian mountain council and Saarbrücken mayor Heinrich Böcking . The marriage had five children. But there was no successor to manage the company after his death, not even among the sons-in-law. He took part in the war of 1870/71 as an officer, was Rittmeister of the Prussian Landwehr and was awarded the Iron Cross .
The Fischbacher and Halberg plants were sold in 1860 and production was concentrated in Neunkirchen . Around this time, 10,000 t of pig iron were blown and 26,000 t were processed in Neunkirchen , 1/33 of the German annual consumption. Under Carl Ferdinand, who ran the family business alone from Carl Böcking's departure in 1871 until his death in 1901, the Stumm brothers rose to become a market leader in the iron and steel industry. In 1891 a new blast furnace plant was put into operation near Ueckingen , which exceeded Neunkirchen in pig iron production (1901 in Neunkirchen 107,000 t, in Ueckingen 157,000 t). In Neunkirchen, the smelter employed 1200 workers with 3,000 dependents in 1861, and 4,219 workers with 10,716 dependents in 1900. In 1900, the Budget Committee of the Reichstag came to the realization that Krupp and silent as the only two producers of armor plates price fixing had taken. The Reich's expenditure on armor plates, which was spread over 16 years, amounted to 260 million marks. With Krupp and Stumm, 130 million marks would have remained as net profit of these expenses.
Since Carl Ferdinand Stumm had no male heir, the family tradition of only passing the company on to one son could not be continued. After Stumm's death on April 4, 1901, the commercial manager Theodor Zilliken and the technical manager Fritz Horn temporarily joined the company as personally liable partners , but none of the co-owners were able to take on this role on a permanent basis. This made it impossible to continue as a limited partnership . On March 31, 1903, the company was converted into a limited liability company and from then on operated as Gebr. Stumm GmbH . Carl Ferdinand's brother, ambassador retired, was appointed chairman of the supervisory board. D. Real Privy Councilor Ferdinand Eduard von Stumm appointed. Carl Ferdinand's heirs were represented by his eldest son-in-law, Lieutenant General Conrad von Schubert , who became deputy chairman of the supervisory board.
Stumm was significantly involved from an authoritarian-patriarchal standpoint in social issues, both as an industrialist and later as a politician. He was a co-founder of the Free Conservative Party founded in 1867 . In 1867 he received a mandate in the Reichstag of the North German Confederation and in the Prussian House of Representatives . From 1871 to 1881 he was a member of the German Reichstag for the constituency of Trier 6 (Ottweiler - St. Wendel - Meisenheim), for which he renounced his seat in the Prussian House of Representatives. Here he was essentially involved in shaping the economic and social policy of the empire. In the Reichstag he fought against Bismarck's social legislation and at the same time supported the fight against social democracy. In 1895 von Stumm-Halberg was the driving force behind the coup bill and in 1899 the prison bill . He also had an aggressive argument with the so-called Kathedersozialisten . In 1882 he was appointed to the Prussian manor house after he had not run again for the Reichstag in 1881.
In economic policy he advocated protective tariffs in the interests of his own company. Self-interested, he pursued the construction of a canal from the Saar to the Rhine via Neunkirchen ( Saar-Palatinate Canal ) in order to provide his company with better transport connections. He also tried to prevent the planned expansion of the Saar, since it competing Völklingen of the Röchling family would have benefited. Mute was a staunch advocate of an authoritative state and conservative paternalism, which was clearly expressed in the management style of the steel mill. Mitigating the social problems of his workforce (e.g. building a hospital and church from private funds in Brebach ) was a means to an end in order to keep them calm and productive. He granted social care and demanded absolute obedience in return. This went so far that his workers had to ask his permission before marrying. In his ruling circle, he did not allow workers room for personal initiative, nor opportunities for political or trade union activities. Like Alfred Krupp , Stumm-Halberg is also regarded as a "militant representative of the 'master in the house' position".
In a substitute election on March 20, 1889, Mute was re-elected to the Reichstag for the constituency of Trier 6, where he joined the parliamentary group of the Reich Party. He was a member of the Reichstag without interruption until his death. In 1896 he was a member of the XII. Commission of the Reichstag which carried out the final deliberations on the text of the BGB before the plenary debate in the Reichstag. He particularly influenced family law there . There he represented the "Pauli Motions" formally made by his parliamentary group colleague Moritz Pauli . In these applications, a total of 32 points were asked for a better position for women. They were worked out by the lawyer Emilie Kempin in collaboration with Stumm. In terms of content, the improvements in favor of women do not go as far as the contemporary women's movement demanded, but took over some important points of women 's demands (e.g. separation of property as statutory property law, equality of women in guardianship law). In the area of family law, the otherwise right-wing conservative politician voted against the majority of the Commission on key points together with the left-wing liberal "Freethinkers" and the SPD.
