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Muszaki (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Warmia-Masuria
Powiat : Nidzica
Gmina : Janowo
Geographic location : 53 ° 23 '  N , 20 ° 36'  E Coordinates: 53 ° 22 '39 "  N , 20 ° 36' 29"  E
Residents : 455 (2011)
Postal code : 13-113
Telephone code : (+48) 89
License plate : NNI
Economy and Transport
Street : Ext . 604 : Nidzica / DK 7 - GrzegórzkiJagarzewo - Przeździęk Wielki - Wielbark / DK 57
Zimna Woda / ext. 545 → Muszaki
Grabowo and Grabówko → Muszaki
Rail route : PKP line 225: Nidzica – Wielbark railway line (currently not used)
Next international airport : Danzig

Muszaki [ muˈʃakʲi ] ( German  Muschaken ) is a village in the rural community Janowo in Poland. It belongs to the powiat Nidzicki ( Neiddenburg district ) in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship .

Geographical location

Muszaki is located in the southern center of the Warmia-Masurian Voivodeship , twelve kilometers east of the district town of Nidzica ( German  Neidenburg ).

The Water Tower (Wieża ciśnień) in Muszaki


Local history

The Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Winrich von Kniprode founded Muschaken on October 4, 1359 (after 1785 Muschacken ). Muschaken was already a church village in the pre-Reformation period. On May 28, 1875, it also became an official village, giving its name to an administrative district in the Neidenburg district , which existed until 1945 and belonged to the Königsberg district (from 1905: Allenstein district ) in the Prussian province of East Prussia .

In 1903 Pastor Hans Ebel established the nationally important and respected Emmaus boys' education center here .

Muschaken had 617 inhabitants in 1910.

During the First World War , during the Battle of Tannenberg on August 30, 1914, there was heavy fighting near Muschaken. A company of German soldiers was able to prevent Russian fighters from setting the church on fire.

Due to the provisions of the Versailles Treaty , the population in the Allenstein voting area , to which Muschaken belonged, voted on July 11, 1920 on whether they would continue to belong to East Prussia (and thus Germany) or join Poland. In Muschaken, 375 residents voted to remain with East Prussia, while Poland did not vote.

The number of inhabitants was 575 in 1933 and rose to 634 by 1939.

During the Second World War , the place was occupied by Soviet troops in January 1945 and, with the exception of a few houses, destroyed along with the church.

As a result of the war, Muschaken was transferred to Poland with all of southern East Prussia in 1945 . The village received the Polish form of the name "Muszaki" and today - as the seat of a Schulz Office (Polish Sołectwo ) - a town in the network of rural community Janowo in nidzica county (district Neidenburg ) until 1998, the Olsztyn province , since the Warmia and Mazury belong .

Muschaken district (1874–1945)

When it was established, seven rural communities or manor districts belonged to the Muschaken district:

German name Changed name from
1938 to 1945
Polish name Remarks
Groß Grabowen Großeppingen Grabowo
Jägersdorf Jagarzewo
Klein Grabowen Kleineppingen Grabówko
Mussels Muszaki
Sawadden Herzogsau Zawady
Schönau Siemno 1929 incorporated into Sawadden
Wientzkowen Winsken Więckowo
from 1883: Wilzken Wilczki In 1893 incorporated into Wientzkowen

On January 1, 1945, the six municipalities of Großeppingen, Herzogsau, Jägersdorf, Kleineppingen, Muschaken and Winsken formed the Muschaken district.



Church building

It is not known when a church building was erected in Muschaken. It is assumed that it was built in the 14th century. On the other hand, the construction of a (second?) House of God in 1750 by the existing Protestant parish is certain . It was a massive building with a wooden roof turret. The organ was made in 1773 by Johann Christoph Ungefug . The church burned down on the evening of March 9th, 1885, initially unnoticed and without the fact that anything could have been saved from the building in flames. Children are said to have started the fire when they set fire to the tower at the evening bell.

A new building could not initially be considered due to a lack of financial resources. It was not until 1892 that a new building could be started on the foundation walls of the burned down church. On November 15, 1893, the newly built church was "consecrated in a dignified and impressive ceremony". It was a building closely stylistically based on the architecture of the order . The organ - equipped with 18 sounding voices - was made by the organ builder Gehlhar from Hohenstein ( Olsztynek in Polish ).

During the Second World War , the church and most of the houses in Muschaken were destroyed. A reconstruction of the church by the Protestant Church was rejected. Because numerous new Polish citizens settled in Muszaki in 1945, the village was able to develop into a new - now Roman Catholic - parish . A new and modern church building was built on the walls of the once Protestant church.


The founding year of the church in Muschaken is still in the dark. It should be in the 14th century, as the village was founded at this time. It is also not clear when the Reformation arrived here . Evangelical clergymen can be found here at the beginning of the 17th century. An additional vicarage was set up on October 1, 1901. The job holder had their seat in the parish of Puchallowen (1936–1938 Windau , Polish Puchałowo ).

Until 1945, the Muschaken church was incorporated into the Neidenburg church district in the church province of East Prussia of the Church of the Old Prussian Union . After the destruction of the church and due to the flight and expulsion of the local population , the evangelical community in Muschaken fell apart after 1945. Protestant church members living here today orientate themselves towards the parish in Róg (Roggen) , a branch parish of the parish Nidzica in the diocese of Masuria of the Evangelical Augsburg Church in Poland .

