|Mondsee, aerial view|
|Geographical location||Salzkammergut , Austria|
|Tributaries||Fuschler Ache / Griesler Ache, Zeller Ache , Wangauer Ache|
|Drain||Seeache in the Attersee|
|Places on the shore||Mondsee , Innerschwand , Au / See , St. Lorenz|
|Altitude above sea level|
|Maximum depth||68 m|
|Middle deep||36 m|
|Catchment area||247.2 km²|
Mondsee culture , private property
|Mondsee with Drachenwand|
The Mondsee is a lake in the Upper Austrian Salzkammergut and is located southwest of the Attersee . Its entire area belongs to the municipality of the same name . The southern bank forms the border between Upper Austria and the State of Salzburg and between the Limestone Alps in the south and the sandstone zone . The Drachenwand on the southwest bank is also striking .
Geography and hydrology
Since all surrounding municipalities (except Mondsee) border the municipality of Mondsee with their municipal boundaries on the shore of the lake, they themselves have no part in the lake. With a length of 11 km and a maximum width of 1.5 km, the Mondsee covers an area of around 14 km². The most important tributaries are the Fuschler Ache coming from the Fuschlsee ( catchment area 117.6 km²), the Zeller Ache coming from the Irrsee (38.3 km²) and the Wangauer Ache (35.3 km²). These three tributaries are responsible for more than 70% of the water load in the Mondsee.
Over the only 3 km long Seeache , which leaves the Mondsee at its eastern end, it drains into the Attersee, which is around 12 m lower. The mean discharge (MQ) is 9.3 m³ / s, the (theoretical) water renewal time 1.7 years.
The entire water surface of the Mondsee lies on a single piece of land within the municipality of the same name. Since the municipal boundary does not run exactly on the shore, there are hundreds of riverside parcels within the Mondsee municipality. The majority of these properties are only used as lake access, the associated settlements are already in the neighboring communities. These parcels are only occasionally built on with residential houses that have Mondsee addresses.
Like the other Salzkammergut lakes, the basin of the Mondsee was formed in the Ice Ages by the mighty Traungletscher , which filled with water when it melted. After the glacier melted down during the Riss Ice Age , there was a lake here that had a water level 40 m higher than today's Mondsee, and was therefore significantly larger and, in the west, presumably reached as far as the Thalgau area.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Mondsee was heavily polluted by nutrients and large areas of blue - green algae bloomed. This situation could be significantly improved by the construction of a ring sewer and sewage treatment plants in Thalgau and St. Lorenz , the lake is now classified as oligotrophic to mesotrophic . The depth of view is 4.8 m (average for the years 2010–2012). Heavy rainfall can lead to disproportionately high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen inputs from agricultural areas along the tributaries.
More than 80% of the shoreline is blocked or ecologically impaired by built-in structures. A longer near-natural section is located at the mouth of the Fuschler Ache, which is designated as a nature reserve.
Species discovered in the Mondsee
Two species unknown to science were discovered in the Mondsee. There are two types of bacteria, "Polynucleobacter cosmopolitanus" and "Polynucleobacter duraquae", which were discovered and scientifically described by scientists at the Research Institute for Limnology at the Mondsee . These bacteria (bacterioplankton) floating freely in the water are very common in the Mondsee (up to a million cells per liter of water) but completely harmless (non-pathogenic) for humans.
The Mondsee takes its name from the Mannsee, an old noble family. From Mannsee time was over Mondsee.
According to legend, Duke Odilo of Bavaria rode from behind the Drachenwand at night and only recognized the moon shortly before a crash , which was reflected in the lake. This is how the name Mondsee ( folk legend ) came about .
The Mondsee has been privately owned since the 18th century - an exception for large Austrian lakes. The current owner of the lake (estimated value: 16 million euros) is Nicolette Waechter (née Almeida ) from Höribachhof in St. Lorenz, who inherited the lake in 1977 from her deceased younger brother. Sales negotiations started in August 2008 with the Austrian Federal Forests failed due to the incompatibility of the respective price expectations.
- The lake gave its name to the Mondsee culture.
- The Scharfling wooden object was recovered by Johann Offenberger from the Scharfling riverside settlement on Mondsee, which was measured in 1972.
The See am Mondsee site (municipality of Unterach) is part of the UNESCO World Heritage “ Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps ”.
- Werner Kunze: Mondsee - 5000 years of history and culture. Self-published by the municipality of Mondsee, 1991.
- Franz Mayrhofer (Ed.): Mondsee - On old postcards . Vienna 1992.
- Barbara Ritterbusch-Nauwerck: The edge of the Mondsee bank - an ecological survey . On behalf of the Office of the Upper Austrian Provincial Government - Nature Conservation, Scharfling, August 1996 ( pdf , land-oberoesterreich.gv.at); also in: Informativ , Heft 08, Linz 1997, pp. 10–11.
- Office of Upper Austria. State government (ed.): "Potential study Salzkammergut. Ecological condition and opportunities for improvement at the tributaries of Mondsee and Irrsee. "Water protection report 44, Linz 2011 ( PDF; 9 MB )
- Federal Office for Water Management (Hrsg.): "Atlas of the natural lakes of Austria with an area ≥ 50 ha. Morphometry - Typing - Trophy. As of 2005. "Series of publications by the Federal Office for Water Management, Volume 29, Vienna 2008 ( PDF; 9 MB )
- Dirk van Husen: "When our lakes were glaciers - the ice age development in the Salzkammergut." In: JT Weidinger, H. Lobitzer, I. Spitzbart (ed.): "Contributions to the geology of the Salzkammergut", Gmundner Geo-Studien 2, 2003, pp. 215-222. ( PDF; 557 kB )
- Lake profile Mondsee - inspection according to GZÜV. (PDF; 1.2 MB) In: land-oberoesterreich.gv.at. October 2013, accessed March 31, 2018 .
- Nature Conservation Book Detailed View - Designation: The mouth of the Fuschler-Ache. In: e-gov.ooe.gv.at. State of Upper Austria, accessed April 1, 2018 .
- MW Hahn, E. Lang, U. Brandt, H. Lünsdorf, QL Wu and E. Stackebrandt: Polynucleobacter cosmopolitanus sp. nov., free-living planktonic bacteria inhabiting freshwater lakes and rivers . In: Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol . tape 60 , 2010, p. 166-173 .
- MW Hahn, J. Schmidt, A. Pitt, SJ Taipale, E. Lang: Reclassification of four Polynucleobacter necessarius strains as Polynucleobacter asymbioticus comb. nov., Polynucleobacter duraquae sp. nov., Polynucleobacter yangtzensis sp. nov., and Polynucleobacter sinensis sp. nov., and emended description of the species Polynucleobacter necessarius. In: Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. tape 66 , 2016, p. 2883-2892 .
- The other large lakes in the Alpine region are entirely owned by the Republic, indirectly through the property of the Austrian Federal Forests , see List of Lakes of the Austrian Federal Forests
- Georgia Meinhart: The Mondsee is private and will remain so. In: diepresse.com. June 14, 2011, accessed January 15, 2019 .