In his homeland, the Saar district, Stumm's policy in the 1880s and 1890s led to a bitter conflict with the Protestant Church, which was committed to the social issue . Stumm, who was a proven patron of the Protestant Church, sharply attacked pastors committed to social policy, the Protestant workers' associations and the church press and did not shy away from censorship and political pressure. The Brebacher pastor Paul Haustein was considered a friend of the family .
The family initially lived in the Stummsche Herrenhaus on Saarbrücker Strasse in Neunkirchen (destroyed in 1945) in the immediate vicinity of the plant. From 1875, Stumm acquired land on the Saarbrücker Halberg and from 1877 to 1880 left there in competition with his brothers Ferdinand Eduard von Stumm and Hugo Rudolf von Stumm , who also had magnificent castles built in the style of historicism ( Rauischholzhausen Castle and Ramholz Castle ) , the neo-Gothic Halberg Castle and the nearby Stumm Church based on designs by the Hanoverian architects Edwin Oppler and Ferdinand Schorbach . The Frankfurt garden architect Heinrich Siesmayer designed the surrounding landscape park . On May 28, 1888, Stumm and his brothers received from Emperor Friedrich III. the letter of nobility with the appointment of Baron von Stumm and in 1891 the authorization to carry the double name of Stumm-Halberg , which was linked to the ownership of Halberg. As a guest of Baron von Stumm-Halberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II stayed at Halberg Castle in 1892 . While Halberg Castle has undergone major modernizations today, the castles and parks of his brothers Ferdinand (Rauischholzhausen Castle) and Hugo (Ramholz Castle) have been preserved even closer to their original state. The eldest daughter Ida Louise Henriette (married to Conrad von Schubert ) received the Maximin Grünhaus estate as a dowry . The Stumm family cemetery on the access road to Halberg, where Stumm and his relatives are buried, was vandalized at the end of the 20th century and all the cast-iron grave monuments were stolen. In the meantime, the family has restored the cemetery and re-consecrated it.
Stumm's decisive influence on the economic and social policy of Kaiser Wilhelm II in the 1890s led to the talk in Berlin of the "Stumm era". Bismarck is said to have called him "King Stumm" and Friedrich Naumann called him "the Sheikh of Saarabia" because of his wealth and appearance. In the Saarland vernacular it was given the name "Schlacke-Karl". In the years 1867 to 1869, Stumm and his brothers founded the Neunkirchen community in the neo-Gothic style Protestant Christ Church on the lower market, which was added to the coat of arms of the district town in heraldic stylized form as the “new church”. In addition to the partial financing of the construction of the Catholic Marienkirche in Neunkirchen by the Hanoverian architect Ferdinand Schorbach (1846–1912), which was built in the neo-Romanesque style between 1884 and 1885 , Stumm also donated other charitable institutions.
In 1902 a memorial was erected to him in a central location in Neunkirchen. The larger than life bronze statue (moved to Stummstrasse on Stummplatz at the end of the 20th century) shows Stumm as an entrepreneur with symbols of the mining industry ( luppet pincers and mold ). The well-known Berlin sculptor Fritz Schaper created it, the bronze casting was done in the Aktiengesellschaft vorm. Hermann Gladenbeck u. Son in Berlin-Friedrichshagen . After the Second World War, the memorial showed a small “war wound” from a shrapnel on the thigh, which was “healed” at the end of the 20th century.
In 1902, Stumm's widow had Alexander Tille publish an edition of his political speeches in his memory , originally estimated at eight volumes.
Von Stumm-Halberg donated the Bismarck Tower from Landstuhl , which was built in 1900 on the Kirchberg west of the city and whose construction costs totaled 27,000 gold marks . The tower still stands today and is 19 meters high. A bronze plaque commemorates the founder on the entrance side . In 2009 the musical “Stumm” was created by the “Musical Project Neunkirchen”.