Parish places

Until 1945 the Protestant parish Muschaken had 26 villages, localities and residential areas:

German name Changed name from
1938 to 1945
Polish name German name Changed name from
1938 to 1945
Polish name
* Camerau Großmuckenhausen Komorovo * Reuschwerder Ruskovo
Eichwerder Trzciano * Rye Róg
* Great Grabowen Großeppingen Grabowo stuff Zachy
Jägersdorf Jagarzewo * Saddek Gartenau Sadek
* Kaltenborn
until 1893: Zimmnawodda
Zimna Woda * Sawadden Herzogsau Zawady
Klein Grabowen Kleineppingen Grabówko Schönau Siemno
Kozienitz Sömmering Kozieniec Springborn Parova
Lomno Łomno * Ulleschen Ulesie
Mainaberg * Wallendorf Wały
* Muschaken Muszaki * Wychrowitz Hardichhausen Wichrowiec
Pentzken Kleinmuckenhausen Pęczki * Wientzkowen Winsken Więckowo
* Puchallowen (from 1936 :)
Puchałowo Wolisko Schnepfen Mountains Wolisko
* Rettkowen Rettkau Retkowo Wuevken Goldberg Złota Góra


At the church in Muschaken the pastors officiated as evangelical clergy:

  • NN., 1612
  • Elias Wulpius, until 1656
  • Johann Riemer
  • M. Trojan
  • Paul Rybicki
  • Jacob Augar, 1673-1686
  • Reinhold Lehmann, 1686-1699
  • Friedrich Wedecke, 1699–1706
  • Johann Funck, 1706-1730
  • Georg Ciala, 1726–1782
  • Johann Theodor Ciala, 1773-1793
  • Daniel Leipolz, 1793-1829
  • Jacob Schiweck, 1816-1824
  • Friedrich Leopold Montzka, 1830–1839
  • Johann Wilhelm Grall, 1839–1866
  • Ms. Hch. Emil Nikolaiski, 1867–1882
  • Gustav Agathon Harnoch, 1883–1890
  • KH Ulrich Brzeczinski, 1890–1891
  • Eduard Adolf Paul, 1891–1894
  • Johann Michael Ebel , 1894–1920
  • Hans Georg Borchert, 1921–1927
  • Karl Dotzeck, from 1930
  • Kurt Stachat, 1937–1945
  • Siegfried Sonnenberg, until 1941.

Emmaus boys' education center

The Emmaus boys' education center in Muschaken

In 1903 a boys' education home initiated by Pastor Ebel was built, which bore the name of the biblical place " Emmaus ". Originally the home was intended for 21 pupils, but over time it grew to five houses with 80 boys aged 6 to 14 who found a home and education here. After finishing school, the children started their apprenticeship or found a job in agriculture. Pastor Ebel managed the home until his death in 1920. After that, the house father and teacher Gustav Will took over the management of the house.

Roman Catholic

Before 1945, very few Catholics lived in the Muschaken region. They were parish in the church Neidenburg in the Diocese of Warmia . Due to the resettlement of Polish citizens after 1945, the number of church members increased, which prompted the church leadership to build a church and a parish here. The church stands on the site of the former Protestant church, and the parish was founded on August 7, 1972. It is assigned to the Nidzica dean's office in the Archdiocese of Warmia and is dedicated to St. Lawrence .



Muszaki is located on the busy Voivodship Road 604 , which connects the district town of Nidzica (Neidenburg) on state road 7 with the city of Wielbark (Willenberg) on state road 57 . Side streets from Zimna Woda (Kaltenborn) , Grabowo (Groß Grabowen , 1938 to 1945 Großeppingen) and Grabówko (Klein Grabowen , 1938 to 1945 Kleineppingen) end in Muszaki.


On July 1, 1900, Muschaken was a railway station on the newly created Neidenburg – Willenberg railway ( PKP line 225). The route was used regularly until 1999, after which it was only very limited until it was closed completely in 2014.


Native of the place

Connected to the place

  • Hans Ebel (1859–1920), pastor in Muschaken, founder and long-time director of the Emmaus boys' education home

Web links

Commons : Muszaki  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Wieś Muszaki w liczbach (Polish)
  2. Polish Postal Code Directory 2013 , p. 800 (Polish)
  3. Dietrich Lange, Geographical Location Register East Prussia (2005): Muschaken
  4. Muschaken at the Neidenburg district community
  5. a b Rolf Jehke, Muschaken district
  6. ^ Uli Schubert, community directory, Neidenburg district
  7. a b c Muszaki - Muschaken at
  8. Herbert Marzian , Csaba Kenez : self-determination for East Germany. Documentation on the 50th anniversary of the East and West Prussian referendum on July 11, 1920. Editor: Göttinger Arbeitskreis , 1970, p. 91
  9. ^ Michael Rademacher, local register, Neidenburg district
  10. ^ Gmina Janowo: Sołectwa
  11. a b c d e Muschaken church near the Neidenburg district community
  12. Walther Hubatsch , History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia , Volume 2 Pictures of East Prussian Churches , Göttingen 1968, p. 127, Fig. 588
  13. a b c Walther Hubatsch, History of the Evangelical Church in East Prussia , Vol. 3 Documents , Göttingen 1968, p. 495
  14. a b Friedwald Moeller, Old Prussian Evangelical Pastors' Book from the Reformation to the Expulsion in 1945 , Hamburg, 1968, p. 99
  15. Friedwald Moeller, Old Prussian Evangelical Pastors' Book from the Reformation to the Expulsion in 1945 , Hamburg 1968, p. 119
  16. The * indicates a school location
  17. The names of the holders of the Second pastorate of Muschaken whose official residence in Puchallowen / was Windau, the article will be under the church section Puchałowo listed
  18. The Roman lath. Parish Muszaki near the Archdiocese of Warmia