On his hundredth birthday, his daughter, Countess Bertha von Francken-Sierstorpff, erected a memorial for him by arranging for the biography of the young historian Fritz Hellwig to appear .
The speeches of Baron Carl Ferdinand von Stumm-Halberg. Historical-critical complete edition. concerned by Alexander Tille . 12 volumes. O. Elsner, Berlin 1906-1915.
- Ralf banks: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 25, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-428-11206-7 , pp. 644-646 ( version ). In:
- Ralf Banken: Saarabia and the Kingdom of Stumm. The Saar region as a model country for a patriarchal corporate social policy? In: Journal for the history of the Saar region , 49th year 2001, pp. 111–147.
- Ralf banks: Carl Ferdinand von Stumm-Halberg. A Successful Entrepreneur? In: Ulrich S. Soénius (Ed.): Moving, connecting, shaping. Entrepreneurs from the 17th to the 20th century. (Festschrift for Klara van Eyll on September 28, 2003) (= Writings on Rhenish-Westphalian Economic History , Volume 44.) Cologne 2003, pp. 251–264.
- Fritz Hellwig : Carl Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg. ( Habilitation thesis ) Westmark-Verlag, Heidelberg / Saarbrücken 1936.
- Fritz Hellwig: Carl Ferdinand Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg. In: Saarland pictures of life. Volume 3, Saarbrücken 1986, pp. 153-198.
- Joachim Conrad: Stumm-Halberg, Carl Ferdinand Freiherr von. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 23, Bautz, Nordhausen 2004, ISBN 3-88309-155-3 , Sp. 1449-1460.
- Arne Duncker: Pauli's applications. A counter-proposal in favor of women in the deliberations on the BGB. In: Meder, Duncker, Czelk (eds.): Women's rights and legal history. The legal struggles of the German women's movement. Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2006, pp. 247-278.
- Richard van Dülmen, Joachim Jacob (ed.): Stumm in Neunkirchen. Entrepreneurship and working-class life in the 19th century, pictures and sketches from an industrial community. St. Ingbert 1993.
- Stumm-Halberg, Karl Ferdinand Frhr. from. In: Eckhard Hansen, Florian Tennstedt (eds.) U. a .: Biographical lexicon on the history of German social policy from 1871 to 1945 . Volume 1: Social politicians in the German Empire 1871 to 1918. Kassel University Press, Kassel 2010, ISBN 978-3-86219-038-6 , p. 161 ( online , PDF; 2.2 MB).
- Gothaisches genealogical pocket book of the baronial houses. 43rd year 1893, p. 927ff.
- Saarland Bibliography Literature by and about Stumm-Halberg Literature about Carl Ferdinand von Stumm-Halberg in the Saarland Bibliography
- From the speeches of Carl Ferdinand Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg to his workers (1889–1895)
- Carl Ferdinand von Stumm-Halberg in the Saarland biographies
- Carl Ferdinand von Stumm-Halberg in the database of members of the Reichstag
- The Stumm family (1669–1901), ironworks entrepreneur - Rheinische Geschichte portal
- Memories of Karl Ferdinand Stumm. Historical association Neunkirchen
- Heinz Gillenberg: Karl-Ferdinand von Stumm-Halberg . An industrial life (1836–1901). In: Verkehrsverein Neunkirchen (Ed.): Neunkircher Hefte . tape 15 . Neunkirchen November 2003.
- Hans-Joachim Kühn : Mute as a patriarchal entrepreneur. (PDF; 32.4 MB). In: Freedom - Bread - Justice. The labor movement on the Saar. Display boards from the exhibition of the same name by the Saarland Democracy Foundation , p. 18.
- Ralf banks: Carl Ferdinand Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg. A Successful Entrepreneur? In: moving, connecting, shaping. Entrepreneurs from the 17th to the 20th century. Festschrift for Klara van Eyll on September 28, 2003. Rheinisch-Westfälisches Wirtschaftsarchiv Foundation, Cologne 2003, pp. 251–264, here p. 252.
- Palais Lüder, today State Chancellery of the Saarland, left baroque building next to the modern entrance building
- Historical association of the city of Neunkirchen: http://www.dufner-genealogie.de/stumm/frameset.htm accessed on July 15, 2015.
- Kösener corps lists 1910, 21, 490
- The descendants of FP Stumm and H. Böcking on Geneanet.org ( Memento from August 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (last accessed on January 30, 2015)
- Bertha Countess Sierstorpff: For escort. In: Fritz Hellwig: Carl Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg. 1936, p. VIII
- Harold James : Krupp. German legend and global company , Beck, Munich 2011, p. 121, ISBN 978-3-406-62414-8 .
- Fritz Specht, Paul Schwabe: The Reichstag elections from 1867 to 1903. Statistics of the Reichstag elections together with the programs of the parties and a list of the elected representatives. 2nd Edition. Carl Heymann Verlag, Berlin 1904, p. 180; see. also A. Phillips (Ed.): The Reichstag elections from 1867 to 1883. Statistics of the elections for the constituent and North German Reichstag, for the customs parliament, as well as for the first five legislative periods of the German Reichstag . Louis Gerschel publishing house, Berlin 1883, p. 112.
- Stumm-Halberg, Karl Freiherr (since 1888) from. In: Wilhelm Kosch : Biographisches Staats Handbuch. Lexicon of politics, press and journalism. Continued by Eugen Kuri. Second volume. Francke Verlag, Bern / Munich 1963, p. 1140; Stumm-Halberg, Karl (Ferdinand) Frh. Von. In: Walther Killy , Rudolf Vierhaus (Hrsg.): Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie . (DBE). Volume 9, KG Saur, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-598-23169-5 , p. 613; Carl Ferdinand Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg. In: Rheinisch-Westfälische Wirtschaftsbiographien. (= Publications of the Historical Commission of Westphalia. 17, B, 1). 2, pp. 306-328 (1974).
- Adolph Wagner : My conflict with the industrialist and Reichstag deputy Freiherrn v. Stumm-Halberg. A pamphlet to ward off attacks, insults and suspicions. Essays from the "Future" with an epilogue . O. Haring, Berlin 1895; About the Stumm'sche Herrenhaus speech against the Kathedersozialisten. Write to the go. Councilor Dr. Hinschius from Professors Delbrück , v. Schmoller , [Adolph] Wagner. (Appendix. Baron von Stumm-Halberg's speech) . Georg Stilke, Berlin 1897; (Digitized version) ; The manor junkers and the workers. Speeches given by von Puttkamer and von Stumm at the meeting of the Prussian mansion on July 24, 1897. According to the shorthand report . Bookstore des Vorwärts (Th. Glocke in Berlin), Berlin 1897 (digitized version)
- Helga Grebing : Labor Movement. Social protest and collective advocacy until 1914 . Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1985, p. 70, ISBN 3-423-04507-8 .
- Helga Grebing: Labor Movement. Social protest and collective advocacy until 1914 . Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1985, p. 69, ISBN 3-423-04507-8 .
- Fritz Specht, Paul Schwabe: The Reichstag elections from 1867 to 1903. Statistics of the Reichstag elections together with the programs of the parties and a list of the elected representatives. 2nd Edition. Carl Heymann Verlag, Berlin 1904, p. 180f.
- Fritz Hellwig: Carl Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg. 1936, p. 569.
- In the silver field there is a blue oblique left bar covered with an upward-pointing blacksmith's hammer, flanked at the top by a black comb wheel, at the bottom flanked by a burning oil lamp turned to the left. There are three silver-blue-silver ostrich feathers attached to the crowned helmet. The helmet cover is black and silver on the right and blue and silver on the left. (Historical Association City of Neunkirchen: http://www.dufner-genealogie.de/stumm/frameset.htm accessed on July 15, 2015.)
- http://www.kunstlexikonsaar.de/kunst-im-sakralen-raum/artikel/kat/neunkirchen-1/-/kirchenbau-und-kunst-im-sakralen-raum-nach-1945-im-saarland-katholische -kirchen-landkreis-neunkirc-5/112 / accessed on July 16, 2015.
- Neunkirchen (Saar), Stummplatz, inscriptions on the base of the monument.
- From all over the world . In: Neues Wiener Journal . January 23, 1902, p. 7 ( ANNO - AustriaN Newspapers Online [accessed February 4, 2020]).
- Bertha Countess Sierstorpff: For escort. In: Fritz Hellwig: Carl Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg. 1936, p. VII
|SURNAME||Stumm-Halberg, Carl Ferdinand von|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Stumm-Halberg, Carl Ferdinand Freiherr von; Stumm, Carl Ferdinand (name until 1888)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German politician and industrialist, MdR|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 30, 1836|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Saarbrücken|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 8, 1901|
|Place of death||Halberg Castle|